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Thread: The Manifesto Project

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    Enlightened Hedonist Subteigh's Avatar
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    Default The Manifesto Project

    There's this project called The Manifesto Project.

    If you create a free account, you can download their spreadsheet which scores all the various party manifestoes they have on record for many countries based on their policies, but also by how left or right wing they are, amongst other metrics. You should also download the Codebook if you are interested.

    I made a composite score of issues important to me which I then weighted by importance ("Environmental Protection", "Anti-Growth Economy", and "Democracy" were the joint most important ones). If you want to do something similar, maybe I could give you some tips.

    @khcs was quite right, the Democrats in the USA are quite left-wing, at least judging by their score for 2016 (the database doesn't have the 2020 election yet) (a 'rile' score of -20.578 - only the manifestoes of 1952, 1980, and 1972 scored higher): https://www.the16types.info/vbulleti...=1#post1416889

     
    The 18 issues I used for my weighting:
    1) Military (weighting of 7.5)
    Composed of two metrics:
    per104 reversed (lower scores I considered better) + per105

    per104 Military: Positive
    The importance of external security and defence. May include statements concerning:•The need to maintain or increase military expenditure;•The need to secure adequate manpower in the military;•The need to modernise armed forces and improve military strength;•The need for rearmament and self-defence;•The need to keep military treaty obligations.

    per105 Military: Negative
    Negative references to the military or use of military power to solve conflicts. References to the ‘evils of war’. May include references to:•Decreasing military expenditures;•Disarmament;•Reduced or abolished conscription

    2) Peace (weighting of 7.5)

    per106 Peace
    Any declaration of belief in peace and peaceful means of solving crises– absent reference to the military. May include:•Peace as a general goal;•Desirability of countries joining in negotiations with hostile countries;•Ending wars in order to establish peace.

    3) Internationalism (weighting of 7.5)
    Composed of two metrics:
    per107 + per109 reversed (lower scores I considered better)
    (I actually made a mistake and forgot the per109 aspect so may re-do my scores when I have time).

    per107 Internationalism: Positive
    Need for international co-operation, including co-operation with specific countries other than those coded in 101. May also include references to the:•Need for aid to developing countries;•Need for world planning of resources;•Support for global governance;•Need for international courts;•Support for UN or other international organisations.

    per109 Internationalism: Negative
    Negative references to international co-operation. Favourable mentions of national independence and sovereignty with regard to the manifesto country’s foreign policy, isolation and/or unilateralism as opposed to internationalism.

    4) Democracy (weighting of 10)

    per202 Democracy
    Favourable mentions of democracy as the “only game in town”. General support for the manifesto country’s democracy. May also include:•Democracy as method or goal in national, international or other organisations (e.g. labour unions, political parties etc.);•The need for the involvement of all citizens in political decision-making;•Support for either direct or representative democracy;•Support for parts of democratic regimes (rule of law, division of powers, independence of courts etc.).

    5) Decentralization (weighting of 5)
    Composed of two metrics:
    per301 + per302 reversed (lower scores I considered better)

    per301 Decentralization
    Support for federalism or decentralisation of political and/or economic power. May include:•Favourable mentions of the territorial subsidiary principle;•More autonomy for any sub-national level in policy making and/or economics, including municipalities;•Support for the continuation and importance of local and regional customs and symbols and/or deference to local expertise;•Favourable mentions of special consideration for sub-national areas.

    per302 Centralisation
    General opposition to political decision-making at lower political levels. Support for unitary government and for more centralisation in political and administrative procedures

    6) Market Regulation (weighting of 7.5)
    per403 Market Regulation
    Support for policies designed to create a fair and open economic market. May include:•Calls for increased consumer protection;•Increasing economic competition by preventing monopolies and other actions disrupting the functioning of the market;•Defence of small businesses against disruptive powers of big businesses;•Social market economy.

    7) Protectionism (weighting of 7.5)
    Composed of two metrics:
    per406 reversed (lower scores I considered better) + per407

    per406 Protectionism: Positive
    Favourable mentions of extending or maintaining the protection of internal markets (by the manifesto or other countries). Measures may include:•Tariffs;•Quota restrictions;•Export subsidies.

    per407 Protectionism: Negative
    Support for the concept of free trade and open markets. Call for abolishing all means of market protection (in the manifesto or any other country).
    8) Keynesian Demand Management (weighting of 7.5)

    per409 Keynesian Demand Management
    Favourable mentions of demand side oriented economic policies (assistance to consumers rather than businesses). Particularly includes increase private demand through •Increasing public demand;•Increasing social expenditures. May also include:•Stabilisation in the face of depression;•Government stimulus plans in the face of economic crises.

