original article: http://www.socioniko.net/ru/articles/quadral-est.html
[quote:97d1acfdac]THE QUADRAL RELAY
Silhouette of times through the type row
V.V.Gulenko, 25.07.1995, Kiev
1. Place of kvadry among other groups
Kvadra as typological group was opened at the dawn of sotsioniki To a.Augustinavichyute. It assigned the properties of a maximally comfortable and productive association. From that time it was elevated into the certain cult. Aushra itself even advanced the slogan "kvadrizatsii" of society [ 1 ] the connection of people into the associations for kvadral'nomu principle, which it had to give to man the long-awaited sensation of freedom and happiness. Unfortunately, many present schools of sotsioniki not far left from the kvadral'nogo stir and as before search for the reasons for the sociopsychological disorder of personality in the forced presence in "strange" kvadre.
School of tipoanaliza in principle the enemy of any absolutization as the method, deprived of logical substantiation. If in actuality there was a certain ideal group, then it would be fastened in the social practice via natural selection. Thus far not by some experiment or the real case not proved the magic force of kvadry. This, of course, it does not mean that kvadra completely useless group. It among other subgroups of sotsiona occupies special position, since it makes it possible to simulate natural chronological cycles.
If we take more widely, then Aushre, in the essence, belongs the honor of the discovery the first complete groups. The requirement of functional completeness satisfies that group, into composition of which enter all four Young functions, which reflect the basic "side of the horizon" of communicative space - perception of the actions of the external peace through the sensory organs (sensorika), shaping by their generalizations of the removed concepts (intuition), their comparison between themselves and decision making (logic) and the subjective-emotional estimation of people and events (ethics).
Kvadra is one of such groups and therefore, of course, greatly it is differed from the groups of functional- those specialized, i.e., containing in their composition of one-two of Young's function. It goes without saying, to build kvadru, resting only on the Young functions impossibly. Via their poparnogo combining it is possible to break sotsion into six small groups and they all they will specific have the specialized nature - to unite in itself sotsiotipy, which functionally greater are similar between themselves, than they are outstanding. The arch of the groups, formed on Young's basis, the reader will find in my work "typological integrity of sotsiona" [ 7 ].
Kvadra in view of its special historical origin disturbed me long ago. Kvadral'naya dynamics was my first independent theme in sotsionike. These questions 4 much discussed with The the aushroy. The chief conclusion, which I made at that time, this the effectiveness of the pokvadrovoy development of sotsiona for the simulation of the processes, which take place in the sufficiently large intervals of time [ 4,5 ]. Since kvadra gave a good approximation to special features of psychology of the final historical epochs, the 4 drew it for the simulation of macro-evolution in the society.
The fact is that the functional- specialized group strongly depends on place in the communicative space: prove to be, for example, the cohort of strong upravlentsev in the humanitarian sphere, to benefit from it it will be little - it simply will mount its "technical" means of life or it will be set in the place by the humanitarians combined against it.
However, group complete on the place for communication practically does not depend, indeed it is universal according to the class of the decided tasks. Then it depends on time factor: to neglect this group rapidly is not obtained, is required the specific period of the rubbing, when occurs the distribution of nonformal roles and is manufactured time-sequential routine in the transfer of communicative relay race. Nadelennost' of complete group by the fixed internal rhythm pushed me against the thought about the fact that kvadra reflects the removability of the discrete periods of the development of any natural process in the time.
On the themes of the removability of kvadr in the historical development were carry ouied many hot discussions at the seminars in the Kiev club of sotsioniki, and also during the sotsionicheskikh conferences. However, many questions, until now, remained unexplained. In particular, it is compulsory whether so that in one or other kvadral'nuyu epoch or another at the leading posts in the society would be located belonging to this kvadre sotsiotipy? Or, what specific role does play inside kvadry each of its four participants? In the present work I will try to give the entire the information, which was accumulated on kvadre in the past years in the system account.
2. Differentiating signs of kvadr
Kvadra, as any other subgroup of four sotsiotipov, isolated in sotsione, analytically is described through the commutative (not changing from the transpositions) sum of three dichotomous scales. These three oppositions of 4 I call the differentiating signs of kvadry. They all enter into the known list Of reynina, but it is practically investigated very little.
One pair I will indicative name in the manner that Aushra, since this name has already been fastened in the daily sotsionicheskoy practice. The discussion deals with the dichotomy "aristocrats - Democrats". Other two pairs it is indicative will obtain something different, different from the utilized By aushroy designations, since old names are extremely unsuccessful both in the essence and on their use, which places them in one row with the everyday vocabulary. They bear the nature of the random words, selected to the fast hand, provided not to leave new concepts without the terminological designation.
Instead of the distant from the requirements scientific nature of dichotomy "merry - serious" I introduce the pair of opposite it is indicative "ascending - descending". But instead of the pair "reasonable - decisive", which introduces big enough terminological confusion, since "reasonable" they are used frequently as synonym to the sign "rational", I will use a more precise according to the sense dichotomy "central - outlying".
2.1. Aristocrats and the Democrats
ARISTOCRATS (second and fourth kvadry). For these sotsiotipov is significant the predominance of vertical communication above the horizontal. The hierarchical inequality always is present with the vertical communicative connections: chief - subordinated, elder - low-order, its - stranger and the like this communication will be unavoidable to bear the nature of subordination. Man in aristocratic kvadrakh is evaluated, first of all, according to his communicative status relative to that, who evaluates (there is no my level or?), and then already on the remaining criteria.
The degree of the manifestation of the aristocratism, understood in the broadening sense as subordinativnost', in two aristocratic kvadr is different. Second kvadra consists of brighter aristocrats than the fourth. Aristocratism of second kvadry - rigid and covered in no way. These are always division into the servants and the gentlemen, talents and mediocrity, its and enemies, which unavoidably leads to the caste nature of public device in the period of second kvadry.
In fourth kvadre there are no such social contrasts, and therefore their aristocratism is smoothed. However, the types of this kvadry are also guided by principle "their - strangers" during the estimation of people. Do live others according to the same laws, as we? Doubt apropos of the optimality of its priorities, as a rule, does not appear. In this case the means of enemy as in second kvadre, is not formed, but leading in an uncivilized manner or is simply intellectually undeveloped individuals are enrolled into the discharge of second-grade.
