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  1. #161
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    Eger, R.J. and Maridal, J.H., 2015. A statistical meta-analysis of the wellbeing literature (direct link to pdf file)
    https://www.internationaljournalofwe...e/view/364/477

    Abstract

    This study employs an empirical meta-analysis to examine the livability factors of wellbeing and assess each precursor’s relative significance. The effect size results of individual studies of existing academic work are pooled by the use of a variety of statistical techniques to determine a meta-effect that yields statistically more significant conclusions and is a more powerful measure in that it has the ability to identify results closer to the true outcomes. The meta-analysis in this paper covers 164 studies and 560 observations published prior to September 2013. After articulating definitions of the central concepts and tenets of the scholarly research on wellbeing, the analysis continues with a literature review identifying recurring factors of wellbeing and the associated correlation. To address the variation in the type of analysis that underlies each study, all studies are converted to an effect size using Fischer’s z and then analyzed under the DerSimonian-Laird random-effects model. The results largely confirm the findings in the literature but also reveal some surprises and suggest avenues for future research. The meta-analysis finds empirical support for the dimensions of living standard, health, freedom, personal and community relationships, peace, and security as significant livability factors of wellbeing.

    Keywords:
    philosophy, public policy, eudaimonia, life satisfaction

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    Lee, K., Ashton, M.C. and Novitsky, C., 2021. Academic Majors and HEXACO Personality. Journal of Career Assessment, p.10690727211044765. (direct link to pdf file)
    https://doi.org/10.1177/10690727211044765

    Abstract
    Self-reports on the HEXACO-PI-R scales were examined in relation to academic majors in post-secondary education (N > 73,000). Openness to Experience showed the largest mean differences across academic major areas, with the Visual/Performing Arts and Humanities areas averaging higher and Health Sciences and Business/Commerce averaging lower. Emotionality showed the second largest differences, with the Engineering and Physical Sciences/Math areas averaging lower and Visual/Performing Arts averaging higher; these differences in Emotionality became smaller in within-sex analyses. In addition, Extraversion tended to be higher for Business/Commerce and lower for Physical Sciences/Math, while Honesty-Humility was lower for Business/Commerce.

    The facet-level analyses provided additional detail, as facet scales in the same domain sometimes showed considerably different means within a given academic major area. In one case, Visual/Performing Art majors averaged lower in Prudence, but higher in Perfectionism, even though both facets belong to the Conscientiousness domain.

    Keywords
    academic major choices, HEXACO personality, openness, emotionality, honesty-humility
    Last edited by Subteigh; 10-23-2021 at 04:56 AM.

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    ┴lvarez, B., 2021. The Best Years of Older Europeans’ Lives. Social Indicators Research, pp.1-34.
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s11205-021-02804-6

    Abstract

    This paper offers new evidence on the life-cycle pattern of happiness. A novelty of the analysis is that it exploits information on the period individuals recall as the happiest in their lives. Data come from SHARELIFE 2008/09, a retrospective life survey conducted in 13 European countries among individuals aged 50 or more. Using this information, I build a longitudinal data set that extends across the whole lifespan of respondents. The probability of living a happiest year in life at each age is estimated through a conditional fixed effects logit model. Results show that the likelihood of living the happiest period in life exhibits a concave relationship with age, with a turning point at about 30–34 years and a decreasing trend from that point onward. Retrospectively, midlife is not perceived as the least likely happiest period in life. These patterns persist even after controlling for usual correlates of subjective well-being, and they are rather stable across cohorts and genders despite presenting certain variability across European countries.

  4. #164
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    Buchanan, K., Aknin, L.B., Lotun, S. and Sandstrom, G.M., 2021. Brief exposure to social media during the COVID-19 pandemic: Doom-scrolling has negative emotional consequences, but kindness-scrolling does not. Plos one, 16(10), p.e0257728.
    https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0257728

    Abstract

    People often seek out information as a means of coping with challenging situations. Attuning to negative information can be adaptive because it alerts people to the risks in their environment, thereby preparing them for similar threats in the future. But is this behaviour adaptive during a pandemic when bad news is ubiquitous? We examine the emotional consequences of exposure to brief snippets of COVID-related news via a Twitter feed (Study 1), or a YouTube reaction video (Study 2). Compared to a no-information exposure group, consumption of just 2–4 minutes of COVID-related news led to immediate and significant reductions in positive affect (Studies 1 and 2) and optimism (Study 2). Exposure to COVID-related kind acts did not have the same negative consequences, suggesting that not all social media exposure is detrimental for well-being. We discuss strategies to counteract the negative emotional consequences of exposure to negative news on social media.

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    Lee, K., Ashton, M.C. and Novitsky, C., 2021. Academic Majors and HEXACO Personality. Journal of Career Assessment, p.10690727211044765.
    https://doi.org/10.1177/10690727211044765

    Abstract

    Self-reports on the HEXACO-PI-R scales were examined in relation to academic majors in post-secondary education (N > 73,000). Openness to Experience showed the largest mean differences across academic major areas, with the Visual/Performing Arts and Humanities areas averaging higher and Health Sciences and Business/Commerce averaging lower. Emotionality showed the second largest differences, with the Engineering and Physical Sciences/Math areas averaging lower and Visual/Performing Arts averaging higher; these differences in Emotionality became smaller in within-sex analyses. In addition, Extraversion tended to be higher for Business/Commerce and lower for Physical Sciences/Math, while Honesty-Humility was lower for Business/Commerce. The facet-level analyses provided additional detail, as facet scales in the same domain sometimes showed considerably different means within a given academic major area. In one case, Visual/Performing Art majors averaged lower in Prudence, but higher in Perfectionism, even though both facets belong to the Conscientiousness domain.

    Keywords
    academic major choices, HEXACO personality, openness, emotionality, honesty-humility
     

    [img]https://journals.sagepub.com/na101/home/literatum/publisher/sage/journals/content/jcaa/0/jcaa.ahead-of-print/10690727211044765/20211009/images/large/10.1177_10690727211044765-fig2.jpeg[img]









    [img]https://journals.sagepub.com/na101/home/literatum/publisher/sage/journals/content/jcaa/0/jcaa.ahead-of-print/10690727211044765/20211009/images/large/10.1177_10690727211044765-table3.jpeg[img]
    Last edited by Subteigh; 10-23-2021 at 04:37 AM.