    9) Technology and Infrastructure (weighting of 7.5)

    per411 Technology and Infrastructure: Positive
    Importance of modernisation of industry and updated methods of transport and communication. May include:•Importance of science and technological developments in industry;•Need for training and research within the economy (This does not imply education in general (see category 506);•Calls for public spending on infrastructure such as roads and bridges;•Support for public spending on technological infrastructure (e.g.: broadband internet, etc.)

    10) Anti-Growth Economy (weighting of 10)

    per416 Anti-Growth Economy: Positive
    Favourable mentions of anti-growth politics. Rejection of the idea that all growth is good growth. Opposition to growth that causes environmental or societal harm. Call for sustainable economic development.
    Note: This category was not used for Austria 1945-1979, for Australia, Japan and the United States up to 1980; for Belgium, Ireland, The Netherlands and New Zealand up to 1981; for Italy and Britain up to1983; for Denmark, Luxembourg and Israel up to 1984; for Canada, France and Sweden up to 1988; and for Norway up to 1989. Test codings, however, have shown that parties before the beginning of the1990s hardly ever advocated anti-growth policies.

    11) Environmental Protection (weighting of 10)

    per501 Environmental Protection
    General policies in favour of protecting the environment, fighting climate change, and other “green” policies. For instance:•General preservation of natural resources;•Preservation of countryside, forests, etc.;•Protection of national parks;•Animal rights.

    12) Culture (weighting of 5)

    per502 Culture: Positive
    Need for state funding of cultural and leisure facilities including arts and sport. May include:•The need to fund museums, art galleries, libraries etc.;•The need to encourage cultural mass media and worthwhile leisure activities, such as public sport clubs.

    13) Equality (weighting of 5)

    per503 Equality: Positive
    Concept of social justice and the need for fair treatment of all people. This may include:•Special protection for underprivileged social groups;•Removal of class barriers;•Need for fair distribution of resources;•The end of discrimination (e.g. racial or sexual discrimination).

    14) Welfare (weighting of 7.5)

    Composed of two metrics:
    per504 + per505 reversed (lower scores I considered better)

    per504 Welfare State Expansion
    Favourable mentions of need to introduce, maintain or expand any public social service or social security scheme. This includes, for ex-ample, government funding of:•Health care•Child care•Elder care and pensions•Social housing
    Note: This category excludes education.

    per505 Welfare State Limitation
    Limiting state expenditures on social services or social security. Favourable mentions of the social subsidiary principle (i.e. private care before state care);

    15) Education (weighting of 5)
    Composed of two metrics:
    per506 + per507 reversed (lower scores I considered better)

    per506 Education Expansion
    Need to expand and/or improve educational provision at all levels.
    Note: This excludes technical training which is coded under 411.

    per507 Education Limitation
    Limiting state expenditure on education. May include:•The introduction or expansion of study fees at all educational levels•Increasing the number of private schools.

    16) Nationalism (weighting of 7.5)
    Composed of two metrics:
    per601 reversed (lower scores I considered better) + per602

    per601 National Way of Life: Positive
    Favourable mentions of the manifesto country’s nation, history, and general appeals. May include:•Support for established national ideas;•General appeals to pride of citizenship;•Appeals to patriotism;•Appeals to nationalism;•Suspension of some freedoms in order to protect the state against subversion.

    per602 National Way of Life: Negative
    Unfavourable mentions of the manifesto country’s nation and history. May include:•Opposition to patriotism;•Opposition to nationalism;•Opposition to the existing national state, national pride, and national ideas.

    17) Traditional Morality (weighting of 7.5)

    Composed of two metrics:
    per603 reversed (lower scores I considered better) + per604

    per603 Traditional Morality: Positive
    Favourable mentions of traditional and/or religious moral values. May include:•Prohibition, censorship and suppression of immorality and unseemly behaviour;•Maintenance and stability of the traditional family as a value;•Support for the role of religious institutions in state and society.

    per604 Traditional Morality: Negative
    Opposition to traditional and/or religious moral values. May include:•Support for divorce, abortion etc.;•General support for modern family composition;•Calls for the separation of church and state.

