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Thread: Model D

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    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4926239/

    Humans display a strong tendency to make spontaneous inferences concerning the thoughts and intentions of others. Although this ability relies upon the concerted effort of multiple brain regions, the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC) is most closely associated with the ability to reason about other people's mental states and form impressions of their character. Here, we investigated this region's putative social category preference using fMRI as 34 participants engaged in uninstructed viewing of a complex naturalistic stimulus. Using a data-driven “reverse correlation” approach, we characterize the DMPFC's stimulus response profile from ongoing neural responses to a dynamic movie stimulus. Results of this analysis demonstrate that the DMPFC's response profile is dominated by the presence of scenes involving social interactions between characters. Subsequent content analysis of video clips created from this response profile confirmed this finding. In contrast, regions of the inferotemporal and parietal cortex were selectively tuned to faces and actions, both features that often covary with social interaction but may be difficult to disentangle using standard event-related approaches. Together, these findings suggest that the DMPFC is finely tuned for processing social interaction above other categories and that this preference is maintained during unrestricted viewing of complex natural stimuli such as movies.

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    dlPFC/vlPFC: logical reasoning

    dmPFC/vmPFC: emotional reasoning

    (?)

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    https://introvertdear.com/news/intro...ng-to-science/

    "Finally, a study published in the Journal of Neuroscience found that introverts had larger, thicker gray matter in their prefrontal cortex — the area of the brain associated with abstract thought and decision-making. Extroverts had thinner gray matter in that same area. This suggests that introverts may devote more neural resources to abstract thought, while extroverts tend to live in the moment more."

    ------

    Sensing <--> the external world (SNS)

    Intuition <--> the internal world (PNS)

    The difference between IEE and EII could be esteem needs vs. self-esteem needs.

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    esteem needs: the desire for reputation or respect from others (e.g. status, prestige)

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    "The inner ring: abstract versus concrete

    According to Keirsey, everyone can engage in both observation and introspection. When people touch objects, watch a basketball game, taste food, or otherwise perceive the world through their senses, they are observant. When people reflect and focus on their internal world, they are introspective. However, individuals cannot engage in observation and introspection at the same time. The extent to which people are more observant or introspective directly affects their behavior.

    People who are generally observant are more 'down to earth.' They are more concrete in their worldview and tend to focus on practical matters such as food, shelter, and their immediate relationships. Carl Jung used the word sensation when describing people who prefer concrete perception. People who are generally introspective are more 'head in the clouds.' They are more abstract in their world view and tend to focus on global or theoretical issues such as equality or engineering. Carl Jung used the word intuition when describing people who prefer abstract conception."

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    "rmPFC [BA 10, BA 24 (the pregenual anterior cingulate cortex), and BA 32 (the pregenual anterior cingulate cortex)]."

    "The rmPFC, which lies between the vmPFC and the dmPFC, has unique and privileged anatomical features because of its widespread anatomical connections with many cortical and subcortical structures including the brainstem, the insula, and most of the other mPFC subregions (Dixon et al., 2017). This region has been implicated in various functions such as default-mode processing (Uddin et al., 2009; Andrews-Hanna et al., 2010), far-sighted decisions, where one needs to choose between immediate smaller and delayed more substantial reward (Kable and Glimcher, 2007), and, most notably, cognitive branching, that is, pursuing a long-term mental plan by tracking the values of ongoing and alternative behavioral strategies and switching to the better option (Koechlin and Hyafil, 2007; Mansouri et al., 2017).
    http://www.wikisocion.net/en/index.p...ess_and_result

    https://www.nature.com/articles/nature.2016.19552

    "he embarked on a solitary, seven-year quest to solve the problem, working in his attic without telling anyone except for his wife"

    Andrew Wiles is an introverted "Ti" type and he is "inclined to single-tasking".

    BA 10 interacts with both FPN 1 and FPN 2 (vlPFC etc).