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    Fisher, H.E., Island, H.D., Rich, J., Marchalik, D. and Brown, L.L., 2015. Four broad temperament dimensions: description, convergent validation correlations, and comparison with the Big Five. Frontiers in psychology, 6, p.1098.
    https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01098

    A new temperament construct based on recent brain physiology literature has been investigated using the Fisher Temperament Inventory (FTI). Four collections of behaviors emerged, each associated with a specific neural system: the dopamine, serotonin, testosterone, and estrogen/oxytocin system. These four temperament suites have been designated: (1) Curious/Energetic, (2) Cautious/Social Norm Compliant, (3) Analytical/Tough-minded, and (4) Prosocial/Empathetic temperament dimensions. Two functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have suggested that the FTI can measure the influence of these neural systems. In this paper, to further the behavioral validation and characterization of the four proposed temperament dimensions, we measured correlations with five variables: (1) gender; (2) level of education; (3) religious preference; (4) political orientation; (5) the degree to which an individual regards sex as essential to a successful relationship. Subjects were 39,913 anonymous members of a US Internet dating site and 70,000+ members in six other countries. Correlations with the five variables characterize the FTI and are consistent with mechanisms using the proposed neuromodulators. We also report on an analysis between the FTI and the NEO-Five Factor Inventory, using a college sample (n = 215), which showed convergent validity. The results provide novel correlates not available in other questionnaires: religiosity, political orientation, and attitudes about sex in a relationship. Also, an Eigen analysis replicated the four clusters of co-varying items. The FTI, with its broad systems and non-pathologic factors complements existing personality questionnaires. It provides an index of some brain systems that contribute to temperament, and may be useful in psychotherapy, business, medicine, and the legal community.

    Keywords: temperament, personality, traits, measurement, neurochemistry

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    Fisher, H.E., Island, H.D., Rich, J., Marchalik, D. and Brown, L.L., 2015. Four broad temperament dimensions: description, convergent validation correlations, and comparison with the Big Five. Frontiers in psychology, 6, p.1098. (direct link to pdf file)
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2021.111266

    Abstract
    Background

    This large-scale (N = 1870) replication effort of Fisher et al. (2015) (N = 190) examines associations between the Fisher Type Indicator (FTI) temperament construct and the hierarchical Big5/Five Factor Model (FFM) of personality.
    Aim

    The original and current studies are among contemporary efforts to link biologically related temperament/personality dimensions with socio-cultural and lexical personality traits. In this context, the current study explores possible links between FFM traits and higher-order personality factors such as the ‘Big Two’ (Stability and Plasticity) and the General Factor of Personality (GFP) and their implications.
    Methods

    Both studies examine possible associations between four broad neural systems—dopamine and related norepinephrine, serotonin, testosterone, and estrogen/oxytocin and Big5/FFM personality traits. The current sample size is ten times larger (1870 vs. 190) and represents a much broader age distribution (13–82 vs. 20–22) than the original study. Similar statistical procedures were employed to ensure accurate methodological replication.
    Results and conclusions

    The current study replicated most FTI-FFM associations reported in the original study, thereby lending greater validity to the original findings. Given the current study's larger sample and broader age range, it extended into three other domains: 1. Improved understanding of dopamine-serotonin based meta-traits in the FFM construct and beyond; 2. Consolidated and expanded understanding of gender-related temperament differences; 3. Explore developmental aspects concerning how associations between biological-temperament and socio-cultural FFM personality traits change with age.

    Keywords:
    Five Factor Model
    Fisher Type Indicator
    Personality psychology
    Temperament theory
    Dopamine
    Testosterone
    Estrogen
    Serotonin
    Metatraits
    Personality development
    Last edited by Subteigh; 10-23-2021 at 04:56 AM.

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    Oda, R. and Matsumoto-Oda, A., 2022. HEXACO, Dark Triad and altruism in daily life. Personality and Individual Differences, 185, p.111303.
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2021.111303

    Abstract

    The Big-Five personality traits contribute to altruistic behaviors in daily life; the degree to which each trait contributes varies according to the recipient. Similarly, factors of the HEXACO model are also expected to contribute to altruistic behaviors according to the relationship between the parties involved. Furthermore, the Dark Triad is another important model of personality structure that may influence altruistic behavior. This pre-registered study investigated the relationship between the traits of the HEXACO and Dark Triad personality models and the frequency of altruistic behaviors measured by the SRAS-DR. Extraversion contributed to altruistic behaviors toward all three types of recipients (family, friends/acquaintances, strangers). Agreeableness contributed only to altruistic behaviors toward strangers, while openness to experience significantly contributed to altruism toward friends/acquaintances and strangers. Previous reports that extraversion and openness from the five-factor model contribute to altruism toward strangers were replicated for a broader range of participants using HEXACO traits for extraversion and openness. Our results suggest that the primary factor explaining individual differences in altruistic behaviors toward strangers is the tendency to be actively involved in the external world, reflected in a person's sociability and inquisitiveness, rather than empathy or the tendency to be fair.

    Keywords
    Altruism
    Personality
    HEXACO
    Dark Triad
    Self-Report Altruism Scale

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    daSilva, A.W., Huckins, J.F., Wang, W., Wang, R., Campbell, A.T. and Meyer, M.L., 2021. Daily perceived stress predicts less next day social interaction: Evidence from a naturalistic mobile sensing study. Emotion.
    https://doi.org/10.1037/emo0000994

    Abstract

    Although mammals have a strong motivation to engage in social interaction, stress can significantly interfere with this desire. Indeed, research in nonhuman animals has shown that stress reduces social interaction, a phenomenon referred to as “stress-induced social avoidance.” While stress and social disconnection are also intertwined in humans, to date, evidence that stress predicts reductions in social interaction is mixed, in part, because existing paradigms fail to capture social interaction naturalistically. To help overcome this barrier, we combined experience sampling and passive mobile sensing methods with time-lagged analyses (i.e., vector autoregressive modeling) to investigate the temporal impact of stress on real-world indices of social interaction. We found that, across a 2-month period, greater perceived stress on a given day predicted significantly decreased social interaction–measured by the amount of face to face conversation–the following day. Critically, the reverse pattern was not observed (i.e., social interaction did not temporally predict stress), and the effect of stress on social interaction was present while accounting for other related variables such as sleep, movement, and time spent at home. These findings are consistent with animal research on stress-induced social avoidance and lay the groundwork for creating naturalistic, mobile-sensing based human models to further elucidate the cycle between stress and real-world social interaction. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)

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    Asendorpf, J.B., Conner, M., De Fruyt, F., De Houwer, J., Denissen, J.J., Fiedler, K., Fiedler, S., Funder, D.C., Kliegl, R., Nosek, B.A. and Perugini, M., 2016. Recommendations for increasing replicability in psychology. (direct link to pdf file)
    https://doi.org/10.1037/14805-038