    18) Law and Order (weighting of 7.5)
    The reverse of per605.

    per605 Law and Order: Positive
    Favourable mentions of strict law enforcement, and tougher actions against domestic crime. Only refers to the enforcement of the status quo of the manifesto country’s law code. May include:•Increasing support and resources for the police;•Tougher attitudes in courts;•Importance of internal security


    Seemingly the manifesto I give the highest rating that is in English is the 2017 manifesto of the Green Party of England and Wales (direct pdf file link).
    Last edited by Subteigh; 11-07-2020 at 08:41 PM.

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    How I would have voted in every American election in the 1920-2016 period, albeit on one weighting of my current priorities:

    The "Overall Score" is a ranked out of 1 of all party manifestoes in the database.

    Election year Party Overall Score
    1920 Democratic Party 0.560
    1924 La Follette Progressive Party 0.773
    1928 Democratic Party 0.658
    1932 Democratic Party 0.434
    1936 Democratic Party 0.377
    1940 Democratic Party 0.479
    1944 Democratic Party 0.473
    1948 Progressive Party (H. Wallace) 0.650
    1952 Democratic Party 0.786
    1956 Democratic Party 0.838
    1960 Democratic Party 0.665
    1964 Democratic Party 0.638
    1968 Democratic Party 0.676
    1972 Democratic Party 0.695
    1976 Democratic Party 0.673
    1980 Democratic Party 0.575
    1984 Democratic Party 0.909
    1988 Democratic Party 0.527
    1992 Democratic Party 0.446
    1996 Democratic Party 0.590
    2000 Democratic Party 0.894
    2004 Democratic Party 0.407
    2008 Democratic Party 0.531
    2012 Democratic Party 0.840
    2016 Democratic Party 0.967

    Most likely, in 1924 and 1948, I would have voted Democrat for the presidency unless I was in a state where my votes was unlikely to matter.

    All other parties ranked (for which there is data):
    Election year Party Overall Score
    1924 Democratic Party 0.731
    1948 Democratic Party 0.612
    1988 Republican Party 0.509
    1960 Republican Party 0.474
    1948 Republican Party 0.464
    2000 Republican Party 0.463
    1980 Republican Party 0.426
    2012 Republican Party 0.409
    1956 Republican Party 0.404
    1944 Republican Party 0.379
    1972 Republican Party 0.379
    1976 Republican Party 0.375
    2016 Republican Party 0.373
    1992 Republican Party 0.347
    1952 Republican Party 0.329
    1936 Republican Party 0.327
    1928 Republican Party 0.309
    1932 Republican Party 0.309
    1984 Republican Party 0.275
    2008 Republican Party 0.265
    1924 Republican Party 0.244
    1968 Republican Party 0.242
    1996 Republican Party 0.223
    2004 Republican Party 0.215
    1920 Republican Party 0.203
    1940 Republican Party 0.184
    1964 Republican Party 0.142
    1948 State’s Rights Party 0.034
    Last edited by Subteigh; 11-07-2020 at 03:10 PM.

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    For the UK:

    Election year Party Overall Score
    1945 Labour Party 0.572
    1950 Labour Party 0.643
    1951 Liberal Party 0.368
    1955 Labour Party 0.789
    1959 Conservative Party 0.727
    1964 Liberal Party 0.849
    1966 Labour Party 0.568
    1970 Labour Party 0.577
    1974 (Feb) Conservative Party 0.524
    1974 (Oct) Labour Party 0.611
    1979 Liberal Party 0.873
    1983 Labour Party 0.928
    1987 Liberal Party & SDP alliance 0.735
    1992 Labour Party 0.932
    1997 Liberal Democrats 0.770
    2001 Labour Party 0.666
    1905 Liberal Democrats 0.779
    2010 Liberal Democrats 0.643
    2015 Green Party of England and Wales 0.985
    2017 Green Party of England and Wales 0.995
    2019 Green Party of England and Wales 0.974

    The Green Party aren't strictly a national party so I could alternatively have put Liberal Democrats for 2015 and 2017 and Labour for 2019.