The time flows linearly for aristocratic kvadr, but not it is cyclic. They know how to clearly separate the past from the future. Second kvadra is directed in the future, it is similar to the released arrow, which pierces time. The past for the second is not valuable, on the contrary, it always bears negative nuance. At best it is proclaimed, that it is necessary to take the most valuable and to move further of it. Specifically, second kvadra produces the ideas of the "ideal" states of future and attempts to oshchastlivit' by their construction all of mankind.
However, fourth kvadra more greatly is oriented toward the past, which usually bears the positive appearance of the steady traditions, which it is necessary not to change, but to soblyudat'. Sotsiotipy of fourth kvadry - enemies of of every kind social experiments. One way or another, because of the linearity of the perception of time in these kvadrakh there is no repetition of events, trampling on the spot. In the period of aristocratic kvadr do not appear prolonged stagnations or stagnation.
DEMOCRATS (first and third kvadry) In these kvadrakh reigns the principle of horizontal communication, i.e., contact on the equal, when no those leading and slave, good or worse. Partner in the communication seemingly is placed with a number, but not on top or from below. Respectively be absent the attributes of subordination characteristic for the aristocrats. Instead of the authority of the higher center the Democrats organize coordination between the subjects of one level. Hierarchical authority in the democratic kvadral'nyy period does not give special privileges.
Is more expressed democracy as the principle of the organization of public life in third kvadre. This is most changeable kvadra, which priverzhena predstavitel'skim to the forms of authority, to constant selections and to re-elections. In the period of third kvadry are formed many ten and even hundreds of different parties, which enter into the temporary coalitions. Interpersonal contacts are maximally nonformal, tituly and titles have very light weight.
First kvadra is not so democratic. Although the horizontal contact for it is the matter by itself being understood, the now and then passing boundaries familiarity of its third kvadry shocks. In first kvadre there is no such individualism, democracy is not used in it for buckling of its deviations from the public standard. In first kvadre there is no fight of the pinched minorities for its rights for that simple reason, that their no one pinches, yes they are not formed with the harmonious means of life. Democracy is understood by pervokvadralami as reasonable movement to the laws of nature.
Democratic kvadry live not on the linear, but on the circular (cyclic) time. Third kvadra has the distinctly undulating rhythm of the lifts and decreases, which in practice cannot be predicted. Therefore sotsiotipy of third kvadry are oriented at the current moment. The traditions of the past for them little are meant, and future them disturbs only nearest. The stagnation of life in third kvadre alternates with the stormy reformatsionnymi periods, just as in its economy rules the market element of supply and demand.
The time generally as if stops in the period of first kvadry. This is kvadra of homeostasis - the dynamic equilibrium of society with the living environment. Stormy collisions it does not occur, life flows quietly and harmoniously. First kvadra exists out of the time as one large family, in which one generation intercedes in the place of another, reproducing practically without the changes the worked out vital structure. It is located in this "cocoon" is very comfortably, but also it is at the same time dangerous: any external aggression it rapidly destroys.
2.2. Ascending and descending
ASCENDING (first and second kvadra). Ascending sotsiotipy move the trajectory of social development upward. They are the donors of sociopsychological energy, since they contain collectivist principle in the lasting communication. But in connecting the independent, but collectivist disposed units into one whole, as is known, occurs strengthening effectiveness in the action due to the agreement of the efforts directed toward the shared objective. In surrounding sotsium in this case is separated additional energy, which proceeds with the acceleration of public processes.
Another explanation of the acceleration of the processes of development in ascending kvadrakh: into the number of their priorities enter infoaspekty E and L, which correspond for the goal-directed use of emotional energy of man. These infoaspekty in first and second kvadrakh occupy program positions blocks Ego and Superid, that determine goal setting in the type. The emotional involvement of people occurs according to the function E, while according to function L sotavlyayutsya the logically substantiated plans of actions.
Upor4docenno- most energetic is second kvadra, which accomplishes maximum expansion in sotsiume. For the period of second kvadry public dynamics is sent along the trajectory of maximum ascending up to the culmination point, after which begins the section of the descending, energy-absorbing development. Second kvadra is so saturated by energy that with the loss out of sight for any reason for the purpose of fight it begins to destroy itself.
On the energy and the combat efficiency by it considerably is inferior first kvadra, although it from time to time nevertheless introduces energy into the public motion. To pump over energy by one continuous flow, burning in it, first kvadra cannot. It achieves its mission of acceleration by portions, cyclically introducing into the minds of the quietly and light-heartedly living people the embryos of the new means of life. The beginning of first kvadry is connected with the statics and the rest, but in proportion to the development of new beginnings the pulses outgoing from it become increasingly stronger and it is stronger, until is set on fire second kvadra.
DESCENDING (third and fourth kvadry). Sotsiotipy of descending kvadr more greatly absorb energies from surrounding sotsiuma, than they introduce in it. Therefore it is possible to add them to the recipients of sociopsychological energy. When come the periods of these kvadr, the trajectory of obshchestvenogo development is inclined it downward and has steadfast tendency toward lowering in the level of social dynamics. Descending sotsiotipy by their nature are faster individualists, than collectivists; therefore to combine forces for increasing the obshchegruppovogo potential they tendency do not have.
From other side, descending kvadry have the general priorities P and R, which by themselves are not engine: the business logic P this motion because of the previously stored energy, and the ethics of relations R symbolizes attachment to the steady system of relations. These infoaspekty are placed in the category of the processes inertial, i.e., damped in the time. Therefore both kvadry slow down the self-propulsion of sotsiuma, turning life to the decline and the refusal of the future, as this occurs with the man in the second-half of his path in life.
That more descending, and therefore "critical" should be named third kvadru. The offensive of third kvadry implies economic disorganization, drop in the spirituality and mass spoiling of dispositions. Third kvadra and most individualistichna. In it each acts itself for itself, and services to each other require payment. In the period of third kvadry occurs the sharp overestimation of values, generations dispute, society survives "break". Energy is devoured with the large spread to the internal competition and the mezhduusobnye wars.