    Abstract

    This reprinted article originally appeared in European Journal of Personality, 2013 (Mar-Apr), Vol 27(2), 108-119. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2013-13974-002.) Replicability of findings is at the heart of any empirical science. The aim of this article is to move the current replicability debate in psychology towards concrete recommendations for improvement. We focus on research practices but also offer guidelines for reviewers, editors, journal management, teachers, granting institutions, and university promotion committees, highlighting some of the emerging and existing practical solutions that can facilitate implementation of these recommendations. The challenges for improving replicability in psychological science are systemic. Improvement can occur only if changes are made at many levels of practice, evaluation, and reward. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved)

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    van Kleef, G.A. and Lelieveld, G.J., 2021. Moving the Self and Others to Do Good: The Emotional Underpinnings of Prosocial Behavior. Current Opinion in Psychology.
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.copsyc.2021.08.029

    Abstract

    The functioning of social collectives hinges on the willingness of their members to cooperate with one another and to help those who are in need. Here, we consider how such prosocial behavior is shaped by emotions. We offer an integrative review of theoretical arguments and empirical findings concerning how the experience of emotions influences people's own prosocial behavior (intrapersonal effects) and how the expression of emotions influences the prosocial behavior of others (interpersonal effects). We identified research on five broad clusters of emotions associated with opportunity and affiliation (happiness, contentment, hope), appreciation and self-transcendence (gratitude, awe, elevation, compassion), distress and supplication (sadness, disappointment, fear, anxiety), dominance and status assertion (anger, disgust, contempt, envy, pride), and appeasement and social repair (guilt, regret, shame, embarrassment). Our review reveals notable differences between emotion clusters and between intrapersonal and interpersonal effects. Although some emotions promote prosocial behavior in the self and others, most emotions promote prosocial behavior either in the self (via their intrapersonal effects) or in others (via their interpersonal effects), suggesting trade-offs between the functionality of emotional experience and emotional expression. Moreover, interpersonal effects are modulated by the cooperative versus competitive nature of the situation. We discuss the emerging patterns from a social-functional perspective and conclude that understanding the role of emotion in prosociality requires joint attention to intrapersonal and interpersonal effects.

    Keywords
    Emotion
    Prosocial behavior
    Cooperation
    Helping
    Social functions of emotions

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    Tian, L., Alaei, R. and Rule, N.O., 2021. Appearance Reveals Music Preferences. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, p.01461672211048291.
    https://doi.org/10.1177/01461672211048291

    Abstract

    Disclosing idiosyncratic preferences can help to broker new social interactions. For instance, strangers exchange music preferences to signal their identities, values, and preferences. Recognizing that people’s physical appearances guide their decisions about social engagement, we examined whether cues to people’s music preferences in their physical appearance and expressive poses help to guide social interaction. We found that perceivers could detect targets’ music preferences from photos of their bodies, heads, faces, eyes, and mouths (but not hair) and that the targets’ apparent traits (e.g., submissiveness, neatness) undergirded these judgments. Perceivers also desired to meet individuals who appeared to match their music preferences versus those who did not. Music preferences therefore seem to manifest in appearance, regulating interest in others and suggesting that one’s identity redundantly emerges across different types of cues. People may thus infer others’ music preferences to identify candidates for social bonding.
    Keywords
    accuracy, face perception, music, preferences, person perception

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    Rozgonjuk, D., Sindermann, C., Elhai, J.D. and Montag, C., 2021. Individual differences in Fear of Missing Out (FoMO): Age, gender, and the Big Five personality trait domains, facets, and items. Personality and Individual Differences, 171, p.110546.
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2020.110546

    Abstract

    Fear of Missing Out (FoMO), or the anxiety of missing out on exciting or interesting events happening, has received substantial attention over the past years, but its associations with age, gender, and personality are less researched. The aim of this work was to investigate these relationships. 3370 German participants completed the 10-item FoMO scale and the 45-item German Big Five Inventory in 2018. The results showed no gender differences in experiencing FoMO. Younger people had higher FoMO scores. Neuroticism domain, its facets, and items robustly positively correlated with FoMO, while Extraversion, Openness to Experience, Agreeableness and Conscientiousness were negatively associated with FoMO on the domain-level (with small correlations). In addition to Neuroticism, Conscientiousness had consistent negative (yet small) links with FoMO on domain-, facet-, and item-level data. This study contributes to the field by outlining individual differences in FoMO as well as by emphasizing the need to investigate personality-outcome associations on a more detailed level.

    Fear of missing out
    FoMO
    Big Five
    Neuroticism
    Exploratory graph analysis
    Network analysis
    Last edited by Subteigh; 10-23-2021 at 05:51 AM.

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    de Hesselle, L.C., Rozgonjuk, D., Sindermann, C., Pontes, H.M. and Montag, C., 2021. The associations between Big Five personality traits, gaming motives, and self-reported time spent gaming. Personality and Individual Differences, 171, p.110483.
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2020.110483

    Abstract

    The aim of this study was to provide insights into the associations between the Big Five personality traits, gaming motives, and time spent gaming. Nine hundred and eighty-six participants completed an online survey including socio-demographic questions, a 100-item personality test assessing the Big Five personality traits, and the Motives for Online Gaming Questionnaire. Moreover, participants provided self-reported information on their weekly time spent gaming. Playing video games for Escapism, Coping, Fantasy, and Competition motives was each associated with different Big Five personality traits. Moreover, when age, gender, personality traits, and gaming motives were included in a multiple linear regression model as predictors of time spent gaming, lower Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness, as well as more gaming for Social, Escapism, and Competition motives predicted greater time spent gaming. The results provide insights into the associations between personality traits, gaming motives, and time spent gaming. Furthermore, these findings may help understanding conditions associated with excessive gaming behaviour, such as gaming disorder.

    Keywords
    Gaming
    Gaming motives
    Videogames
    Personality
    Big five
    Last edited by Subteigh; 10-23-2021 at 05:55 AM.