    I have decided as a result that I will vote Green where possible, otherwise Liberal Democrat, otherwise Labour (it isn't always possible to vote Green or Liberal Democrat in local elections). I wouldn't have voted for Labour in 2019 under Jeremy Corbyn however.
    Last edited by Subteigh; 11-07-2020 at 05:02 PM.

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    The parties that score highest for me in 53 countries, based on the most recent election in the database for the respective country:
    country Election year Party Overall Score
    Spain 2019 United Left 0.998
    Slovenia 2018 The Left 0.997
    Norway 2017 Liberal Party 0.996
    Luxembourg 2013 The Greens 0.995
    Belgium 2019 Workers' Party of Belgium 0.984
    Czech Republic 2017 Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia 0.983
    Greece 2015 Coalition of the Radical Left 0.979
    Iceland 2017 Bright Future 0.978
    Hungary 2014 Democratic Coalition 0.977
    Austria 2017 The Greens 0.976
    Ireland 2016 Green Party 0.975
    Australia 2016 Australian Greens 0.974
    United Kingdom 2019 Green Party of England and Wales 0.974
    Netherlands 2017 Green Left 0.972
    Japan 2014 Social Democratic Party 0.967
    United States 2016 Democratic Party 0.967
    Turkey 2018 Republican People’s Party 0.965
    Finland 2019 Finnish Social Democrats 0.962
    Italy 2018 Free and Equal 0.960
    France 2017 Indomitable France 0.956
    Portugal 2015 Left Bloc 0.954
    Canada 2015 Liberal Party of Canada 0.952
    Switzerland 2019 Swiss Labour Party 0.944
    Sweden 2018 Left Party 0.942
    Lithuania 2016 Liberal Movement 0.937
    New Zealand 2017 New Zealand Labour Party 0.936
    Israel 2015 There is a Future 0.913
    North Macedonia 2016 Social-Democratic League of Macedonia & Democratic Union for Integration coalition 0.906
    Poland 2015 Civic Platform 0.897
    Mexico 2018 Alliance for Change 0.888
    Croatia 2016 People's coalition 0.882
    Malta 1996 Labour Party 0.876
    Cyprus 2016 Movement of Ecologists - Citizens' Cooperation 0.864
    Serbia 2016 For a just Serbia (DS, Nova, DSHV, ZZS) 0.836
    Georgia 2016 Georgian Dream - Democratic Georgia 0.828
    Montenegro 2016 Key Coalition 0.818
    Slovakia 2016 Ordinary People and Independent Personalities 0.817
    South Korea 2016 Justice Party 0.808
    Estonia 2015 Estonian Center Party 0.796
    Bosnia-Herzegovina 2018 Social Democratic Party of Bosnia and Herzegovina 0.749
    Moldova 2014 Liberal Party 0.736
    Romania 2016 People's Movement Party 0.727
    Denmark 2015 Red-Green Unity List 0.712
    Belarus 1995 Party of Women ‘Nadzeja’ 0.677
    Albania 2001 Social Democratic Party of Albania 0.675
    South Africa 2014 African National Congress 0.642
    Bulgaria 2017 Citizens for European Development of Bulgaria 0.631
    Ukraine 2012 Party of Regions 0.618
    Armenia 2012 Republican Party of Armenia 0.579
    Latvia 2018 Development/For! 0.560
    Azerbaijan 2000 New Azerbaijan Party 0.507
    Russia 2011 Just Russia 0.499
    Sri Lanka 1977 Sri Lanka Freedom Party 0.466

    This doesn't ignore parties that are only regional parties.
    Last edited by Subteigh; 11-07-2020 at 05:03 PM.

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    @Subteigh, weird that you have Civic Platform for Poland but not The Left instead (yes, The Left is way more leftist and way more liberal in social cases). Idk about other countries. Maybe it's because data is not up-to-date (The Left was formed in 2019).