Fourth kvadra is allotted by calm nature and sober outlook on life. Therefore energy reserves are not expended as without restraint as in third kvadre. Niskhozhdeniye of fourth kvadry is similar to the provided for old age: it is comfortable, without the sharp jumps, the people feel themselves healthy and cheerful; therefore damping almost not oshchushchayetsya. But it nevertheless deepens also finally it leads to the agony - the sharp disturbance of the coordination in the customary rhythm of life and the loss of interest in the achievements of the past.
2.3. Central and outlying
CENTRAL (second and third kvadra). The periods of these kvadr occupy the mid-position in the general macrocycle of social development. They prove to be the most saturated events and most expansive; therefore they attract close attention from the side. In them kontsentriratsiya of energy per unit of communicative space reaches the values highest for this sotsiuma. For this reason the time of second and third kvadr - stormiest in the history.
The general priorities of central kvadr - this of infoaspekty F and T, by which in the theory of sotsionicheskikh functions is understood by the power of components into communication and aspect of changes under the action of time, sud'bonosnost'. The fate of sotsiuma is decided in the central period of its history, but not in the beginning or end of its existence. Specifically, central sotsiotipy are most subjected to suggestion - suggestion and noncritical movement to any programs of external origin.
Although representatives of both these kvadr unavoidably fall to the center of the publicly significant events, nevertheless "centrality" as sign stronger it is expressed in second kvadre, but not in the third. This is connected with the large organizational gift of sotsiotipov of second kvadry, and their also innate tendency toward the collective actions within the framework of strict discipline. Whatever epoch stood "outside", but in the center of any durable organizations are located as the first persons sotsiotipy of second kvadry.
Third kvadra is faster the certain center of instability and anarchical tendencies. More precisely saying, it is poly-centric - are decomposed not several local it is center, that compete between themselves. This kvadra is much better defended by power means than it will attack and seizes. The time of third kvadry is usually characterized by adjective "vague". It gives space to actions to different swindlers, impostors. Instead of the official of religion in the society mystical, satanic and generally exotic cults conquer popularity.
OUTLYING (first and fourth kvadry). Priorities, which unite these kvadry, this of infoaspekty I and S, i.e., free from the ideological admixtures intellect and comfortable, nonviolent life in the accordion with nature. Outlying sotsiotipov do not have tendency toward the power contest, toward the expansion or the competition as in central. They carry out their communicative mission at the earliest beginning of social development or in its late completion, when the hot passions of peak periods already calmed down themselves, or yet they did not begin.
Outlying sotsiotipy rarely occupy key positions in the management, and if they nevertheless fall there, then for long they are not retained on them. It is much more difficult, if we you outlying, widely become famous ourselves, make the salient career, enter into the history. Even if representatives outlying kvadr of something attain, then success their activity accompanies only if they are located on the periphery of the public attention: they live in the province, work nonformally, occupy series posts.
If we compare the degree of peripheralness, then further from the focus of the attention of sotsiuma is located fourth kvadra. Fourth kvadra is opposite to the second, which always most probable aspirant to the central position. Furthermore, both these kvadry of aristokratichny; therefore it is understandable that their joint co-existence is possible if and only if directive occupies second kvadra. Thus, chetvertokvadral'nye types nevertheless push aside to the periphery.
First kvadra as entire better gets along with the second, since it feeds by its its ideas. Vtorokvadral'noye management can even bring pervokvadralov closer to itself. In sotsiume periodically are observed cadre shiftings from the territorial outskirts to to center. At this time someone of first kvadry can "rush by" and because of its nonstandard ideas or harmonious, nerazrushitel'nomu behavior occupy place among the innate bosses of center.
Each kvadru can be assigned as the commutative (not depending on the sequence it is indicative) intersection of two dichotomous axes. The number of combinations of three pairs it is indicative on two equal to three. Therefore in all there are three methods of the geometric construction of kvadr with the aid of the cross-shaped intersection of polar of those differentiating it is indicative on the plane. Here are these methods, represented clearly:
XXX - graph removed - XXX
3. General characteristic of kvadr
3.1. First kvadra (SE, IL, LI, ES) - the preparators
Taking into account differentiating it is indicative first kvadru can be named the outlying- ascending Democrats. For the brevity we will name their preparators, since in the macro-evolutionary cycle they take to themselves the mission of the preparation of the beginning of a stormy sociopsychological increase in the subsequent time.
the "star" of pervokvadralov always raises somewhere on the periphery. In this case both the periphery of place and the periphery of time is borne in mind. They earlier than others are turned to a study of the phenomena, which are located only in embryo and they draw in no way the attention of the strong and men of weight of the current moment. The place, which especially stimulates preparators for the thinking out of the fundamentally new possibilities of the life of sotsiuma - these are the cross-roads of the rolled ways and the joints of the conservative regions of the "latent" society.
Energy potential of preparators is low; therefore in their period occur only the temporary splashes of the public activity, which by themselves are not capable of deriving sotsium from the state of symbiotic hibernation. However, energy already begins to gradually percolate into all times of stable society, approaching step by step toward the critical mark. And then proiskhod the explosion: the curve of public dynamics is fixed steeply upward, signaling about the beginning of the wide expansion of the new forms of the communication, which rapidly displaces old structure. The time of pervotolchka exceeds the limits of preparatory kvadry - it is passage to second kvadre.
The preparation of ascending always occurs on the completely democratic roots. Being located still very far from the future triumph, having moreover no guarantees, that precisely this attempt will give healthy shoots, the group of people is united not by the mercantile, but resembling friendly nonformal connections. The group of the enthusiasts of that not yet had time to be borne direction does not need chiefs, it combines in one person of those, who lead, with those, which are subordinated. The hierarchy of posts and titles among the preparators has no sense.
The basic external sign of sotsiotipov of first kvadry - this "infantility", which easily is revealed in the expression of their faces and in the view. Their mimicry is trusting and is direct, is reflecting their basic emotional state. Different deviations from the nature, the contrivance and the attempt to issue that desired for the real are so alien to them that now and then they completely "turn off" them from the communication or they make it necessary to fence off their peace of vnutreney accordion from the hypocrisy of vnesheney medium by the impenetrable partition.
The eyes of pervokvadralov look at the peace trusting and nezamutnenno. They do not have dual bottom, the concepts reflected in them are inoffensive. Even when they serdyatsya, then their malice is not received in earnest. It seems that this simply ran across the small cloudlet, which soon will be scattered and again will light the warm sun. In the widely thrown open eyes they demonstrate their friendliness and lack of defense. From the preparators no one awaits serious danger; therefore to harm to them - this the same as to offend children.