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    Sindermann, C., M§ttus, R., Rozgonjuk, D. and Montag, C., 2021. Predicting Current Voting Intentions by Big Five Personality Domains, Facets, and Nuances–A Random Forest Analysis Approach in a German Sample. Personality Science, 2, pp.1-21. (direct link to pdf file)
    https://doi.org/10.5964/ps.6017

    Abstract

    To understand what was driving individual differences in voting intentions in a large German sample, we investigated the predictability of voting intentions from the Big Five personality domains, facets, and nuances, thereby tackling shortcomings of previous studies. Using random forest analyses in a dataset of N = 4,286 individuals (46.01% men), separate models were trained to predict intentions to 1) not vote versus to vote, 2) vote for a specific party, and 3) vote for a left- versus right-from-the-center party from either the Big Five personality domains, facets, or nuances (represented by individual items). Except for intentions to not vote versus to vote, balanced accuracies to predict voting intentions marginally exceeded those achieved by a baseline learner always predicting the majority class. Using nuances over facets and domains slightly increased balanced accuracies. Results indicate that additional variables should be considered to accurately predict voting intentions, at least in German samples.

    Keywords:
    Big Five; personality; voting intentions; voting; random forest
    Last edited by Subteigh; 10-23-2021 at 05:56 AM.

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    Wade, T.J., Auer, G. and Roth, T.M., 2009. What is love: Further investigation of love acts. Journal of Social, Evolutionary, and Cultural Psychology, 3(4), p.290.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0099315

    Abstract

    To determine whether or not love acts have changed since Buss first examined them in (1988) and to determine which love acts are perceived as most effective, three studies were implemented. Studies 1 and 2 presented questionnaires to college undergraduates. Study 3 used an internet based questionnaire and included college undergraduates and individuals from other environments. Study 1 (n =81) sought to ascertain the actions that men and women engage in to indicate love to a partner. Men and women’s love acts were expected to differ. Study 2 (n = 80) sought to ascertain which love acts are considered the most prototypical love acts. The most prominent love acts were expected to be rated as the most prototypical love acts. Study 3 (n = 137) sought to determine which actions are rated as the most effective love acts. The most prototypical love acts from Study 2 were expected to be rated as most effective by both sexes. The results were consistent with the hypotheses. These findings are discussed in terms of prior research.

    KEYWORDS:

    evolution of love, romantic commitment, mate selection, exclusivity, love acts



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    Fisher, M.L., Coughlin, S. and Wade, T.J., 2020. Can I have your number? Men's perceived effectiveness of pick-up lines used by women. Personality and Individual Differences, 153, p.109664. (direct link to pdf file)
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2019.109664

    Abstract

    We examined which pick-up lines that women may use on men, in the context of dating, are the most effective. Effectiveness was defined as success in securing a phone number or agreeing to meet again. We tested to determine which type of line (direct, innocuous, or flippant) was rated as most effective when attractiveness and perceived promiscuity of the women were manipulated. We predicted that direct pick-up lines would be the most effective when trying to pick-up men for the purpose of dating. We also predicted that men would rate the pick-up lines used by women rated high on attractiveness and promiscuity as being more effective than the pick-up lines used by those rated low on both characteristics. Results indicate that direct pick-up lines are preferred over flippant or innocuous pick-up lines, with the innocuous being the least preferred. Further, regardless of the line that is used, once a woman has been viewed as attractive by men, she is rated positively. This study provides insight into the effectiveness of women's tactics for soliciting dating attention.

    Keywords
    Flirting
    Sex differences
    Mating
    Attractiveness
    Courtship
    6. Discussion

    Our findings suggest that direct lines are preferred over flippant and
    innocuous lines, with the innocuous lines being the least preferred. This
    finding supports Hypothesis 1 and is consistent with the findings of
    Kleinke et al. (1986). Our results also indicate that attractiveness plays
    a more significant role than promiscuousness, as indicated by clothing,
    on the effectiveness of pick-up lines. However, as attractiveness and
    promiscuousness were not tested in isolation of each other, further
    testing is certainly needed. Further, Hypothesis 2 was supported in that
    the women in the high attractiveness and high promiscuousness condition
    were rated to be the most effective, although there was no difference
    caused by promiscuity for those using direct lines. The low
    attractiveness and low promiscuousness condition also led to the lowest
    perceived effectiveness scores, particularly if matched with an innocuous
    pick-up line.

    Flippant pick-up lines deserve particular attention. When combining
    the results from the current as well as prior studies on flippant lines
    with research on humour, there is conflicting information. The results
    of research on humor suggest that women prefer men who are funny
    and have a good sense of humor, as it shows off their intelligence and
    creativity (Bressler et al., 2006; GuÚguen, 2010). If this is the case, then
    the flippant pick-up lines (i.e., the funny lines) should be the most
    successful of the categories when in reality, they are not. In fact, according
    to Senko and Fyffe (2010), flippant line users are perceived as
    unintelligent by women. Research on humor also indicates that men do
    not particularly like funny women; instead they like women who enjoy
    their sense of humor (Bressler et al., 2006). These findings suggest that
    men would be less receptive to flippant lines, but this is not so; men
    preferred flippant lines more than innocuous lines in the current study
    (see also Kleinke et al., 1986; Wade et al., 2009; Weber et al., 2010).

    To offer insight on why some lines may be better received than
    others, Cooper, O'Donnell, Caryl, Morrison, and Bale (2007) propose
    that pick-up lines may serve a function besides relationship initiation.
    Users may administer the lines to assess personality and test to see if the
    individual they have selected is worth their time. For example, a
    sexually flippant line may be used to judge how sexually permissive an
    individual is, or how sexually exploitable an individual may be
    (Goetz, Easton, Lewis, & Buss, 2012) by their response. In other words,
    depending on the line choice, the line user can test for behaviours or
    personality traits they do or do not desire in a prospective mate.

    There were some limitations with the current research, one of which
    is that the women used in the photographs were all professional
    clothing models. Thus, the women are not representative of the general
    population. Further, rating photographs and stated pick-up lines is far
    less realistic than being approached by women in real-life; prosodic
    (e.g., intonation) and kinesic (e.g., gestures) communication may make
    a difference in the way the lines are perceived. Support is provided by
    Bale et al. (2006) who suggest that results from experimental work may
    change if researchers perform their studies in real bars, with individuals
    being presented with the pick-up lines by potential mates. Although
    Senko and Fyffe (2010) found that their paper and pencil study was just
    as reliable as a field study, there is always the possibility that real life
    situations might cause different results.