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    https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21930138/

    "A role for rostral prefrontal cortex (BA10) has been proposed in multitasking, in particular, the selection and maintenance of higher order internal goals while other sub-goals are being performed."

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    http://www.wikisocion.net/en/index.p..._irrationality

    "Tend to finish what they started." (Andrew Wiles)

    Socionics Model A: LII

    MBTI: I-N-T-J

    the Myers-Briggs model: ?

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    http://www.wikisocion.net/en/index.p..._irrationality

    "Tend to finish what they started." (Andrew Wiles)

    Socionics Model A: LII

    MBTI: I-N-T-J

    the Myers-Briggs model: ?
    Terence Tao has a leading "Ti" and he is an I-N-T-P (mbti), so there are obviously more than 16 personality types.

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    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b-pKPqQZIBs (Michael Penn ... Real Analysis | Motivating uniform convergence)
    Michael Penn has a leading "Ti" (FPN 1) and he is an I-N-T-J (mbti).

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    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JLLUqruFzvg

    These video game designers have a leading "NiTe" (FPN 2) and they are most likely I-N-T-Ps (mbti).

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    My current view is that a type should be defined by three dominant large-scale brain networks (or subsystems).

    FN/the frontopolar network (active vs. inactive), DAN, VAN, CON 1 (mirror neurons), CON 2 (the ventral stream), FPN 1, FPN 2, DMN 1 (dmPFC), DMN 2 (vmPFC)

    large-scale brain networks 2.png

    large-scale brain networks 3.jpg

    ------

    esteem needs > self-esteem needs + CON 2 > FN (active) > VAN could be an ESE-like type

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    CON 2:

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orbitofrontal_cortex

    "emotional appraisal, altering behavior through somatic markers, driving social behavior"

    large-scale brain networks 5.png

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    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2942083/

    "OFC neurons emphasize value information arising from visual stimuli, whereas VMPFC neurons emphasize value information arising from intrinsic knowledge or satiety levels."

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    https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics...ention-network

    "the FPCN network includes regions of the dorsolateral and dorsal medial PFC, as well as dACC"

    "DAN and DMN are associated with attention to perceptual features of the environmental or stored representational knowledge respectively. The FPCN is active for both attention states, suggesting that this network may play a modulatory role in shifting the focus of attention."



    https://www.pnas.org/content/115/7/E1598


    "The frontoparietal control network (FPCN) contributes to executive control, the ability to deliberately guide action based on goals. While the FPCN is often viewed as a unitary domain general system, it is possible that the FPCN contains a fine-grained internal organization, with separate zones involved in different types of executive control. Here, we use graph theory and meta-analytic functional profiling to demonstrate that the FPCN is composed of two separate subsystems: FPCNA is connected to the default network and is involved in the regulation of introspective processes, whereas FPCNB is connected to the dorsal attention network and is involved in the regulation of perceptual attention. These findings offer a distinct perspective on the systems-level circuitry underlying cognitive control."

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    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salience_network

    "The cingulo-opercular network (CO) has generally been equated with the salience network, but it may represent a distinct but adjacent network or a part of the SN. The CO may involve more dorsal areas, while the SN involves more ventral and rostral areas of the anterior insula and medial frontal cortex containing von Economo neurons. The CO is sometimes also referred to as the cingulo-insular network.

    The ventral attention network (VAN), also known as the ventral frontoparietal network (VFN) or ventral attention system (VAS), has also been equated with the SN. The VAN is commonly defined as a right-hemisphere-dominant network involving the temporoparietal junction and the ventral frontal cortex that responds to unexpected salient stimuli. Some have defined it as a larger, bilateral network that is a combination of the SN and CO, while others have described it as a part of the salience network involving the more dorsal anterior insular cortex.

    In 2019, Uddin et al. proposed that midcingulo-insular network (M-CIN) be used as a standard anatomical name for the network that includes the SN, CO, and VAN."

