Latent inhibition is inhibition of the learning of a paired association between a conditioned stimulus and unconditioned stimulus due to prior repeated unpaired exposure of the conditioned stimulus. The inhibition on learning that occurs with the stimulus preexposure is latent because it is observed only when the stimulus is subsequently paired. Those with low latent inhibition are highly sensitive to their surroundings and its stimuli.
Normal people are able to shut out this constant stream of incoming stimuli, those with low latent inhibition (LLI) cannot. It is hypothesized that a low level of latent inhibition, or LLI, can either cause psychosis or a high level of creativity, which is usually dependent on the subject's intelligence. Those of above average intelligence are thought to be capable of processing this stream effectively, an ability that greatly aids their creativity and ability to learn and which categorizes them as almost a creative genius. Those with less than average intelligence, on the other hand, are less able to cope, and so as a result are more likely to suffer from mental illness.
The protagonist of Prison Break, Michael Scofield, is clinically diagnosed with low latent inhibition. His above-average intelligence combined with this personality trait makes him a genius, allowing him to make an incredibly detailed and cryptic plan (encrypted in a tattoo) to break his brother, Lincoln Burrows, out of prison.
Contrary to certain popular culture descriptions, latent inhibition is not a mental disorder it is just an observed personality trait, and a description of how an individual absorbs & assimilates information or stimuli. It may or may not lead onto mental order or creative genius - this is like many other factors of life - a case of environment (positive stimuli e.g. education or negative e.g. abuse) and an individual's predisposition (genetics - family history of mental illness).