    The reason underlying the effectiveness of direct pick-up lines needs
    to be further explored. Past researchers have proposed that their effectiveness
    is due to a lack of ambiguity. If so, then lines that clearly
    state one's romantic or sexual interest should be the most effective,
    while those that merely indicate interest should be less effective.
    However, stating one's intentions immediately may be perceived as
    being over-eager or desperate, which results in a negative first impression
    (but see Walster, Walster, Piliavin, & Schmidt, 1973). Also, a
    woman stating her intentions directly could lead to a bad mate choice
    since the woman may need to keep an interaction with a potential mate
    going for a short time in order to get him to reveal his true characteristics
    and disposition (see Grammer et al., 2000). Therefore, there needs
    to be further scrutiny on compromises with respect to content, such that
    some forms of direct lines are considered better than others.
    It may be advantageous to investigate one's preference for long and
    short-term relationships, as it may influence ratings of pick-up lines’
    effectiveness. It is possible that individuals currently seeking short-term
    relationships may rate more lines as being effective than those seeking
    long-term relationships. This possibility is based on Sexual Strategies
    Theory, which proposes that individuals relax their standards when
    pursuing short-term relationships and raise their standards for longterm
    relationships (Buss & Schmitt, 1993). Also, some forms of direct
    lines may be more effective than others in some short term or long term
    situations.

    The current study replicates Wade et al. (2009), who examine the
    perceived effectiveness of women using direct, innocuous, and flippant
    pick-up lines on men. Similarly, we found direct lines were perceived as
    the most effective, followed by flippant, and innocuous. We extended
    past work to examine the potential influence of women's attractiveness
    and promiscuousness, as indicated by clothing, and found that attractiveness
    was more important than promiscuousness except when using
    a direct pick-up line. Promiscuousness may have had a lesser effect than
    attractiveness due to recent societal efforts to curtail “slut-shaming”
    (i.e., labelling women as promiscuous based on their clothing choices
    and participation in frequent short term mating). Within this movement
    terms such as “slut” and women's provocative clothing choices are
    celebrated rather than lambasted (see Attwood, 2007; Ringrose &
    Renold, 2012).

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    Want to Hookup?: Sex Differences in Short-term Mate Attraction Tactics
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s40806-021-00282-0

    Abstract

    While a great deal of psychological research has been conducted on sex-specific mate choice preferences, relatively little attention has been directed toward how heterosexual men and women solicit short-term sexual partners, and which acts are perceived to be the most effective. The present research relied on an act nomination methodology with the goal of determining which actions are used by men and women to solicit a short-term “hook-up” partner (study 1) and then determine which of these actions are perceived as most effective by men and women (study 2). Using sexual strategy theory, we hypothesized that actions that suggest sexual access would be nominated most often by women whereas actions that suggest a willingness to commit were expected to be nominated most often by men. Additionally, men and women were predicted to rate actions by men that suggest a willingness to commit as most effective and actions by women that suggest sexual access as most effective. The results were consistent with these hypotheses. These findings are discussed in the context of both short- and long-term mating strategies and mate solicitation. The relationship between motivation, sexual strategies, and sexual behavior are examined, along with the need for research on the hookup tactics and motivations of self-identifying gay, lesbian, and bisexual individuals.



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    Waterman, M.J., 2021. What Does Your Musical Instrument Say About You: Analyzing Musical Instrument Preference and the Big 5 Personality Traits. (direct link to pdf file)

    Abstract

    Personality traits have unique abilities to shine through every action, thought, and belief that an
    individual engages in. These traits, in addition to other influential life experiences, shape all
    expressions of personality, including musical preferences. Past publications in
    psychomusicology suggest that music preferences can be measured and predicted by personality
    traits. The present study expands on these discoveries by investigating what influences the Big
    Five personality traits (Openness to Experience, Conscientiousness, Extraversion,
    Agreeableness, Negative Emotionality) have on musical instrument preferences. 202 participants
    recruited from Amazon’s Mechanical Turk completed a survey on Qualtrics measuring
    personality traits through the Big Five Inventory-2 and musical instrument and genre
    preferences. First, results reveal that individuals who prefer traditionally melodic instruments
    (such as guitar and piano) tend to be higher in Agreeableness and Openness to Experience than
    those who prefer rhythmic instruments (such as bass and drums). Second, this study found
    Extraversion scores to be significantly different among musical instrument preferences. Third,
    this study replicated previous results and found Extraversion to be a predictor of musical genre
    preference. The findings of this study indicate that musical instruments may provide more
    personality correlates than musical genres.

  20. #180
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    Lebuda, I. and Karwowski, M., 2021. Personality of Nobel Prize laureates: Differences across domains and relationship to public recognition. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts.

    Abstract

    Although personality is vital for creative achievement, little is known about the personality profiles of eminent creators from different domains. The role personality plays in being recognized and acclaimed by public opinion is even more overlooked. In our study, we performed linguistic analyses of postaward interviews on a large sample (N = 225) of Nobel Prize laureates (1957–2019) in art (literature) and science (chemistry, economic sciences, medicine, and physics) to infer creators’ personalities. We examined (a) between-domain differences in personality and (b) the links between personality and professional (space devoted to laureates in Encyclopedia Britannica) and popular (the number of language versions of Wikipedia profiles) recognition. When compared to scientists, writers were more open, introvert, and neurotic and less conscientious. While personality was not related to the space devoted to laureates in Encyclopedia Britannica, the number of Wikipedia language versions was not only much higher for writers than for scientists but also positively linked with writers' Openness and Extraversion and negatively linked with their Agreeableness. We discuss the results in light of between-domain differences in personality and in light of the mechanisms of creative people gaining recognition. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)

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    Areal, F.J., 2021. The Role of Personality Traits, Cooperative Behaviour and Trust in Governments on the Brexit Referendum Outcome. Social Sciences, 10(8), p.309.

    Abstract

    We analyse the role of personality traits along with individuals’ cooperative behaviour, level of trust in the UK government and the European Council (EC, the body that defines the European Union’s overall political direction and priorities) and socio-demographics on UK citizens’ voting choices on the 2016 Brexit referendum. We use data from a survey conducted in April 2019 on 530 UK citizens who voted in the 2016 Brexit referendum. We use a Probit model to investigate what role voters’ personality traits, their trust in government institutions, their level of cooperative behaviour and socio-demographics played in the way they voted. We find voters’ choice was associated voters’ personality traits. In particular, voters associated with being extraverted, acting with self-confidence and outspokenness (i.e., agency), and voters’ closeness to experience, to forming part of a diverse community and the exchange of ideas and experiences were found to be associated with voting for Brexit in the 2016 referendum. We found that voters’ willingness to cooperate with others was associated with being less likely to vote for Brexit. In addition, voters who trusted the UK government were more likely to vote for Brexit, whereas voters trusting the EC were more likely to vote for the UK to stay in the EU. We also found that voters with relatively high level of education were less likely to vote for Brexit and voters not seeking jobs were more likely to vote for Brexit than students, unemployed and retired. We conclude that incorporating personality profiles of voters, their pro-social behaviour as well as their views on trust in politicians/government institutions, along with socio-demographic variables, into individuals’ vote choice analysis can account for voter heterogeneity and provide a more complete picture of an individual’s vote choice decisions, helping to gain a better understanding of individual vote choices (e.g., better predictions of future individual vote intentions).