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    https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics...ention-network

    The dorsal and ventral attention networks are involved in goal-directed executive control processes and salience evaluations respectively, which are necessary operations for the control of spatial attention and the orientation of attention to a specific area of interest. The ventral attention network (VAN) includes the temporoparietal junction, the supramarginal gyrus, the frontal operculum, and the anterior insula. The focus of the VAN is primarily upon allocentric space, or knowing about objects that lie beyond immediate reach, including information about what those objects are used for. The dorsal attention network (DAN) is anchored in the intraparietal sulcus and the frontal eye fields. The DAN includes a focus upon egocentric space to generate sensory-motor information about functions such as reaching, grasping, the “data” that are important for knowing about how to use objects.

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    https://www.diva-portal.org/smash/ge...FULLTEXT01.pdf

    In addition to its role in mind-wandering during rest, the DMN plays an important role in active processes. The DMN is activated in a wide array of tasks, in domains such as autobiographical memory, prospection, self-representation, social processing, navigation, and evaluation (Andrews-Hanna, 2012; Andrews-Hanna et al., 2014; Buckner & Carroll, 2007; Schilbach et al., 2012; Spreng, 2012; Uddin, et al., 2007). Though seemingly disparate these abilities might share the common denominator of shifting attention inward and use information stored in long-term memory combined with mental models to imagine times, places and perspectives other than our own in the here and now (Andrews-Hanna et al., 2014; Buckner & Carroll, 2007; Christoff et al., 2004; Gusnard, 2005).

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    https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprin..._corrected.pdf

    Figure 14. Schematic illustration of a model of scene and event construction. This account places the vmPFC (yellow) as the co-ordinator of scene and, in turn, event construction. (A) The vmPFC initiates the selection of relevant scene elements stored in neocortical areas, which are then (B) conveyed to the hippocampus (green), where they are constructed into a spatiallycoherent scene. (C) Iterative feedback loops between the vmPFC, neocortex, and hippocampus help to produce and integrate the successive scenes that comprise an unfolding mental event (McCormick et al., 2018a; Ciaramelli et al., 2019).

    This simple model is also distinct from the cognitive map theory, which suggests the primary role of the hippocampus is to support allocentric spatial processing (O’Keefe and Dostrovsky, 1971; O’Keefe and Nadel, 1978; Byrne et al., 2007; Epstein et al., 2017; Spiers, 2020). Scene construction, by contrast, emphasises the egocentric perspective (Hassabis and Maguire, 2007; Maguire and Mullally, 2013; Clark and Maguire, 2016).

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    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5787535/

    "DMN plays different roles in memory retrieval ... "



    https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20034547/

    FPN (dlPFC etc): "the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in retrieval from long-term memory depends on ..."

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    DMN

    internal information = personal information (self)

    ------

    CON => social DMN (self and others) => CON => social DMN etc

    ------

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emotio...ation#Amygdala

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amygda...ex_distinction

    "One study found evidence that on average, women tend to retain stronger memories for emotional events than men."

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    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2916029/

    How is the prefrontal cortex (PFC) organized such that it is capable of making people more flexible and in control of their behavior? Is there any systematic organization across the many diverse areas that comprise the PFC, or is it uniquely adaptive such that no fixed representation structure can develop? Going against the current tide, this paper argues that there is indeed a systematic organization across PFC areas, with an important functional distinction between ventral and dorsal regions characterized as processing What vs. How information, respectively. This distinction has implications for the rostro-caudal and medial-lateral axes of organization as well. The resulting large-scale functional map of PFC may prove useful in integrating diverse data, and generating novel predictions.

    brain23.jpg

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    https://www.nmr.mgh.harvard.edu/mkoz...b/?page_id=618

    https://www.nmr.mgh.harvard.edu/mkoz...b/?page_id=659

    The ventral stream does not process spatial information so it is not allocentric.