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    Quote Originally Posted by Duschia View Post
    @Subteigh, weird that you have Civic Platform for Poland but not The Left instead (yes, The Left is way more leftist and way more liberal in social cases). Idk about other countries. Maybe it's because data is not up-to-date (The Left was formed in 2019).
    Yeah, 2015 is the most recent Polish election they have data for. I supposedly give Polish Peasants' Party a score of 0.756, Modern a score of 0.732 and the United Left a score of 0.684. The best on "Environmental Protection" + "Anti-Growth Economy" (which in the codebook, are defined in quite pro-environmental ways) was Modern, however.

    edit: revised scores

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    The 18 issues I used for my weighting:
    1) Military (weighting of 7.5)
    Composed of two metrics:
    per104 reversed (lower scores I considered better) + per105

    per104 Military: Positive
    The importance of external security and defence. May include statements concerning:•The need to maintain or increase military expenditure;•The need to secure adequate manpower in the military;•The need to modernise armed forces and improve military strength;•The need for rearmament and self-defence;•The need to keep military treaty obligations.

    per105 Military: Negative
    Negative references to the military or use of military power to solve conflicts. References to the ‘evils of war’. May include references to:•Decreasing military expenditures;•Disarmament;•Reduced or abolished conscription

    2) Peace (weighting of 7.5)

    per106 Peace
    Any declaration of belief in peace and peaceful means of solving crises– absent reference to the military. May include:•Peace as a general goal;•Desirability of countries joining in negotiations with hostile countries;•Ending wars in order to establish peace.

    3) Internationalism (weighting of 7.5)
    Composed of two metrics:
    per107 + per109 reversed (lower scores I considered better)
    (I actually made a mistake and forgot the per109 aspect so may re-do my scores when I have time).

    per107 Internationalism: Positive
    Need for international co-operation, including co-operation with specific countries other than those coded in 101. May also include references to the:•Need for aid to developing countries;•Need for world planning of resources;•Support for global governance;•Need for international courts;•Support for UN or other international organisations.

    per109 Internationalism: Negative
    Negative references to international co-operation. Favourable mentions of national independence and sovereignty with regard to the manifesto country’s foreign policy, isolation and/or unilateralism as opposed to internationalism.

    4) Democracy (weighting of 10)

    per202 Democracy
    Favourable mentions of democracy as the “only game in town”. General support for the manifesto country’s democracy. May also include:•Democracy as method or goal in national, international or other organisations (e.g. labour unions, political parties etc.);•The need for the involvement of all citizens in political decision-making;•Support for either direct or representative democracy;•Support for parts of democratic regimes (rule of law, division of powers, independence of courts etc.).

    5) Decentralization (weighting of 5)
    Composed of two metrics:
    per301 + per302 reversed (lower scores I considered better)

    per301 Decentralization
    Support for federalism or decentralisation of political and/or economic power. May include:•Favourable mentions of the territorial subsidiary principle;•More autonomy for any sub-national level in policy making and/or economics, including municipalities;•Support for the continuation and importance of local and regional customs and symbols and/or deference to local expertise;•Favourable mentions of special consideration for sub-national areas.

    per302 Centralisation
    General opposition to political decision-making at lower political levels. Support for unitary government and for more centralisation in political and administrative procedures

    6) Market Regulation (weighting of 7.5)
    per403 Market Regulation
    Support for policies designed to create a fair and open economic market. May include:•Calls for increased consumer protection;•Increasing economic competition by preventing monopolies and other actions disrupting the functioning of the market;•Defence of small businesses against disruptive powers of big businesses;•Social market economy.

    7) Protectionism (weighting of 7.5)
    Composed of two metrics:
    per406 reversed (lower scores I considered better) + per407

    per406 Protectionism: Positive
    Favourable mentions of extending or maintaining the protection of internal markets (by the manifesto or other countries). Measures may include:•Tariffs;•Quota restrictions;•Export subsidies.

    per407 Protectionism: Negative
    Support for the concept of free trade and open markets. Call for abolishing all means of market protection (in the manifesto or any other country).

    8) Keynesian Demand Management (weighting of 7.5)

    per409 Keynesian Demand Management
    Favourable mentions of demand side oriented economic policies (assistance to consumers rather than businesses). Particularly includes increase private demand through •Increasing public demand;•Increasing social expenditures. May also include:•Stabilisation in the face of depression;•Government stimulus plans in the face of economic crises.