3.2. Second kvadra (LF, ET, TE, FL) - the portrayers
On the troika of those differentiating it is indicative second kvadra is called central- ascending aristocrats. Their generalized name portrayers, since they as no one by another are disposed to the introduction of concepts into the daily life. Energetically most powerful kvadra, portrayers are capable of overturning the life of society.
Because of their activity and aggressiveness of vtorokvadraly they always fall to the center of any social dynamics. They are especially unrestrained in the state activity, and also in the sphere of ideology and culture. The main carriers of their "centrality" - this of sotsiotipy teacher and marshal, which very frequently act at the same time. There are no such tasks of the achievements, which did not solve this dangerous pair. They work well also in the underground, creating the illegal centralized organizations.
Portrayers wonderfully govern the directed energy-flows. They always on the rise, defeat they not priyemlyut in principle. By it to more easily destroy itself how to recognize that their plans suffered final crash. Second kvadra is very ideological: it doubles and triples its forces because of their joining faith in the ideals, for which they are capable of going to the self-sacrifice. Portrayers are so successful in the tasks of introduction because because of their emotional and volitional action they draw in solution of radical problems large quantities of people.
Kvadra of portrayers has maximally clan nature. On the rigid hierarchical quality and the thrust to the solid hand their discipline is held. Irreconcilable separation on its and strangers unavoidably leads to the ideologically and patriotic painted wars. Second kvadra will not be quieted, until the authoritarian- centralized state builds and it destroys opposition. Is very characteristic for The the voploiteley the cult of rulers and national heroes. The end of the period of second kvadry is characterized by the bloom of the might of state. Simultaneously with this begins passage to the following epoch - the tret'ekvadral'nomu period, which carries with itself the crash of ideology and the disorganization of state.
The representatives of second kvadry you outwardly recognize on the mimicry of anger and irreconcilability, which from time to time appears at their faces. Their facial muscles as are fitted out for the expression of superiority and aristocratic izbrannosti. Their gestures are either demanding- decisive or stiff- affected, as if everything that they make, make "sud'bonosnyy" sense since they they compress lips or are shifted eyebrows, it issues inherent in them irreconcilability and vindictiveness.
In the eyes Of voplotitedey the observer will note reckless fire, fanatical luster. He can be present constantly, and it can be immersed on the very bottom of eyes, signaling about the fact that these are not those people, with which it is possible light-heartedly to joke. Sometimes the nature of view changes by the besstrasno- the severe. In these minutes the portrayers are capable to the actions of any degree of violence, they seemingly are converted in the inexorable executors of the will of the highest forces. Specifically, voplotitel'skuyu kvadru pursues the terrible disease of obsession and folly.
3.3. Third kvadra (TP, FR, RF, PT) - the vibrators
According to the differentiating signs tret'ekvadral'nye sotsiotipy obtain the following characteristic: the central- descending Democrats. Their generalized name (vibrators) emphasizes that side of their period of macro-evolution, which is connected with the social instability, the distinct- oscillating nature of development, the irrationality of life at this time. Vibrators to the different sides swing general boat, until it is pulled down to the individual parts. Someone will survive, while someone will go to the bottom - is such the finale of vibration epoch.
Vibrators similar to portrayers fight for the central places in the public life, only methods in them others. If second kvadra is militarized and reaches its in essence by the force of weapon, then third kvadra feeds aversion to the war. To the center of life they are knocked out either by economic or political means. Vibrators know how to earn money by trade and by financial speculations, they are strong in negotiating and diplomatic contrivances. Their trump - not gun, but "gold of corpuscles".
Since tret'ekvadraly produce in their activity destructive vibrations, i.e., poyatoyanno they are moved in those sections of the communicative space, where are the service lives remained from the previous period the energy sources, then the degradation of the association as whole begins in their time. A sharp drop in the dispositions occurs, almost all taboo are removed, they leave to the surface the worse human instincts, beginning from greediness and ending with the distortions. Vibration period resembles one large cleaning or washing of public organism.
When rule tret'ekvadraly, discipline and any signs of subordination collapses. Becomes everything permitted. Society survives vague- anarchical time, with the temporary restoration of order and the new creeping in into the strip of lawlessness and arbitrariness. The waves of improvements and worsenings whip man, undermine his faith in tomorrow. Increases a quantity of suicides, proiskhod sharp property stratification. Only civilized democratic governments gradually are adjusted toward the end of this heavy period. The epoch of revival comes. But this already passage to fourth kvadre.
From the external it is indicative vibrators is focused on itself attention some special features of their carriage. Short neck is sufficiently characteristic for them, because of what the impression is created, that they draw head in arms. There is also the uncommon sagging of housing back, which leads to the throwback of head and buckling forward of stomach. In their carriage as if is reflected an oscillatory nature of entire kvadry, which manufactures in man "sea" abilities on the opposition to tossing.
The mimicry of displeasure, which is read on the lips and the lower part of face, accompanies the communication of vibrators. From other side, when situation occurs into their benefit, mimic signals sharply change: appear the reactions of prichmokivaniya, podmigivaniya. Moreover to foresee, which pleases itself by them, but that no, it is very difficult. Frequently it is, that the negative course of events causes in them positive reactions, and positive Proceedings - dissatisfaction.
Something analogous is reflected also in their eyes. For the vibrators is uncharacteristic deep view the expression of eyes it kolebletsya from the explicit interest in you to the complete indifference to you and your information. Moreover on the eyes attentive diagnostician will easily read the pragmatism of their desires. What benefit I will from this have? Their eye as if lens it is focused on the people, in which they perceive for themselves any benefit. In them zapechetlena the obshchekvadral'naya philosophy: everything in this peace is dirty and it is vendible, it is must and to me not to miss its chance. How much that life?
3.4. Fourth kvadra (RI, PS, SP, IR) - Perfektory
The name of sotsiotipov of chetveroy kvadry on the collection of their describing of those differentiating it is indicative - the outlying- descending aristocrats. With the arrival of the time of fourth kvadry comes into force the ideology of perfektsionizma - bringing to the perfection, the qualitative finishing. Perfektory, therefore, mean Sovershenstvovateli. Nothing fundamentally new it is created in the epoch of fourth kvadry, then is led to the perfection and the perfection all that survived in the previous period of tret'ekvadral'noy cleaning.