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    https://www.frontiersin.org/articles...013.00825/full (Expertise and processing distorted structure in chess)

    "Figure 4. Regions of interest in the prefrontal-parietal network as defined by Bor and Owen (2007). Included are four regions: left and right DLPFC, left and right VLPFC, left and right IPS, and the ACC."

    ------

    dlPFC <--> allocentric

    dmPFC <--> egocentric

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    https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/...1111/joa.13223

    "The ventral attention network: the mirror of the language network in the right brain hemisphere"

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    https://www.jneurosci.org/content/36/9/2555

    "The Hippocampus Contributes to Allocentric Spatial Memory through Coherent Scene Representations"

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    https://europepmc.org/article/med/31254750

    "DLPFC and hippocampus engagement for allocentric SWM (spatial working memory) and the vMWT (virtual Morris Water Task) change throughout life"

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    https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29548807/

    Creativity is imperative to social development and the promotion of well-being. Here, independent component analysis and functional network connectivity analysis methods were applied to both resting-state and divergent thinking task fMRI data from the same sample to investigate large-scale brain network connectivity underlying creativity. The results showed that the strength of the connectivity between the posterior default mode network (DMN) and right frontal-parietal network (FPN) was significantly greater whereas the right FPN and left FPN connectivity strength was weaker in the creative condition than in the control condition. In addition, the posterior DMN and right FPN connectivity strength in the divergent thinking task was positively correlated with the connectivity strength between anterior DMN and left FPN during the resting-state. Moreover, the anterior DMN and left FPN connectivity strength during the resting-state was posit ively correlated with the originality score derived from divergent thinking task. Taken together, these findings extend previous research by revealing the cooperation between the DMN and FPN involved in creative thinking during both resting-state and task fMRI and provide insights into the prediction of creative thinking performance through brain network connectivity during resting-state and task fMRI in the future.

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    https://neurosciencenews.com/creativity-networks-8355/

    People’s ability to think creatively is a primary means of technological and cultural progress, yet the neural architecture of the highly creative brain remains largely undefined. Here, we employed a recently developed method in functional brain imaging analysis—connectome-based predictive modeling—to identify a brain network associated with high-creative ability, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data acquired from 163 participants engaged in a classic divergent thinking task. At the behavioral level, we found a strong correlation between creative thinking ability and self-reported creative behavior and accomplishment in the arts and sciences (r = 0.54). At the neural level, we found a pattern of functional brain connectivity related to high-creative thinking ability consisting of frontal and parietal regions within default, salience, and executive brain systems. In a leave-one-out cross-validation analysis, we show that this neural model can reliably predict the creative quality of ideas generated by novel participants within the sample. Furthermore, in a series of external validation analyses using data from two independent task fMRI samples and a large task-free resting-state fMRI sample, we demonstrate robust prediction of individual creative thinking ability from the same pattern of brain connectivity. The findings thus reveal a whole-brain network associated with high-creative ability comprised of cortical hubs within default, salience, and executive systems—intrinsic functional networks that tend to work in opposition—suggesting that highly creative people are characterized by the ability to simultaneously engage these large-scale brain networks.

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    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4410786/

    The present research used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine whether the ability to generate creative ideas corresponds to differences in the intrinsic organization of functional networks in the brain. We examined the functional connectivity between regions commonly implicated in neuroimaging studies of divergent thinking, including the inferior prefrontal cortex and the core hubs of the default network. Participants were prescreened on a battery of divergent thinking tests and assigned to high- and low-creative groups based on task performance. Seed-based functional connectivity analysis revealed greater connectivity between the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and the entire default mode network in the high-creative group. The right IFG also showed greater functional connectivity with bilateral inferior parietal cortex and the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in the high-creative group. The results suggest that the ability to generate creative ideas is characterized by increased functional connectivity between the inferior prefrontal cortex and the default network, pointing to a greater cooperation between brain regions associated with cognitive control and low-level imaginative processes.