    Keywords: Brexit; personality traits; cooperative behaviour; referendum; vote choice

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    Webster, G.D. and Campbell, J.T., 2021. Personality Perception in Game of Thrones: Character Consensus and Personality Projection. (direct link to pdf file)

    Abstract
    This study examined Big Five and Dark Tetrad personality perception for 56 characters
    from the popular TV show Game of Thrones—and the book series that inspired it, A
    Song of Ice and Fire—by 309 fans recruited from three relevant subreddits. Specifically,
    we examined consensus—the extent to which multiple perceivers (participants) rate one
    or more targets (characters) similarly—and projection (a.k.a. assumed similarity)—the
    extent to which perceivers (participants) see targets (characters) as they see themselves.
    Using cross-classified structural equation models (CC-SEMs), we found that consensus
    correlations were significant for all Big Five and Dark Tetrad traits, ranging from .54 for
    narcissism to .83 for agreeableness (M = .66, SD = .10). Projection slopes were positive
    (range: 0.07 to 0.29; M = 0.15, SD = 0.06) and significant for all traits except
    conscientiousness and open-mindedness. Thus, raters reliably assumed that characters
    were similar to themselves on 7 of 9 traits. Exploratory sex-differences analyses showed
    no sex-of-character effects, but significant sex-of-perceiver effects for conscientiousness,
    open-mindedness, and Machiavellianism; women perceived characters to be higher on
    these traits than men. In addition, women (vs. men) rated themselves as higher on
    extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness, but lower on Machiavellianism. We
    also present rankings for characters with the highest and lowest scores on each trait.
    Broadly, this work is important not only for understanding how our perceptions of
    personality generalize to fictional characters, but also how we use fiction characters—
    and our perceptions of their personalities—to better understand our own social world.

    Public Policy Relevance Statement:
    Fans of Game of Thrones rated themselves and a least one character from the TV or
    book series on nine personality traits. First, fans showed high consensus or agreement
    in their ratings of different characters. Second, for 7 of 9 traits, fans projected their own
    personality onto those of the characters they rated. Consistent with related research,
    people perceive fictional characters’ personalities in the same way they do real people.

    Keywords: Game of Thrones; Personality; Consensus; Projection; Assumed Similarity
    A table I made from the data.

    The Dark Tetrad values seem to be an average of the Machiavellianism, Narcissism, Psychopathy, Sadism values.

    The scores range from 5 to 1, so 3 would be in the middle.

    For Implied Type, the I/E (Extraversion); S/N (Openness); T/F (Agreeableness); P/J (Conscientiousness) letter is a capital if it is not within the 2.8 to 3.2 range, and lower case for everything else except scores of 3 where I use a letter "X".

