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Thread: Model D

  1. #241
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    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3388718/

    The division of cortical visual processing into distinct dorsal and ventral streams is a key framework that has guided visual neuroscience. The characterization of the ventral stream as a ‘What’ pathway is relatively uncontroversial, but the nature of dorsal stream processing is less clear. Originally proposed as mediating spatial perception (‘Where’), more recent accounts suggest it primarily serves non-conscious visually guided action (‘How’). Here, we identify three pathways emerging from the dorsal stream that consist of projections to the prefrontal and premotor cortices, and a major projection to the medial temporal lobe that courses both directly and indirectly through the posterior cingulate and retrosplenial cortices. These three pathways support both conscious and non-conscious visuospatial processing, including spatial working memory, visually guided action and navigation, respectively.

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    Se: conscious visuospatial processing ... ‘where’ ... an object's position in space

    Si: conscious visuospatial processing ... ‘what’ ... object/pattern recognition and a causal chain (i.e. the meaning of the object)

  2. #242
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    Se: conscious visuospatial processing ... ‘where’ ... an object's position in space
    1) "Spatial boundaries" is perhaps a better definition of Se, since it includes size and quantity.

    2) An object's position in space in relation to other objects ... which includes size and quantity.
    Last edited by Petter; 08-03-2020 at 07:24 PM.

  3. #243
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    "Let us imagine a stream of electrons coming from the negative glow; the electric force in this region is exceedingly small, so that these electrons will have very little energy and will be unable to ionize the gas..."

    "Einstein's thought experiments took diverse forms. In his youth, he mentally chased beams of light. For special relativity, he employed moving trains and flashes of lightning to explain his most penetrating insights."

    A physicist imagines an object and perceives spatial relations at the same time. So ILI: Si+ (Se-) etc is incorrect, and ILI: Si // Se with Intuition etc is correct.

  4. #244
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    ILI:

    Si // Se => Intuition

    Intuition => Si // Se

    This means that ILI must process Se // Si without Intuition.

  5. #245
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    LII and SLI prefer allocentric spatial processing without Intuition and egocentric spatial processing with Intuition.

    LSI and ILI prefer allocentric spatial processing with Intuition and egocentric spatial processing without Intuition.

    ???

    egocentric and allocentric.png

  6. #246
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    ILI

    allocentric spatial processing with Intuition // egocentric spatial processing with Intuition

    egocentric spatial processing without Intuition // ...

    egocentric spatial processing with Intuition + CON-mirror neurons // ...

    allocentric spatial processing without Intuition + CON-mirror neurons // ...

    ???

    CON = cingulo-opercular network
    Last edited by Petter; 08-06-2020 at 07:16 AM.

  7. #247
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    https://www.researchgate.net/figure/...fig1_258254997

    http://www.nmr.mgh.harvard.edu/mkozh...ag=allocentric

    http://www.nmr.mgh.harvard.edu/mkozhevnlab/?page_id=618

    "Our central finding is that some individuals use imagery to construct vivid, concrete, and detailed images of individual objects (object visualizers), whereas others use imagery to represent the spatial relationships between objects and perform spatial transformations, such as mental rotation (spatial visualizers). Moreover, our behavioral results showed that there is a trade-off between object and spatial imagery abilities: while object visualizers score poorly on spatial imagery tasks but excel on object imagery tasks, spatial visualizers score high on spatial imagery tasks but poorly on object imagery tasks."

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    1) object visualization (Si) vs. spatial visualization (Se)

    2) allocentric spatial processing (Si) vs. egocentric spatial processing (Se)
    Last edited by Petter; 08-06-2020 at 05:22 PM.

  8. #248
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    https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/...18.2010.539700

    We report two experiments on the relationship between allocentric/egocentric frames of reference and categorical/coordinate spatial relations. Jager and Postma (2003) suggest two theoretical possibilities about their relationship: categorical judgements are better when combined with an allocentric reference frame and coordinate judgements with an egocentric reference frame (interaction hypothesis); allocentric/egocentric and categorical/coordinate form independent dimensions (independence hypothesis). Participants saw stimuli comprising two vertical bars (targets), one above and the other below a horizontal bar. They had to judge whether the targets appeared on the same side (categorical) or at the same distance (coordinate) with respect either to their body-midline (egocentric) or to the centre of the horizontal bar (allocentric). The results from Experiment 1 showed a facilitation in the allocentric and categorical conditions. In line with the independence hypothesis, no interaction effect emerged. To see whether the results were affected by the visual salience of the stimuli, in Experiment 2 the luminance of the horizontal bar was reduced. As a consequence, a significant interaction effect emerged indicating that categorical judgements were more accurate than coordinate ones, and especially so in the allocentric condition. Furthermore, egocentric judgements were as accurate as allocentric ones with a specific improvement when combined with coordinate spatial relations. The data from Experiment 2 showed that the visual salience of stimuli affected the relationship between allocentric/egocentric and categorical/coordinate dimensions. This suggests that the emergence of a selective interaction between the two dimensions may be modulated by the characteristics of the task.



