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Thread: Basic Emotions

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    Default Basic Emotions

    https://www.the16types.info/vbulleti.../51596-Model-D (page 14-17)

    G)

    happiness: serotonin 2 and noradrenaline (high)

    sadness: serotonin 2 and noradrenaline (low)



    calmness, contentment: serotonin 1 and noradrenaline (low)

    stress, nervousness (---> anger and fear): serotonin 1 and noradrenaline (high)



    excitement, interest (including surprise): dopamine and noradrenaline (high)

    boredom, fatigue: dopamine and noradrenaline (low)

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    https://www.simonsfoundation.org/201...h-of-a-reward/

    "The neurotransmitter famously provides the thrill we get from a surprise, a phenomenon known as reward prediction error. But growing evidence suggests the chemical also tracks movement, novelty and other neurobiological factors."

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    https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf...69881117725915

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5606297/ (Serotonin and brain function: a tale of two receptors)

    "Previous attempts to identify a unified theory of brain serotonin function have largely failed to achieve consensus. In this present synthesis, we integrate previous perspectives with new and older data to create a novel bipartite model centred on the view that serotonin neurotransmission enhances two distinct adaptive responses to adversity, mediated in large part by its two most prevalent and researched brain receptors: the 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors. We propose that passive coping (i.e. tolerating a source of stress) is mediated by postsynaptic 5-HT1AR signalling and characterised by stress moderation. Conversely, we argue that active coping (i.e. actively addressing a source of stress) is mediated by 5-HT2AR signalling and characterised by enhanced plasticity (defined as capacity for change). We propose that 5-HT1AR-mediated stress moderation may be the brain’s default response to adversity but that an improved ability to change one’s situation and/or relationship to it via 5-HT2AR-mediated plasticity may also be important – and increasingly so as the level of adversity reaches a critical point. We propose that the 5-HT1AR pathway is enhanced by conventional 5-HT reuptake blocking antidepressants such as the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), whereas the 5-HT2AR pathway is enhanced by 5-HT2AR-agonist psychedelics. This bipartite model purports to explain how different drugs (SSRIs and psychedelics) that modulate the serotonergic system in different ways, can achieve complementary adaptive and potentially therapeutic outcomes."

    "This said, it is intriguing to consider the possibility that a ‘loosened mind’, whether subsequent to enhanced 5-HT2AR signalling or not, may be a non-negligible component of the neurobiology of positive mood itself (Ashby et al., 1999). Blocking the 5-HT2AR has been found to significantly attenuate the positive mood effects of three different classic psychedelics (Kometer et al., 2012; Preller, 2016; Valle et al., 2016) and MDMA (van Wel et al., 2012), and it is intriguing to consider whether 5-HT2AR-mediated plasticity may be an underappreciated component of the antidepressant action of SSRIs (Chamberlain et al., 2006; Petit et al., 2014; Qesseveur et al., 2016). Several studies have demonstrated a relationship between positive mood and creative thinking (De Dreu et al., 2008; Hirt et al., 2008), with the elation, flight of ideas and general hyper-creativity of manic states being relevant in this context (Jamison, 1994).

    ‘The secret to happiness is freedom’. (Thucydides c. 450BC)

    It is presumed that the brain (like the mind) functions in a freer, less constrained manner during creative states, as during positive mood..."

    serotonin.png

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    https://www.frontiersin.org/articles...015.00253/full

    "Risk-taking was modulated by emotional context: fear and anger influenced risk-taking specifically in the gain frame and had opposite effects. Fear increased risk-averse choices, whereas anger decreased risk-averse choices, leading to a suppression of the framing effect. These results confirm that emotions play a key role in framing susceptibility."

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    https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-018-28863-3

    "In fact, the emotion of anger, which is defined as a negative emotional response to goal-blockage and unfair behavior by others, is conceptually distinct from aggression, which is defined as an action intended to cause harm to another individual."

    "Pertaining to the brain activation patterns underlying anger, the majority of neuroimaging studies have investigated this emotion indirectly by showing angry faces, or by using recall, imagery, or rumination of anger-eliciting situations. The results of these studies are very divergent in their findings. Whereas some findings point to an involvement of the orbitofrontal cortex, other results suggest reduced activations in the orbitofrontal cortex and somatosensory cortex as well as increased activations in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and insula. Still other studies found an association of the temporal poles, or the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex with anger."