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    https://www.frontiersin.org/articles...015.01195/full

    Many studies have assessed the neural underpinnings of creativity, failing to find a clear anatomical localization. We aimed to provide evidence for a multi-componential neural system for creativity. We applied a general activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis to 45 fMRI studies. Three individual ALE analyses were performed to assess creativity in different cognitive domains (Musical, Verbal, and Visuo-spatial). The general ALE revealed that creativity relies on clusters of activations in the bilateral occipital, parietal, frontal, and temporal lobes. The individual ALE revealed different maximal activation in different domains. Musical creativity yields activations in the bilateral medial frontal gyrus, in the left cingulate gyrus, middle frontal gyrus, and inferior parietal lobule and in the right postcentral and fusiform gyri. Verbal creativity yields activations mainly located in the left hemisphere, in the prefrontal cortex, middle and superior temporal gyri, inferior parietal lobule, postcentral and supramarginal gyri, middle occipital gyrus, and insula. The right inferior frontal gyrus and the lingual gyrus were also activated. Visuo-spatial creativity activates the right middle and inferior frontal gyri, the bilateral thalamus and the left precentral gyrus. This evidence suggests that creativity relies on multi-componential neural networks and that different creativity domains depend on different brain regions.

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    https://www.nature.com/articles/srep10964

    The role of attention in creative cognition remains controversial. Neuroimaging studies have reported activation of brain regions linked to both cognitive control and spontaneous imaginative processes, raising questions about how these regions interact to support creative thought. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we explored this question by examining dynamic interactions between brain regions during a divergent thinking task. Multivariate pattern analysis revealed a distributed network associated with divergent thinking, including several core hubs of the default (posterior cingulate) and executive (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex) networks. The resting-state network affiliation of these regions was confirmed using data from an independent sample of participants. Graph theory analysis assessed global efficiency of the divergent thinking network and network efficiency was found to increase as a function of individual differences in divergent thinking ability. Moreover, temporal connectivity analysis revealed increased coupling between default and salience network regions (bilateral insula) at the beginning of the task, followed by increased coupling between default and executive network regions at later stages. Such dynamic coupling suggests that divergent thinking involves cooperation between brain networks linked to cognitive control and spontaneous thought, which may reflect focused internal attention and the top-down control of spontaneous cognition during creative idea production.

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    https://www.decisionneurosciencelab....y_In_Press.pdf (Cognitive Neuroscience of Causal Reasoning)

    "On the basis of cognitive neuroscience theory concerning the functions that comprise reasoning through the use of Bayes Nets, the neural implementation of reasoning according to CM theory would engage neural correlates of counterfactual reasoning, working memory manipulation (rather than pure maintenance), probability judgments and explanatory reasoning to resolve uncertainty. We would thus expect to see a primarily left-hemispheric fronto-temporal network supporting causal reasoning."

    "Whereas deductive inference appears to rely on the left frontal lobes in the brain, the manipulation of spatial objects using action representations is considered to rely on the parietal lobes (O’Reilly, 2010; Ungerleider & Mishkin, 1982)."

    "In summary, the neural correlates of force composition would primarily involve modality-specific engagement of sensory processing networks in occipital, parietal and posterior temporal cortex to support the creation of an iconic mental simulation, with right-sided parietal lobe engagement to support the manipulation or “running” of the simulation."

    "Together, these results indicate that there is a predominantly right-hemisphere network for perceiving causality from physical events, with the parietal lobe being particularly sensitive to detecting spatial contiguity (or inactivation by temporal discontiguity) and the temporal lobe being sensitive to detecting temporal contiguity between events (or inactivation by spatial discontiguity)"

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    mathematics <--> FPN

    physics <--> FPN and the fronto-temporal network

    political science, speculative/metaphysical philosophy <--> the fronto-temporal network

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    https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17558291/

    "These findings, documenting for the first time the role of each temporal lobe in duration estimation within the range of minute ..."



    https://www.nature.com/articles/4001424

    "Our brain imaging results indicate that the human MTL (medial temporal lobe) is involved in sequence learning, regardless of conscious awareness. A person might deny having seen a sequence (‘Sequence? What sequence?’), but their MTL has still detected and acquired the temporal order of events. It will thus be essential for future research to consider the role of MTL function in the early acquisition phase of any learning paradigm that involves an inherent higher-order associative structure and/or events that evolve over time."