The epoch of perfection is deprived of globalizma and of grandeur. Perfektory prefer to center the periphery. First, perfections is not in the sediment of the events, when war or reform goes on. Therefore stable life in the ideal public forms is removed on the time from the revolutions and the sharp turns. In the second place, life on the periphery is always calmer than in the prestige center, where strive careerists and ambitious men. There is no perfection, where is a show fight for the superiority.
Perfektsionisty do not attempt to activate public life. To them it so was too stormy and agitated. With the arrival of fourth kvadry the people obtain the possibility to rest and to save forces for the simple daily life. Oshchestvo survives the phase of slow aging, by policy and in ideology no one is interested, the wars of conquest of news it is not gathered. Who works well, that and lives well. No one pushes you in the battle for the ideals, no one strips from you large taxes.
The aristocratism Of perfektorov is concluded in essence in the fact that they do not desire to deal concerning the violent and obtrusive people. , who do not know how to arrange life on the reasonable principles, they simply reject all, is counted below itself on development level. They create their small ukhozhennye territories of comfortable life, and also association for the interests of narrow specialization. Therefore chetverokvadral'naya life is deprived of sharpness and of passions. State centralization is minimum, control is distributed along the been self-governing territories of average scale.
The society of fourth kvadry slowly fades to a certain limit, beyond which begin obskuratsiya - darkening, loss of the interest in the life up to the complete stupefaction and the incapacity of every kind to satisfy the elementary instincts of organism. On this concludes the period of perfektsionizma. Spontaneous decomposition leads to the loss of the special subdivisions of the expanded reproduction and society will re-form into the anklavnuyu form, i.e., symbiotic existence with surrounding nature. But this already passage into first kvadru - the embryo of new life.
The most exponential sign of fourth kvadry in the external manifestations - these are the coldness of view and the inadequacy of expression of mimicry. The smallest doses of extremality in the external peace painfully wound them, since destroy their most important communicative priority - calmness and the stable conditions of stay. Therefore Perfektory sufficiently nervous sotsiotipy. If this not evidently immediately, then nevertheless is revealed with the rapprochement with them.
Special fate is fallen in their portion - to be zavershitelem of entire macro-evolutionary cycle. And the press umudrennosti and fatigue from the life is personified in entire their appearance and characteristic manners. Perfektory look like healthy conservatives, by which from the life it is already small that necessarily. Their tastes and habits are distant from the excesses and napyshchennosti. They will prefer inconspicuous goods, but qualitative. They too value emotional energy so that it is foolhardy to give out it right and left in the form of the impulses of passions or at least lively gesticulation.
4. Turn of the kvadral'noy relay race
Analyzing the processes of passage of one social historic epoch to another, I focused attention, that the elements of the new means of life do not splash out outside immediately, by one vseokhvatnoy wave. Usually the period, which proceeds with change become obsolete, is developed at first passively and hidden. From this fact I drew the conclusion that each period of kvadral'noy relay race begins from the introvertnogo section.
And only after introvertnaya work on penetration into the "times" of public organism is accomplished to the end, occurs the bright flash of ekstravertnoy activity, it is concentrated reporting to all terms sotsiuma the replaced priorities. And if many still doubt in initially -introvertnom the stage of kvadry, that the new orders will extrude old, then last doubts about the victory of the structure stated about themselves completely disappear with the offensive of ekstravertnogo subperiod.
Another fact, which I took into consideration in the analysis of the dynamics of historical process, this bewilderment of many people because reached would seem complete success social structure it suddenly very rapidly fractures it displaces literally on the eyes of the generation of its adherents. This means that people confuse the bloom (akmaticheskuyu phase) of epoch with its finale, which flows po- ekstravertnomu expansively.
All this brought me to the construction of the theory of the intra-kcVatearremovability of types - kvadral'noy development. I ascertained that to present kvadru as the gradual growth of activity to the culmination point with its subsequent decrease to the level lower than initial does not correspond to reality. Kvadral'nyy period is not one bright flash with the dim by beginning and end, but chain of two flashes, divided by the introvertnym subperiod of stabilization.
Furthermore after the second splash of the activity of kvadry follows sharp break and kvadral'naya epoch departs to the nonexistence. The second ekstravertnyy section in kvadre proves to be final - this is its last ejection of energy, but many researchers consider it its culmination, than they disrupt the logic of the events: perhaps at the apex there is only lift and there is no descent?
On the the present of kul'minatsionen only second section: it is isolated from both sides by introvertno- calm sections, whiches indicate its key element. But public consciousness for some reason does not have time after the historical process. Specifically, when it is necessary to work at full power, conquering a maximum quantity of strong points in sotsiume, many workers simply sleep, expecting better time. In this the reason for their subsequent failures.
Thus, entire kvadral'nyy period it is expedient to divide into four subperiods, or stage, each of which has a nature of one of entering kvadru of sotsiotipa. The alternation of types according to the principle of ekstravert constructed changing introverta. If we are distracted from the projection of kvadral'noy relay race on the dynamics of historical epochs, then one should speak about four roles in kvadre, which must be allotted for its four sotsiotipami. What this for the roles?
The first role is carried out by sotsiotipom, which interrupts the development of the program of previous kvadry and which selects from it that part of the information, which will serve as starting capital for native kvadry. Let us agree to call this role disinfection center. The beginning of new period flows always latent; therefore disinfection center can be only introvert. Furthermore at the disinfection center as the type, which stands at the entrance of kvadry, lies the responsibility of checking actions on the correspondence to obshchekvadral'noy program.
After passage into kvadru is realized, occurs the intensive expansion of kvadral'nykh priorities in all directions of the life of society. Role of the active spreader of kvadral'nykh values beret to itself one of ekstravertov of kvadry. The culmination entire period begins toward the end of the second stage; therefore performing this role sotsiotip is called Kul'minator. In Kul'minatore in the emphasized form are concentrated all advantages and disadvantages in its kvadry.