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    https://www.healthline.com/health/st...mygdala-hijack

    "The amygdala activates this fight-or-flight response without any initiative from you. When that part of your brain senses danger, it signals your brain to pump stress hormones, preparing your body to either fight for survival or to flee to safety."

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    https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/b...od-bad-or-both

    "Here, in brief, is how the survival-oriented acute stress response operates. Accurately or not, if you assess the immediately menacing force as something you potentially have the power to defeat, you go into fight mode. In such instances, the hormones released by your sympathetic nervous system—especially adrenaline—prime you to do battle and, hopefully, triumph over the hostile entity.

    Conversely, if you view the antagonistic force as too powerful to overcome, your impulse is to outrun it (and the faster the better). And this, of course, is the flight response, also linked to the instantaneous ramping up of your emergency biochemical supplies—so that, ideally, you can escape from this adversarial power (whether it be human, animal, or some calamity of nature).

    Where, in what you perceive as a dire threat, is the totally disabling freeze response? By default, this reaction refers to a situation in which you’ve concluded (in a matter of seconds—if not milliseconds) that you can neither defeat the frighteningly dangerous opponent confronting you nor safely bolt from it. And ironically, this self-paralyzing response can, in the moment, be just as adaptive as either valiantly fighting the enemy or, more cautiously, fleeing from it."

    anger and fear.jpg

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    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3858647/

    "Novelty and surprise play significant roles in animal behavior and in attempts to understand the neural mechanisms underlying it. They also play important roles in technology, where detecting observations that are novel or surprising is central to many applications, such as medical diagnosis, text processing, surveillance, and security. Theories of motivation, particularly of intrinsic motivation, place novelty and surprise among the primary factors that arouse interest, motivate exploratory or avoidance behavior, and drive learning. In many of these studies, novelty and surprise are not distinguished from one another: the words are used more-or-less interchangeably. However, while undeniably closely related, novelty and surprise are very different. The purpose of this article is first to highlight the differences between novelty and surprise and to discuss how they are related by presenting an extensive review of mathematical and computational proposals related to them, and then to explore the implications of this for understanding behavioral and neuroscience data. We argue that opportunities for improved understanding of behavior and its neural basis are likely being missed by failing to distinguish between novelty and surprise."

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    https://www.sciencedaily.com/release...1127161446.htm

    "A Columbia University study in fruit flies has identified serotonin as a chemical that triggers the body's startle response, the automatic deer-in-the-headlights reflex that freezes the body momentarily in response to a potential threat."

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    https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/b...us-wonder-twin

    "Norepinephrine (also called noradrenaline) is ‘adrenaline for your brain’. Just as adrenaline revs up your body, norepinephrine revs up your brain."

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    Agape is that you?

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    https://www.huffpost.com/entry/hacki...py-c_b_6007660

    "Serotonin flows when you feel significant or important. Loneliness and depression appears when serotonin is absent. It's perhaps one reason why people fall into gang and criminal activity -- the culture brings experiences that facilitate serotonin release. Unhealthy attention-seeking behavior can also be a cry for what serotonin brings. Princeton neuroscientist Barry Jacobs explains that most antidepressants focus on the production of serotonin.

    Reflecting on past significant achievements allows the brain to re-live the experience. Our brain has trouble telling the difference between what's real and imagined, so it produces serotonin in both cases. It's another reason why gratitude practices are popular. They remind us that we are valued and have much to value in life. If you need a serotonin boost during a stressful day, take a few moments to reflect on a past achievements and victories."

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    Oooh basic emotions, like maybe Paul Ekman and micro expressions and such!

    Nope...nvm, it's neurochemistry. *Exits*
    “Errare humanum est, sed in errare perseverare diabolicum.” —Seneca
    “To err is human, but to persist in error is diabolical.”

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    https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/...1111/jnc.15607

    Happiness could be a self-conscious emotion (not a basic emotion) and it could be the same thing as pride.