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    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3925887/ (Dissociable roles of the hippocampus and parietal cortex in processing of coordinate and categorical spatial information)

    It is generally accepted that spatial relationships and spatial information are critically involved in the formation of cognitive maps. It remains unclear, however, which properties of the world are explicitly encoded and how these properties might contribute to the formation of such maps. It has been proposed that spatial relations are encoded either categorically, such that the relative positions of objects are defined in prepositional terms; or as visual coordinates, such that the precise distances between objects are represented. Emerging evidence from human and animal studies suggests that distinct neural circuits might underlie categorical and coordinate representations of object locations during active spatial navigation. Here we review evidence for the hypothesis that the hippocampal formation is crucial for encoding coordinate information, whereas the parietal cortex is crucial for encoding categorical spatial information. Our short review provides a novel view regarding the functions and potential interactions of these two regions during active spatial navigation."

    As humans navigate they build up mental models of the physical world, which are indispensable for finding one’s way in complex environments and planning routes to distant locations. Previous human and animal studies have suggested that mental models of spatial environments are not maintained as a unitary representation; instead, different aspects of space appear to be underpinned by many different cognitive subsystems and brain regions (e.g., Bohbot et al., 2000; Epstein and Higgins, 2007; Zhang et al., 2012; Baumann and Mattingley, 2013). A prominent example of this representational fragmentation is the distinction between egocentric and allocentric representations of object locations. The egocentric representational system is thought to provide transient action-oriented representations of the environment from the viewpoint of the navigator (for an overview see reviews by Klatzky, 1998; Burgess, 2006). Several lines of evidence indicate that egocentric representations are supported by the parietal lobe. For example, lesions of the posterior parietal cortex are known to disrupt patients’ ability to point to the locations of objects in the absence of visual input (Levine et al., 1985), and neurons in the intraparietal sulcus have been found to respond to visual and auditory targets in a body-centered fashion (Mullette-Gillman et al., 2005). In contrast, the allocentric system is thought to provide a comprehensive and enduring representation of the environment that is accessible from any viewpoint (Klatzky, 1998; Burgess, 2006). In humans and rodents, the hippocampus has been found to contain view-invariant cells that fire selectively as a function of an animal’s location in space, but show little dependence on the animal’s egocentric orientation during active navigation (O’Keefe and Dostrovsky, 1971; Ekstrom et al., 2003).

    Another hypothesized dichotomy within spatial memory is the distinction between categorical and coordinate representations of space. Categorical spatial relationships capture general properties of the spatial layout, referring to broad equivalence classes of spatial positions relative to reference stimuli (e.g., left/right, below/above, inside/outside). By contrast, coordinate spatial relationships refer to precise spatial locations, which can be expressed in terms of metric units between locations (e.g., Object A is located 2.4 m from Object B).

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    https://www.chesslife.com.au/the-sci...-chess-brains/

    https://www.nature.com/articles/35088119

    High-level processing elements may also have contributed to the observed differences. The chunking theory of memory states that the number and nature of chunks that chess experts can hold in long-term memory can be used to predict chess performance. Our results indicate that the activation of expert memory chunks produces focal γ-band activity in the neocortex, whereas amateur players primarily encode and analyse new information, tasks that activate the medial temporal lobe and the hippocampus. It is possible that these structures play only a transitional role during the establishment of expert memory in the neocortex.