Then the mechanism of feedback, which corrects degree and directions of obshchekvadral'noy activity, is included. The culmination follows the introvertnyy stage of stabilization, during which the expansion decreases, occurs the internal redistribution of resources. Sotsiotip, which corresponds for these actions in kvadre, is called stabilizer. Stabilizer subperiod gives kvadre the "new energy", is prepared it for the completing jerk.
Completes kvadra by the beautiful and unexpected ekstravertnoy flash, in course of which finally are resolved the contradictions, accumulated for the duration entire of kvadral'nogo period. Sotsiotip, which carries out finishing jerk, is called finalist. The last thrust of kvadry procreates many illusions relative to the stability of proven their effectiveness orders. Together with the crash of hopes are started the transformation processes, as a result of which kvadra "moves bridge" to another shore - to its smenshchitse. Therefore finalist - this simultaneously and the type of mezhkvadral'nogo passage.
If we arrange intra-kcVatearstages in the chronological order, then the following chain of the changing each other roles will be erected:
The disinfection center Of kul'minator Stabilizer Is Finalist.
4.2. Chronological developments of kvadr
4.2.1. Development of kvadry of the preparators: SE IL LI ES.
Mediator Is The disinfection center Of preparators. He follows the fact so that in kvadre would reign the atmosphere of friendliness, sincerity, emotional and physical comfort. In the situation of extremes (stir or its opposition spleen) its program of the search for public alternatives does not realize. The culmination of first kvadry begins with the invention of the new system of ideology. The satisfying the criterion of lasting cognitive force theory proposes inventor.
Its logical development beret to himself the analyst, who stabilizes kvadru and clearly directs to the revealed and appointed target. Enthusiast extends the logically adjusted system. Specifically, he comes out as the finalist of kvadry, because in many respects it is devoted organization and to performer discipline, which goes from second kvadry.
4.2.2. Development of kvadry of the portrayers: LF ET TE FL.
At the entrance into kvadru of portrayers stands the inspector. From the hands of preparators he will take only that which actually is logically substantiated and it is practically oriented. After it furious teacher is set in operation, whose veroubezhdennost' and the ability to sacrifice itself for the triumph of idea does not know equal. In the tutoring subperiod new ideology actually seizes masses.
The time of storm and strong pressure follows sotsiotip of lyric poetries, whose task - to soften the consequences of lack of compromise and terrorism of teacher. The lyric stage of kvadry implies stabilization and romantic poetization of the victims, which fell in the fight. Completes kvadru the marshal period, when occurs final assumption of power, but also they break through the sprouts of irrationality and money pragmatism (first in the form of temporary concessions, and then is already regularly), that give chance to the lift of third kvadry.
4.2.3. Development of kvadry of the vibrators: TP FR RF PT.
Vibration kvadra is opened by the comprehensive criticism of totalitarianism and anti-economic methods of portrayers. Sotsiotip critic produces "intellectual" cleaning it is cerebral people from the ideological dogmas of the previous period. Present vibrations are started to the total force and they reach their apogee, when begins stage the politics: the freedom of dispositions and commercial beginnings in the interrelations between the people blooms, are organized the predstavitel'skiye forms of democracy and different electoral systems.
But in the course of time people get tired from the political intrigue and the anarchy and they begin to rely only on themselves, entering thus into ethical conflict with to themselves the the similar. Goes the strip of retention and survival under the conditions of disorders and absence of solid authority. This is the stage of keeper. It pushes slightly the conquered healthy pragmatism to the owner's activity. Bureaucracy collapses finally and the large taxes gone to its content abolish. Vibration kvadra completes by the fact that usually there is a revival. In the public consciousness at this time the principles of humanism gradually are asserted. Approaches fourth kvadra.
4.2.4. Development of kvadry Of perfektorov: RI PS SP IR.
Humanist passes into kvadru of sovershenstvovateley the revived traditions of the positive heritage of previous kvadr. Changes in psychology of people to the side of larger diligence and humaneness in the relations occur. The turn of administrative-production stage comes. Building is developed, especially out-of-town, revives the productivity of agriculture on the basis of farming, society leaves to the level of quality and welfare.
The accumulated fatigue is felt. Now each wants to work in the rhythm convenient for itself and not on whom not to depend. The fever of administrative stage falls, the personal skill sharpens. Sotsiotip master decreases productivity, but also turns production in the side of the more complete satisfaction of the demands of client. Perfektory finish in the stage of adviser. In the first place it leaves personal predilections and discipline at the same time falls. Interest in the nontraditional approaches is strengthened. Occurs the selection of people of uncommon views and behavior, which unavoidably prepares soil for the ideological searching of first kvadry.
Thus, beginning converges with the end and the chain of macro-evolution is locked. The overall diagram of kvadral'nogo turn takes the following form:
preparators are the portrayers
perfektory the vibratorsCode:- (SE IL LI ES) (LF ET TE FL) - В¬ В¦ В¦ В¦ В¦ L (IR SP PS RI) (PT RF FR TP) -
On the graph, along the X-axis of which is put aside the time, and along the Y-axis energy potential, kvadral'nyy turn will draw the so-called M-shaped curve. It consists of the left hollow being risen section (subperiod of preparators), which follows after it the section of exponential increase to the culmination point (subperiod of portrayers), the sharp decrease in the curve to the local minimum and the last splash (subperiod of vibrators) and the completing turn section of slow descent from the point of inflection to the level of energy "vacuum" (subperiod Of perfektorov).
5. Reasons for the removability of kvadr
The macro-evolution of sotsiuma in tipoanalize is simulated with the aid of the spiral of kvadral'nykh turns. Is such its form, which gives not bad approximation to real historical processes. But in what the reason for removability itself? Is there a determining factor, which does set in motion the wheel of human history?
Most likely, if the edinstvenaya reason for macro-evolution exists, then it will yield to formulation only in very and the very abstract language, that deprives the knowledge of its instrument- converting force. To much more practically examine the entire complex of the reasons for the development of sociopsychological systems. Below I will give diverse approaches to the development of the factor of "IKS", because of which the history of disretna and we distinguish in its flow qualitatively outstanding periods.
5.1. Natural reasons - conservation of energy
In nature act the global laws of the conservation of energy, according to which perpetual motion machine there does not exist and any development has two opposite directions, that are based on the energy exchange between themselves with its constant reserve within the framework of more general system.