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    https://time.com/4254089/science-crying/

    "Crying signals to yourself and other people that there’s some important problem that is at least temporarily beyond your ability to cope"

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    stress and nervousness (---> tension): a threat/a problem <--> serotonin 1

    anger and fear: the fight-or-flight response <--> noradrenaline (high)

    happiness/pride (satisfaction with achievement): actively addressing a source of stress <--> serotonin 2 ... a self-conscious emotion

    contempt: someone is causing a threat (blame) ... a self-conscious emotion

    excitement and interest (including surprise): motivation <--> dopamine

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    disgust <--> serotonin 3 ... a basic emotion?

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    work ---> pleasure

    the goal is always pleasure (dopamine)

    work causes stress (serotonin)

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    Quote Originally Posted by Petter View Post
    work ---> pleasure

    the goal is always pleasure (dopamine)

    work causes stress (serotonin)
    To me, work causes pleasure and doing nothing causes stress.

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    https://theconversation.com/the-evol...njoyment-57750

    "While laughter has been linked to higher pain tolerance and the signalling of social status, its principal function appears to be creating and deepening social bonds."

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    calmness, contentment <--> serotonin (high)

    tension, nervousness (or fear) <--> serotonin (low)



    interest (novelty and surprise) <--> noradrenaline (high)

    boredom <--> noradrenaline (low)



    excitement <--> dopamine (high)

    dispiritedness <--> dopamine (low)

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    fascination = excitement + interest

    terror = tension + interest (high)

    anger = tension + excitement

    rage = tension + excitement + interest (high)

    happiness = calmness + excitement + interest

    sadness = tension + dispiritedness + boredom

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    fascination = excitement + interest
    ... or attraction

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    https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/...nalCode=pcem20

    "Tornochuk and Ellis argue that DISGUST should be considered a basic emotional system, on a par with the other basic emotional systems such as SEEKING, FEAR, RAGE, LUST, CARE, PANIC and PLAY, which constitute the groundwork for a cross-species emotion neuroscience with immediate implications for understanding emotional imbalances that characterise psychiatric disorders. Disgust is clearly a basic sensory/interoceptive affect (Rozin & Fallon, 1987), and a socially constructed moral emotion (Haidt, 2003a, b), but perhaps it is a category error to classify disgust as a basic emotion. It is more akin to a sensory affect. If we consider sensory disgust to be a basic emotional systems, then why not include hunger, thirst, fatigue and many other affective states of the body as emotions?"

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    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seroto...nervous_system

    "If irritants are present in the food, the enterochromaffin cells release more serotonin to make the gut move faster, i.e., to cause diarrhea, so the gut is emptied of the noxious substance. If serotonin is released in the blood faster than the platelets can absorb it, the level of free serotonin in the blood is increased. This activates 5-HT3 receptors in the chemoreceptor trigger zone that stimulate vomiting."

    (outside the nervous system)

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    https://www.cam.ac.uk/research/news/...ponse-to-anger

    "The research revealed that low brain serotonin made communications between specific brain regions of the emotional limbic system of the brain (a structure called the amygdala) and the frontal lobes weaker compared to those present under normal levels of serotonin. The findings suggest that when serotonin levels are low, it may be more difficult for the prefrontal cortex to control emotional responses to anger that are generated within the amygdala."



    https://www.frontiersin.org/articles...016.00024/full

    "The amygdala is a key player in the processing of fear. This brain area is prominently modulated by the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT)."



    https://www.sciencedaily.com/release...0107121453.htm

    "How can we shift from a state of inattentiveness to one of highest attention? The locus coeruleus, literally the "blue spot," is a tiny cluster of cells at the base of the brain. As the main source of the neurotransmitter noradrenaline, it helps us control our attentional focus. Synthesizing evidence from animal and human studies, scientists at the Max Planck Institute for Human Development and the University of Southern California have now developed a novel framework describing the way the blue spot regulates our brain's sensitivity to relevant information in situations requiring attention. Their findings have been published in an opinion article in the journal Trends in Cognitive Sciences."