    9) Technology and Infrastructure (weighting of 7.5)

    per411 Technology and Infrastructure: Positive
    Importance of modernisation of industry and updated methods of transport and communication. May include:•Importance of science and technological developments in industry;•Need for training and research within the economy (This does not imply education in general (see category 506);•Calls for public spending on infrastructure such as roads and bridges;•Support for public spending on technological infrastructure (e.g.: broadband internet, etc.)

    10) Anti-Growth Economy (weighting of 10)

    per416 Anti-Growth Economy: Positive
    Favourable mentions of anti-growth politics. Rejection of the idea that all growth is good growth. Opposition to growth that causes environmental or societal harm. Call for sustainable economic development.
    Note: This category was not used for Austria 1945-1979, for Australia, Japan and the United States up to 1980; for Belgium, Ireland, The Netherlands and New Zealand up to 1981; for Italy and Britain up to1983; for Denmark, Luxembourg and Israel up to 1984; for Canada, France and Sweden up to 1988; and for Norway up to 1989. Test codings, however, have shown that parties before the beginning of the1990s hardly ever advocated anti-growth policies.

    11) Environmental Protection (weighting of 10)

    per501 Environmental Protection
    General policies in favour of protecting the environment, fighting climate change, and other “green” policies. For instance:•General preservation of natural resources;•Preservation of countryside, forests, etc.;•Protection of national parks;•Animal rights.

    12) Culture (weighting of 5)

    per502 Culture: Positive
    Need for state funding of cultural and leisure facilities including arts and sport. May include:•The need to fund museums, art galleries, libraries etc.;•The need to encourage cultural mass media and worthwhile leisure activities, such as public sport clubs.

    13) Equality (weighting of 5)

    per503 Equality: Positive
    Concept of social justice and the need for fair treatment of all people. This may include:•Special protection for underprivileged social groups;•Removal of class barriers;•Need for fair distribution of resources;•The end of discrimination (e.g. racial or sexual discrimination).

    14) Welfare (weighting of 7.5)

    Composed of two metrics:
    per504 + per505 reversed (lower scores I considered better)

    per504 Welfare State Expansion
    Favourable mentions of need to introduce, maintain or expand any public social service or social security scheme. This includes, for ex-ample, government funding of:•Health care•Child care•Elder care and pensions•Social housing
    Note: This category excludes education.

    per505 Welfare State Limitation
    Limiting state expenditures on social services or social security. Favourable mentions of the social subsidiary principle (i.e. private care before state care);

    15) Education (weighting of 5)
    Composed of two metrics:
    per506 + per507 reversed (lower scores I considered better)

    per506 Education Expansion
    Need to expand and/or improve educational provision at all levels.
    Note: This excludes technical training which is coded under 411.

    per507 Education Limitation
    Limiting state expenditure on education. May include:•The introduction or expansion of study fees at all educational levels•Increasing the number of private schools.

    16) Nationalism (weighting of 7.5)
    Composed of two metrics:
    per601 reversed (lower scores I considered better) + per602

    per601 National Way of Life: Positive
    Favourable mentions of the manifesto country’s nation, history, and general appeals. May include:•Support for established national ideas;•General appeals to pride of citizenship;•Appeals to patriotism;•Appeals to nationalism;•Suspension of some freedoms in order to protect the state against subversion.

    per602 National Way of Life: Negative
    Unfavourable mentions of the manifesto country’s nation and history. May include:•Opposition to patriotism;•Opposition to nationalism;•Opposition to the existing national state, national pride, and national ideas.

    17) Traditional Morality (weighting of 7.5)

    Composed of two metrics:
    per603 reversed (lower scores I considered better) + per604

    per603 Traditional Morality: Positive
    Favourable mentions of traditional and/or religious moral values. May include:•Prohibition, censorship and suppression of immorality and unseemly behaviour;•Maintenance and stability of the traditional family as a value;•Support for the role of religious institutions in state and society.

    per604 Traditional Morality: Negative
    Opposition to traditional and/or religious moral values. May include:•Support for divorce, abortion etc.;•General support for modern family composition;•Calls for the separation of church and state.

    18) Law and Order (weighting of 7.5)
    The reverse of per605.

    per605 Law and Order: Positive
    Favourable mentions of strict law enforcement, and tougher actions against domestic crime. Only refers to the enforcement of the status quo of the manifesto country’s law code. May include:•Increasing support and resources for the police;•Tougher attitudes in courts;•Importance of internal security

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