With the development in the first direction occurs the expenditure of energy, due to which the developing system becomes stronger and is complicated. This ascending development, it occurs due to the fact that elsewhere some system simplifies and is decomposed, returning its internal energy of the organization gathering force. Dostignuv of its limit of increase, the first system in turn begins to degrade, pumping over the freed energy into the following place and so forth this descending development.
The second circumstance of the global law of energy exchange consists in the fact that each system at the given instant interacts not less than with other two systems. In other words, it has its predecessor, due to which it feeds and is formed, and also its follower, for which comes out as the energy donor itself. Is formed ternary sequence "thesis the antithesis - synthesis", or "subsystem - system - supersystem".
And finally it resists the equal on the force, but opposite on the sign (orthogonal) system, with which it annihilates - it destroys each other, giving off free energy. Specifically, because of the last form of interaction in the komunikativnom space always there is free energy. Due to this energy surplus are conceived by vortex method newer and newer spirals of kvadr. Hence follows the conclusion that the macro-evolution goes on the convergent spiral. Indeed without of ever closer contact of antipodes would not occur the energy-scattering annihilation.
The revealed four energy phases in physics of oscillating processes are called potential energy, passage of potential energy into the kinetic, kinetic energy and recovery of kinetic energy into the potential. These regular phases bear in nature universal nature. You will recall about the annual rhythm (spring, winter, summer, autumn), the daily rhythm (morning, day, evening, night), the periodization of the life of man (childhood, youth, maturity, old age). Specifically, these phases correspond to kvadral'nym periods. They there is in the essence the step by step damping of the initial fluctuation, which was swung due to the annihilation energy transfer.
5.2. Demographic reasons - density of the population
By more concrete language the macro-evolution of the association of living individuals it is possible to explain through the consequences of a change in the density of the population, which populates settled territory.
Initial position is the stay in this territory of this quantity of individuals, which exactly corresponds to the possibilities of natural medium to feed population without the special damage for itself. With the dynamic equilibrium a quantity of borne individuals on the average is equal to a quantity of dead persons; therefore a similar symbiotic population does not increase, but also it does not decrease. Occur only the insignificant fluctuations of number, which; however, once lead to the fact that on one half of overall territory exceeding the birth rate above the mortality concludes with the flash of an exponential increase in the population.
The resources of natural medium in this part of the population no longer be sufficient; therefore struggle for existence sharply is sharpened. Stronger individuals displace weaker. Increases the concentration of the active and aggressive members of association on the upper levels of the communicative hierarchy, which redistribute the limited natural resources into its benefit, selecting them in the kinsmen extruded to the lower level of existence. In parallel with this process the prevailing part of the population forcedly the territory of the living in the old orders individuals and extends on them its inequality of rights.
However, the vertical stratification of population does not solve radically the problem of the limitedness of means to existence. Toward the end of the second phase the population reaches the maximum feature of concentration, after which the confrontational wars of two types appear: oppressed against the gentlemen, and also newcomers against the natives. Entire association is cleft to the opposing groups, ozhestochenno of those destroying each other.
The excess of population with the interest is liquidated toward the end of the third phase, moreover perish the public- most active workers. Population gradually is calmed. Increase in the population ceases, because in the epoch of mezhduusobnykh collisions occurs a significant drop in the standard of living and almost no one among the grown poor population risks to start a large quantity of children. People think about the daily survival, but not about the heirs of the future covered with the gloom of uncertainty. The generation of children is put aside on then - to pacification and acquisition of the comfortable conditions of stay.
However, when hostility and disturbances calm down, the number of population already never is restored, because birth rate it is slow, but steadily it continues to be lowered. Parents no longer require in large quantities of children, indeed in the stable phase they can design for the assuredly provided for old age. But to educate children in view of the increased requirements for the material security becomes increasingly more difficult and it is more difficult. Population therefore returns to the self-sustaining equilibrium of the number of generation and deaths, i.e., during the first phase.
5.3. Economic reasons - productivity of labor
Classics of Marxism as the chief concern of the change of social-economic formations placed the factor of productivity of labor. According to their theory, when the existing formation ceases to satisfy the requirements of an increase in production efficiency, it is converted into the brake of the economy and descends from the historical arena, being inferior the place for more progressive structure.
Marx's theory about the development of the society through five public economic systems will agree well with the sotsionicheskoy concept of the removability of kvadr. However, the kvadral'nyy analysis of evolution does not make exceptional support to the economic reasons. Basic and superstructured phenomena in sotsiume are equal and it cannot be asserted that the first determines the second. Public consciousness is equivalent on its influencing force to existence.
First kvadra corresponds according to its fundamental communicative characteristics kind tribal formation. In preparators the precisely family atmosphere of the contact is standard: weakened and nonformal as between the brothers and the sisters. Authority in this kvadre is conquered not by force or wealth, but personal experience and knowledge. Productivity of labor in preparators is low, there there are no types with organizational F or generating P.
Living in a nonviolent manner and in the accordion with the environment, pervokvadraly do not need the organs of power of the state. Do not have they and class division of society, since the equalizing distribution of material goods completely satisfies their unassuming demands. By its forces of kvadra of preparators can one way or another obustroitsya on any untouched by civilization the section of nature.
The communicative special features of second kvadry greatly resemble feudal formation. This is power and heroic kvadra, which wages war and there exists only in the aristocratic forms. Portrayers create class societies with the rigid class partitions. The usual form of administration in them - this is the unlimited monarchy. Religion or generally ideology has in this kvadre a priority above the science. Inakomysliye eradicates as undermining the abutments of social order.
Production in second kvadre is built on the non-economic methods of the coercion of the producers of material goods. The business logic P does not enter into the collection of voplotitel'skikh regulators, then force is very read a little and authority - aspect F there is no commodity production practically, trade exists in the form of the natural exchange of products. The high portion of joint public product goes to the content of army and branched government apparatus.
Capitalist formation - is the epoch of third kvadry, vibration. Instead of the power coercion to the labor in this kvadry is included economic stimulation. Production is regulated by market mechanisms, there is no centralized control. Commodity-monetary relations rule, everything is bought and is sold. Production bears individual as in second kvadre, but mass nature. Vtorokvadral'nye classes get mixed between themselves.