     
    Character name Book mentions Ratings Implied Type Extraversion Open-mindedness Agreeableness Conscientiousness Negative emotionality Machiavellianism Narcissism Psychopathy Sadism Dark Tetrad
    Arya Stark 1,767 80 EsTJ 4.25 2.85 2.23 3.54 3.12 4.29 3.76 4.76 3.98 4.20
    Jaime Lannister 1,701 65 ESTJ 4.20 2.67 2.27 3.22 2.96 3.74 4.30 4.34 4.19 4.14
    Jon Snow 3,009 62 ENFJ 3.34 3.26 3.51 4.33 3.55 3.49 4.46 4.03 2.66 3.66
    Daenerys Targaryen 1,594 55 ENFJ 4.17 3.82 3.42 3.50 3.69 3.82 4.54 4.73 3.44 4.13
    Sansa Stark 1,524 48 INFJ 2.71 3.62 3.75 3.47 3.70 3.85 3.24 2.65 3.33 3.27
    Cersei Lannister 1,180 46 ESTP 4.28 2.40 1.12 2.59 3.61 4.68 3.10 3.93 4.87 4.15
    Tyrion Lannister 2,932 45 ENTJ 4.12 4.59 2.13 3.84 3.58 4.85 3.89 4.20 4.53 4.37
    Eddard (Ned) Stark 1,367 42 ISFJ 2.72 2.63 3.86 4.44 3.03 2.59 3.77 3.25 2.02 2.90
    Brienne of Tarth 725 42 isFJ 2.86 2.98 3.79 4.48 3.32 2.83 3.13 4.10 2.23 3.08
    Davos Seaworth 676 38 IsFJ 2.54 2.96 4.07 4.13 3.11 3.27 3.59 3.51 2.34 3.18
    Stannis Baratheon 1,125 34 ESTJ 3.25 2.44 1.53 4.63 3.13 3.75 3.52 3.62 3.49 3.59
    Catelyn Stark 1,229 31 EnTJ 3.39 3.08 2.45 4.03 3.84 3.72 3.44 2.88 3.45 3.45
    Petyr Baelish 676 28 ENTJ 3.51 4.04 1.58 3.82 2.14 4.90 3.86 3.98 4.48 4.30
    Barristan Selmy 560 27 eSFJ 3.04 2.28 3.91 4.72 2.69 3.06 3.85 3.85 2.31 3.27
    Sandor Clegane 579 24 iSTJ 2.99 2.11 1.69 3.36 3.51 3.14 2.99 4.47 4.40 3.75
    Bran Stark 1,439 23 INFj 2.78 3.55 3.67 3.01 3.35 2.71 3.25 3.03 2.55 2.88
    Theon Greyjoy 999 23 ESTP 3.23 2.54 1.87 2.35 4.07 3.74 2.61 3.57 4.00 3.48
    Tywin Lannister 681 21 ESTJ 3.62 2.71 1.33 4.54 2.14 4.52 4.32 3.05 3.56 3.86
    Asha/Yara Greyjoy 364 21 EsTJ 4.70 2.87 2.28 3.94 2.17 3.73 4.17 4.43 4.08 4.10
    Bronn 333 14 ESTJ 3.55 2.29 1.19 3.27 1.64 4.19 3.31 4.40 4.48 4.10
    Euron Greyjoy 253 13 ENTJ 4.38 4.13 1.26 3.33 2.51 4.92 4.79 4.77 4.59 4.77
    Robb Stark 1,162 12 EnFJ 4.39 3.06 3.83 3.83 3.03 3.75 4.50 4.22 3.11 3.90
    Robert Baratheon 905 10 ESTP 4.27 1.83 2.40 2.00 3.37 2.53 4.33 4.37 4.20 3.86
    Jorah Mormont 523 10 IXTJ 2.73 3.00 2.50 4.23 3.33 3.77 3.27 3.87 2.63 3.38
    Edmure Tully 300 9 EsFJ 3.81 2.81 4.00 3.67 3.04 3.41 3.44 2.81 2.52 3.05
    Samwell Tarly 1,140 8 INFJ 1.63 4.50 4.38 3.83 4.38 3.17 3.17 2.46 1.63 2.60
    Joffrey Baratheon 1,042 8 ESTP 4.29 1.96 1.08 2.50 2.75 3.00 1.71 3.33 4.58 3.16
    Varys 434 8 iNTJ 2.83 4.08 2.42 4.04 1.83 5.00 3.79 3.75 3.42 3.99
    Roose Bolton 353 8 ISTJ 2.58 2.58 1.56 3.81 1.50 4.08 3.08 3.04 3.46 3.42
    Maester Aemon 310 8 INFJ 2.04 4.38 4.25 4.33 2.50 2.63 3.83 1.83 2.00 2.57
    Margaery Tyrell 308 8 ENFJ 3.75 3.83 3.33 4.29 1.96 4.58 4.33 3.42 3.54 3.97
    Daario Naharis 46 8 ESTJ 4.58 2.38 1.71 3.38 1.83 3.75 3.54 4.25 4.42 3.99
    Renly Baratheon 534 6 ESTp 4.67 2.67 2.11 2.89 1.78 3.89 4.33 3.39 4.00 3.90
    Lysa Arryn 349 6 XSTP 3.00 2.78 1.83 1.89 4.67 3.17 1.61 2.28 3.72 2.69
    Maester Luwin 264 6 INFJ 2.28 3.94 4.33 4.50 2.17 2.78 3.11 1.89 1.94 2.43
    Ygritte 51 6 EsTJ 4.50 2.89 2.39 3.28 2.28 2.89 3.28 4.33 3.56 3.51
    Olenna Tyrell 44 6 ENTJ 4.50 4.00 1.50 4.50 2.39 4.89 4.50 3.78 4.89 4.51
    Mance Rayder 385 5 ENtJ 4.33 4.27 2.93 4.20 2.40 3.93 4.80 4.40 2.73 3.97
    Loras Tyrell 320 5 ESTJ 3.60 2.73 2.70 3.93 3.00 2.73 3.73 3.87 3.13 3.37
    Melisandre of Asshai 281 5 ENTJ 3.40 3.87 2.47 3.73 2.73 4.40 4.27 3.53 3.00 3.80
    Gendry 271 5 ISTJ 2.67 2.60 2.33 4.07 2.60 3.13 3.07 3.40 3.47 3.27
    Ramsay Bolton 327 4 esTP 3.17 2.92 1.08 2.67 2.33 2.92 2.67 3.83 3.83 3.33
    Tormund Giantsbane 55 4 ESTJ 4.67 2.17 2.33 3.83 1.75 3.42 4.17 4.58 3.17 3.83
    Tommen Baratheon 411 3 INFP 2.56 3.44 4.44 2.44 3.33 2.00 2.39 1.44 1.67 1.86
    Gregor Clegane 369 3 ESTP 3.89 1.33 1.11 2.67 2.78 3.11 3.56 4.11 4.11 3.72
    Hodor 329 3 ISFP 2.33 2.22 4.44 2.67 3.11 2.22 2.22 2.78 2.11 2.33
    Maester Pycelle 290 3 INTP 2.56 3.33 2.44 2.78 2.78 4.22 2.89 2.33 2.89 3.08
    Jeor Mormont 493 2 ENFJ 3.67 3.67 3.83 4.67 2.17 3.83 4.67 4.00 2.83 3.83
    Hizdahr zo Loraq 267 2 EXTj 3.50 3.00 2.67 3.17 1.83 3.17 3.17 2.50 2.83 2.92
    Missandei 62 2 INFJ 2.33 3.83 4.00 4.33 3.00 3.00 2.83 2.17 2.50 2.63
    Shae 47 2 eXtP 3.17 3.00 2.83 2.67 2.00 3.67 3.00 2.83 3.17 3.17
    Podrick Payne 45 2 IXFJ 2.17 3.00 4.67 4.17 3.00 2.33 2.33 2.17 1.83 2.17
    High Sparrow 38 2 ENTJ 3.50 4.50 2.17 3.67 1.50 5.00 4.67 4.67 3.33 4.42
    Khal Drogo 291 1 ESTJ 4.67 1.00 1.67 3.33 2.33 2.67 3.33 4.33 4.33 3.67
    Grey Worm 43 1 ISFJ 2.67 2.00 3.67 4.67 2.00 2.33 2.67 3.67 1.33 2.50
    Osha 30 1 EXXJ 3.67 3.00 3.00 4.67 2.00 3.33 3.00 3.67 3.33 3.33

  23. #183
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    Nook, E., Hull, T.D., Nock, M.K. and Somerville, L., 2021. Linguistic measures of psychological distance track symptom levels and treatment outcomes in a large set of psychotherapy transcripts (direct link to pdf file)

    Abstract

    Using language to distance oneself from negative stimuli (e.g., by reducing use of the word “I” and present-tense verbs) is associated with effective emotion regulation. Given that internalizing disorders like anxiety and depression are characterized by maladaptive emotion regulation, stronger linguistic distance may be both a diagnostic marker of lower internalizing symptoms and a prognostic indicator of treatment progress. Here, we tested these hypotheses in a large corpus of naturalistic psychotherapeutic exchanges between clients and their therapists (> 1.2 million messages from 6,229 clients). In both exploratory (N=3,729) and validation (N=2,500) datasets, we found that clients’ internalizing symptoms decreased over therapy, that client linguistic distance increased over therapy, and that internalizing symptoms tracked fluctuations in linguistic distance both within- and between-individuals. In other words, clients shifted from discussing themselves and the present moment to discussing other people and timepoints over treatment, and this was related to symptom improvements. However, effect sizes for linguistic results were small, and we failed to find consistent evidence that linguistic distance statistically mediated changes in symptoms over time. Treatment efficacy also was related to therapist linguistic distance in some—but not all—analyses, suggesting that changing therapist language could improve outcomes. Finally, clustering analyses revealed that data-driven groups of clients defined based solely on their linguistic distance differed in both their symptom severity and treatment outcomes. Together, these findings provide replicable evidence that linguistic distance is a marker of internalizing symptom severity and treatment progress in real-world therapeutic interactions.