    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Locus_coeruleus

    "The LC's role in cognitive function in relation to stress is complex and multi-modal. Norepinephrine released from the LC can act on α2 receptors to increase working memory, or an excess of NE may decrease working memory by binding to the lower-affinity α1 receptors."



    https://news.mit.edu/2022/noradrenal...-surprise-0601

    "What this work shows is that the locus coeruleus encodes unexpected events, and paying attention to those surprising events is crucial for the brain to take stock of its environment"



    https://www.smh.com.au/national/dopa...12-gdicc5.html

    "Dopamine, on the other hand, makes us excitable. When we lose our temper, it is dopamine, and adrenaline, that overwhelms us and triggers the fight-or-flight response that used to save us from sabre-tooth tigers and the like."



    https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-021-27092-z

    "dopamine system hyperactivity is associated with elevated aggression"



    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2612120/

    "Specifically, serotonin hypofunction may represent a biochemical trait that predisposes individuals to impulsive aggression, with dopamine hyperfunction contributing in an additive fashion to the serotonergic deficit."



    https://www.uu.se/en/news/article/?i...rtikel&lang=en

    "This discovery is a major leap forward when it comes to identifying changes in the brain’s chemical messengers in people who suffer from anxiety. Earlier research has shown that nerve activity in the amygdala is higher in people with social phobia and thus that the brain’s fear centre is over-sensitive. The new findings indicate that a surplus of serotonin is part of the underlying reason."



    https://www.jneurosci.org/content/40/24/4739

    "The causal relationship between amygdala serotonin levels and an animal's sensitivity to threat was confirmed via direct amygdala infusions of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), citalopram. Both anxiety-like behaviors, and conditioned threat-induced responses were reduced by the blockade of serotonin reuptake in the amygdala."



    https://www.frontiersin.org/articles...016.00024/full

    "Two aspects suggest that 5-HT may influence emotional processing, at least in part, via modulation of amygdala function. First, drugs that block the re-uptake of 5-HT (e.g., selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, SSRIs), the first-line treatment for depression and anxiety (Preskorn et al., 2004), affect amygdala activation to emotional stimuli (Bigos et al., 2008; Murphy et al., 2009; Godlewska et al., 2012). Second, genetic variations in the 5-HT transporter (5-HTT) influence amygdala activation to aversive stimuli, as well as expression of anxiety-related personality traits and risk for affective disorders (Lesch et al., 1996; Hariri et al., 2002)."



    https://www.reuters.com/article/us-d...79946320080605

    "Low levels of key brain chemical sparks anger"

    "Serotonin, the nerve-signaling chemical targeted by many antidepressants, appears to keep aggressive social responses in check, Molly Crockett, a psychologist at the University of Cambridge and colleagues reported in the journal Science.

    The chemical’s precise role in impulse control has been controversial but this study is one of the first to actually show a causal link, Crockett said."



    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reward...ing_and_liking

    "The wanting component is thought to be controlled by dopaminergic pathways, whereas the liking component is thought to be controlled by opiate-benzodiazepine systems."



    https://www.sciencedirect.com/scienc...91305797002773

    "Numerous studies have demonstrated that activation of serotonin 5-HT1A or 5-HT1B receptor decreases aggression in male mammals."



    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4606977/

    "The serotonin 2A (5-HT2A) receptor has been implicated in neural-processing of emotionally salient information. To elucidate its role in processing of fear and anger, healthy individuals were studied with functional MRI (fMRI) after 5-HT2A receptor blockade, while judging the gender of neutral, fearful and angry faces."



    https://psychopharmacologyinstitute....tion-2064-4160

    "There is a much higher density of the 2A receptor in cortical regions compared with the 1A receptor. The 1A receptor has a particularly high expression in areas like the hippocampus that’s part of the limbic system."

    "In contrast, cognitive flexibility is thought to be modulated by the 5-HT2A receptor. And there is evidence that stimulation of the 5-HT2A receptor with agonists such as LSD and psilocybin enhance cognitive flexibility and can improve creative thinking."



    https://burgundyzine.com/5-ht2a-from...to-psychiatry/

    "Interestingly, however, the International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology study found 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C agonists (blocking/inhibiting those receptors) were successful in reducing compulsive behavior."

    "There’s a lot of evidence to suggest 5-HT2A is tied to mental wellbeing."
    Last edited by Petter; Yesterday at 10:17 AM.

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    calmness, contentment <--> serotonin (high medium or balanced)

    tension, nervousness (or fear) <--> serotonin (low high)
    anger <--> serotonin (low)

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    serotonin 2 <--> problem-solving (which is indirectly related to a threat)

    sadness: pessimism ---> serotonin 2 (low) ---> dopamine (low) and noradrenaline (low)

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