During tret'ekvadral'nogo capitalism is observed the takeoff of policy in the elective- democratic forms. The form of state administration gradually acquires dvupartiynyy nature. In authority alternately they be the left -qentristskie (social-democratic, increasing taxes, also, for this calculation the strengthening sphere social welfares), the right -qentristskie (liberal, decreasing taxes and pushing due to the increased profits production) of party, but radicals and extremists (active supporters of second kvadry) political weight do not have.
The Communist formation, which thus far was not carried out, and many not at all they believe in its reality, nevertheless it will agree well with the komunikativnymi priorities of fourth kvadry. For Perfektorov is exponential highest productivity of labor (PS - the most productive type in sotsione), in this kvadre people live with the abundance of material goods. Proizvodstvenye accumulations are not expended on the war, the razbukhshiy official apparatus, the immense building of century. The difference between the city and the village is erased. City- monsters, these ruining nature works of third kvadry, lose attractiveness.
In the minds of people the principles of humanism and religious tolerance are asserted. Emotions and passions depart to the background, people are oriented to quiet- valid relations. There is no criminality, no one attempts to the property of other. The political fight little of whom interests, all problems are solved at the places by the local organs of self-guidance. Decency and diligence is constructed not to some of the mythical consciousness (Perfektory - the same people with its weaknesses as the types of another kvadr), but on the elementary unwillingness to dispute, to disrupt traditions. Perfektory live by the maximum use of each energy unit and they will not begin to expend it on the destructive acts.
Besides four analyzed by me basic social-economic formations there is still and intermediate, that correspond to the passages between the kvadral'nymi periods. Slaveholding system - this is passage from first kvadry to the second: in it are combined the democratic governments with the power operation, the daring achievements of science with the supremacy of religious world view.
Between feudalism and capitalism arose the not isolatable as independent by traditional science the intermediate public structure, which it is logical to name postfeodal'noy community. The discussion deals with the Cossack settlings, in which the military- power forms of the organization of life whimsical were interwoven with free commodity production of third kvadry. A similar form of public life is not the required final stage with the change of economic systems as slaveholding.
Passage from third kvadry to the fourth generates that intermediate structure, which it would be possible to name socialism, keeping in mind so much its Soviet, as Swedish model. With socialism the role of the public bodies of authority remains sufficiently significant, indeed someone must accomplish redistribution of material goods in favor of of weaker, but productivity of labor must not suffer from the fact that the significant layer of not approaching themselves labor and waiting tips from the state people appears.
It is possible that in the more global plan transition period to kvadre Of sovershenstvovateley is the so-called post-industrial society, in which practically is removed the contradiction between the labor and capital: the owners of large states voluntarily drop from the roll the part of their incomes for the needs of science, culture and social payments. Developed computer communications make it possible to participate in the material and information production, without leaving its places of stay. All This - The elements Of the peripheralnesses, Characteristic Of perfektoram.
5.4. Historical reasons - passionarnye pushes
The convincing picture of the historical development of ethnoses sketched L.N.Gumilev, the author of the theory of ethnogeny [ 2 ]. True, it explains protsiskhozhdeniye of the initial ethnic push by the tuft- biological factors - special micro-mutations in the organism of people, proceeding under the effect of cosmic radiation. With difficulty it will agree with the fact that the social level of communicative space is reduced to the phenomena of physical order. But however there it was, the introduced To gumilevym concept of passionarnosti as the motive power of the history of peoples wonderfully transfers the interrelation of micro- and makrosotsiuma, man and society, that is been the object of the study of sotsioniki.
L.N.Gumilev distinguishes three forms of individuals according to the degree of their passionarnosti, i.e., the ability to return its psychic energy not to the selfish, but to the obshcheetnicheskiye purposes. First, these are passionarnye individuals, which sacrifice themselves into the name of its matter, in the second place, this of the sub-passionarias, which are not capable of choking in themselves low instincts, and harmonious people, whose energy is distributed approximately equally between the personal and the public.
From the point of view of sotsioniki, passionarnost' most of all is similar to the communicative aspect T - dependence on the fate, the missions, the spirit of sacrifice, the estrangement from the terrestrial. Subpassionarnost' - these are the same aspect, but is undertaken with the opposite sign. Consequently, the referring straight to passionarnym actions sotsionicheskiye groups these are central kvadry. Most passionarna of kvadra of portrayers, while most subpassionarna of kvadra of vibrators. Outlying kvadry are passionarno- neutral, or, if we take on Gumilevu, they consist of harmonious individuals.
The first phase of ethnogeny - these are pervotolchok, is assembled assemble of passionarnykh personalities in one place and the ensuring lift of the new ethnos, which creates its state and enlarges its area of inhabiting due to the achievement and absorptions of other, weaker ethnoses. Toward the end of the overall climb phase set in akmaticheskaya phase - bloom of ethnos, time of its greatest might.
Akmaticheskuyu phase unexpectedly, but regularly changes the phase of break. The empires are pulled down during this period, bloody intra-ethnic collisions occur, Civil Wars rage. The ethnos shake the fluctuations of passionarnosti of opposite signs. The surplus of energy departs to the destruction by passionariyami of each other, and the part of passionariyev leaves the limits of ethnos and populates the free earth.
After break ethnos expects inertia phase - period of the slow consumption of the preserved reserve of passionarnoy energy. Historians name this phase a civilization, because ethnos lives in it quietly and prosperously, accumulates a large quantity of material products of culture and it leaves after itself many written sources.
Following the inertia is moved the phase of obskuratsii - agony of passionarnosti, the loss of orientators and generally goal setting, the chaotic removability of priorities, decomposition and the degradation of ethnos to the most primitive forms. The dying ethnos can actually disappear because of the assimilation - traceless dissolution among the younger peoples, and can it will become relict. Relict ethnos will exist how conveniently for long, being located in the homeostasis with the living environment, or to give beginning to new ethnos.
Thus, the diagram Of gumileva differs somewhat from our in terms of the sequence of kvadral'nykh phases ethnogeny Of gumileva it begins from kvadry of portrayers, then follow kvadry of vibrators and Perfektorov, and death of ethnos is fallen to kvadru of preparators. It must be noted that the ethnic start Of gumilev is explained not by terrestrial, but space reason; ther