    Classification:
    Social Sciences / Psychological and Cognitive Sciences.

    Keywords:
    Language, linguistic distance, treatment outcomes, internalizing symptoms, psychotherapy

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    Hotchin, V. and West, K., 2021. Open to Contact? Increased State Openness Can Lead to Greater Interest in Contact With Diverse Groups. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, p.01461672211030125.
    https://doi.org/10.1177%2F01461672211030125

    Abstract

    Contact is a reliable method of prejudice reduction. However, individuals higher in prejudice are less interested in contact with diverse groups. This research investigates a novel method of encouraging interest in contact, particularly for those lower in the personality trait of Openness/Intellect, who tend to be higher in prejudice. Although long-term traits are relatively stable, momentary personality states show considerable within-person variation, and can be manipulated. In two experimental studies (total N = 687), we tested whether inducing higher state Openness would affect interest in contact. In Study 1, those lower in trait Openness/Intellect showed a positive indirect effect of condition on two outcome measures, via greater state Openness. In a larger sample with lower trait Openness/Intellect (Study 2), the indirect effect on the first outcome was replicated, regardless of disposition. The findings suggest that experiencing open states more frequently could encourage contact and lead to eventual reductions in prejudice.

    Keywords
    Openness, personality, prejudice, contact, intervention

  25. #185
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    Waiyavutti, C., Johnson, W. and Deary, I.J., 2012. Do personality scale items function differently in people with high and low IQ?. Psychological assessment, 24(3), p.545. (direct link to pdf file)
    https://doi.org/10.1037/a0026266

    Abstract

    Intelligence differences might contribute to true differences in personality traits. It is also possible that intelligence might contribute to differences in understanding and interpreting personality items. Previous studies have not distinguished clearly between these possibilities. Before it can be accepted that scale score differences actually reflect personality differences, personality items should show measurement invariance. The authors used item response theory to test measurement invariance in the five-factor model scales of the International Personality Item Pool (IPIP) and NEO-Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) across two groups of participants from the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 with relatively low and high cognitive abilities. Each group consisted of 320 individuals, with equal numbers of men and women. The mean IQ difference of the groups was 21 points. It was found that the IPIP and NEO-FFI items were measurement invariant across all five scales, making it possible to conclude that any differences in IPIP and NEO-FFI scores between people with low and high cognitive abilities reflected personality trait differences.

    Keywords: personality items, LBC1936, DIF, item response theory

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    G°tzsche-Astrup, O., BrŠnder, M. and Holsting, V.S., 2021. Network or hierarchy? Personality profiles of future military leaders. Nordic Psychology, pp.1-22.
    https://doi.org/10.1080/19012276.2021.1945947

    Abstract

    To what degree do future military officers resemble the traditional hierarchical leadership ideal, and to what degree do they resemble an emerging new kind of network-based leadership ideal? Military organizations are constantly changing in response to pressures from within the organization and surrounding society. Today, such changes exert themselves in novel recruitment strategies for a new generation of military leaders. Previous studies have shown how a new network-organizational paradigm has come to the fore in military leadership and officer recruitment. However, the core requirements of military leadership—remaining calm under pressure and demonstrating an ability to lead others and inspire followership—remain the same. Military psychological scholarship has often focused on subgroups within the military rather than general differences in personality between military and civilian populations. We remedy this limitation in the literature, and use the Big Five taxonomy and a unique dataset consisting of the personality profiles of an entire cohort of Danish officer cadets (n = 190) and a large (n = 1,568) Danish population-representative sample. We compare officer cadets to civilians using a three-level matching procedure, finding that the pool from which future military leaders are selected, the military cadets, are less neurotic, more extraverted and somewhat more conscientious than their civilian counterparts, traits that we theorize fit with the core requirements of traditional military leadership. The results indicate that cadets are no less open or agreeable than their civilian peers, traits that we theorize are related to a balancing towards the network-organizational paradigm.

    Keywords: personality; military leadership; civilian population; recruitment; big five

  27. #187
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    Pachana, N.A. and Baumeister, R.F., 2021. Better Later Than Never: Meaning in Late Life. Frontiers in Psychology, 12.
    https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.693116

    Abstract

    The quest for meaning in life takes on new challenges and directions during late life. This mini-review draws on prior theory to analyze meaningfulness into six discrete dimensions (purpose, value, efficacy, self-worth, mattering, and comprehension) and covers research into how these apply and operate specifically during late life. Limited remaining time, concern with one's legacy, concerns with self-continuity and integration, variable challenges to self-worth, and prioritization of positivity emerge as key themes.

    Keywords: meaning, purpose, value, aging, late life, mattering

  28. #188
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    Fieder, M. and Huber, S., 2021. The Evolutionary Biology of Religious Behavior. Interdisciplinary Journal for Religion and Transformation in Contemporary Society, 7(1), pp.303-334.

    Abstract

    In the following review article, we aim to summarize the current research progress in the field of evolutionary and behavior genetics studies on human religiousness and religious behavior. First, we provide a brief (and thus incomplete) overview of the historical discussions and explain the genetic basis of behavior in general and religious behavior in particular, from twin studies to molecular data analysis. In the second part of the paper, we discuss the potential evolutionary forces leading to human religiousness and human religious behavior, emphasizing the emergence of “axial age” and the so called “big gods” in the relatively recent history of humans.

    Keywords: evolution; behavior genetics; religion



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    Chick, G., Proyer, R., Purrington, A. and Yarnal, C., 2020. Do Birds of a Playful Feather Flock Together? Playfulness and Assortative Mating. American Journal of Play, 12(2), pp.178-215.

    Abstract

    The authors discuss assortative mating, the tendency--important for increased genetic variation--of individuals to mate with the phenotypically similar at rates greater than chance. Influenced by many factors--physical characteristics like height and weight and demographic elements like behavior and attitudes, economic status and education, church attendance and ethnic identity, politics and personality--assortative mating has been considered with regard to having a good sense of humor but never to being playful or being fun loving. Based on a study of 254 undergraduates, the authors examine how these variables correlate with the search for desirable mates by adults and suggest the variables are indeed subject to assortative mating.

    Descriptors: Play, Intimacy, Genetics, Individual Characteristics, Undergraduate Students, Personality Traits, Humor, Marriage, Personality Measures

    Key words: assortative mating, fun loving, mate choice, playfulness, sense of humor, social homogamy

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