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    http://hkage.org.hk/en/events/080714...he%20Brain.pdf (Mathematical Giftedness in the Brain)

    Doing mathematics critically involves:

    • the lateral frontal cortices to support working memory;

    • the temporal cortices (and hippocampus) to reconstruct knowledge from long term memory;

    • the orbitofrontal cortices and the anterior cingulate for decision making, in turn mediated by regions within the limbic sub-cortex;

    • areas of the fusiform gyri and temporal lobes for sequencing of symbolic representations;

    • the parietal lobes for spatial reasoning about conceptual inter-relationships;

    • the cerebellum for mental rehearsal.

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    https://www.hormone.org/your-health-...norepinephrine

    "Bursts of norepinephrine can lead to euphoria (very happy) feelings..."

    happiness

    noradrenaline ... high
    dopamine ... high
    serotonin ... medium



    sadness

    noradrenaline ... low
    dopamine ... low
    serotonin ... medium



    anger

    noradrenaline ... high
    dopamine ... medium
    serotonin ... low



    fear

    noradrenaline ... low
    dopamine ... medium
    serotonin ... high



    interest

    noradrenaline ... high
    dopamine ... high
    serotonin ... high



    surprise

    noradrenaline ... low
    dopamine ... low
    serotonin ... low



    pride

    noradrenaline ... medium
    dopamine ... high
    serotonin ... high



    shame

    noradrenaline ... medium
    dopamine ... low
    serotonin ... low



    ------

    https://www.verywellhealth.com/norep...or-you-3967568

    A somewhat high NE activity level makes you happy, and a really high level makes you euphoric. Many recreational drugs get people "high" by increasing levels of norepinephrine and another neurotransmitter, dopamine.

    ------

    https://www.apa.org/monitor/mar06/pride

    Although Tracy has not found a smile unique to pride, she has found what she thinks is a pride expression that includes the "happy" smile and a unique posture: The head tilts back, the chest puffs out and the hands rest on the hips or raise in the air. It's an expression that emotion researcher Michael Lewis, PhD, a distinguished professor at the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, described in children who felt successful after finishing a task they'd been told was difficult to complete.


    https://www.eiagroup.com/universal-i...embarrassment/

    ------

    https://www.reuters.com/article/us-d...79946320080605

    "Low levels of key brain chemical sparks anger"

    "Serotonin, the nerve-signaling chemical targeted by many antidepressants, appears to keep aggressive social responses in check, Molly Crockett, a psychologist at the University of Cambridge and colleagues reported in the journal Science.

    The chemical’s precise role in impulse control has been controversial but this study is one of the first to actually show a causal link, Crockett said."

    ------

    https://www.hindawi.com/journals/np/2016/2609128/

    "Therefore, it seems that fear and anger are twin emotions that always come together, but fear and anger exclude each other in that they never occur at the same time in the same person."

    "So anger is the vent for fear. Anger is the secondary reaction to fear; if we are fearful, we will also have the tendency to be angry."

    ------

    https://link.springer.com/article/10...99809060-00005

    It is approximately 20 years since the serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) hypothesis of appetite control was formally stated. In that time, evidence has accumulated to confirm the role of serotonergic mechanisms in appetite control. At present, it is believed that serotonin 5-HT1B and 5-HT2C receptor subtypes mediate the capacity for an inhibition of food intake. Animal studies show that serotonin-induced suppression of eating generally preserves the behavioural satiety sequence, which is widely regarded as an indication of the operation of the natural physiological processes for meal termination and sustained post-meal satiety.

    ------

    https://www.hindawi.com/journals/dm/2021/9116502/

    3 prototypical emotions: like (dopamine), dislike (serotonin) and fear (noradrenaline)

    ???

    ------

    fear ---> anger

    like ---> joy

    dislike ---> sadness

    interest ---> surprise

    ???



    interest: vigilance, neutral, neutral

    excitement: vigilance, positive valence, neutral
    Last edited by Petter; Today at 07:06 AM.

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    noradrenaline: vigilance --- neutral --- lack of concentration

    dopamine: positive valence --- neutral --- negative valence

    serotonin: relaxation --- neutral --- tension

    ------

    fear: vigilance, neutral, tension

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