    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4673307/

    The use and neural representation of egocentric spatial reference frames is well-documented. In contrast, whether the brain represents spatial relationships between objects in allocentric, object-centered, or world-centered coordinates is debated. Here, I review behavioral, neuropsychological, neurophysiological (neuronal recording), and neuroimaging evidence for and against allocentric, object-centered, or world-centered spatial reference frames. Based on theoretical considerations, simulations, and empirical findings from spatial navigation, spatial judgments, and goal-directed movements, I suggest that all spatial representations may in fact be dependent on egocentric reference frames.

    [...]

    The current review demonstrates several difficulties and challenges in teasing apart allocentric spatial reference frames, non-spatial mechanisms, and egocentric representations. The examples given here illustrate that it is possible to explain a wide variety of allocentric task effects using egocentric spatial reference frames. The interpretation offered here is of course only one possible interpretation, and it is certainly possible to refer to object recognition as “allocentric” if what is meant by that is the ability to categorize multiple viewpoints as the same object. However, this is not necessarily an agreed-upon definition. Future studies could test the specific predictions made by the egocentric account and control for alternative non-spatial explanations. A clear and consistent definition of the term allocentric will be a key step in this direction.



    https://www.slideshare.net/petemandi...tric-interface

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hippoc...and_navigation
    Last edited by Petter; 08-09-2020 at 12:52 PM.

  9. #249
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    1) object visualization (Si) vs. spatial visualization (Se)

    2) allocentric spatial processing (Si) vs. egocentric spatial processing (Se)
    3) allocentric spatial processing (Se+) vs. egocentric spatial processing (Se-)

    4)
    egocentric/allocentric, i.e. hybrid representations (Se+) vs. egocentric (Se-) ... and allocentric (Si)
    Last edited by Petter; 08-09-2020 at 01:07 PM.

  10. #250
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    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hippoc...and_navigation

    "There are several navigational cells in the brain that are either in the hippocampus itself or are strongly connected to it, such as the speed cells present in the medial entorhinal cortex. Together these cells form a network that serves as spatial memory. The first of such cells discovered in the 1970s were the place cells, which led to the idea of the hippocampus acting to give a neural representation of the environment in a cognitive map. When the hippocampus is dysfunctional, orientation is affected; people may have difficulty in remembering how they arrived at a location and how to proceed further."

    This is definitely related to SLI.

  11. #251
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    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hippocampus

    "The hippocampus is part of the limbic system, and plays important roles in the consolidation of information from short-term memory to long-term memory, and in spatial memory that enables navigation."


    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Place_cell#Episodic_memory


    "Place cells play an important role in episodic memory. One important aspect of episodic memory is the spatial context in which the event occurred. Hippocampal place cells have stable firing patterns even when cues from a location are removed and specific place fields begin firing when exposed to signals or a subset of signals from a previous location. This suggests that place cells provide the spatial context for a memory by recalling the neural representation of the environment in which the memory occurred. By establishing spatial context, place cells play a role in completing memory patterns. Furthermore, place cells are able to maintain a spatial representation of one location while recalling the neural map of a separate location, effectively differentiating between present experience and past memory. Place cells are therefore considered to demonstrate both pattern completion and pattern separation qualities."

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    Se: egocentric spatial processing and/or egocentric-allocentric spatial processing (i.e. hybrid representations)

    Si: "allocentric" spatial processing (i.e. spatial memory) and object/pattern recognition
    Last edited by Petter; 08-10-2020 at 10:03 AM.

  13. #253
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    Si+ anticipation ********************, surprise *******************

    Si- anticipation ***, surprise ***

    This is probably incorrect. Both Si+ and Si- try to maximize anticipation/interest and minimize surprise/confusion.

    Si-

    useful patterns: ********************

    potentially useful patterns: ***


    Si+

    useful patterns: ***

    potentially useful patterns: ********************

    -----

    For example, an SLI can be very interested in history, antiques, medicine, cookery etc. The difference is that he (or she) does not need Intuition and he knows it is useful knowledge.

  14. #254
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    Both useful patterns and potentially useful patterns are about facts, so ILI: Ni Te Si Fe etc does not work. Facts are directly related to observation/experience and memory (Si).

    "Facts may be checked by reason, experiment, personal experience, or may be argued from authority."

    ILI: read facts (i.e. potentially useful patterns ... and some useful patterns) ---> speculate (i.e. Intuition) ---> read facts ---> speculate ---> read facts etc.

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