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Thread: Model D

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    IEI

    Fe+ (Fi-) // Si+ (Se-) ... strong (ego)

    Fi- (Fe+) // Se- (Si+) ... weak ............................ extroverted (?)
    _________________

    Se+ (Si-) // Fi+ (Fe-) ... strong (super-ego) ......... extroverted (?)

    Si- (Se+) // Fe- (Fi+) ... weak



    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qkCEGW6aknY

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=36BC6lwmWhM

    Is this girl IEI or ILE?
    Last edited by Petter; 05-03-2020 at 02:02 PM.

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    Si- (analysis) ... ABCD --> A, B, C, D

    Se+ (synthesis) ... '\' + '/' + '-' --> \/-


    Si+ (synthesis) ... A + B + C + D --> ABCD

    Se- (analysis) ... 'A' is on the left side of 'B', the distance between 'A' and 'D' is about one centimeter etc.

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    ILI's Se- (Si+) // Fi- (Fe+) and Fi+ (Fi-) // Se+ (Si-) could be extroverted.
    This is Roger Pearman's suggestion.


    INTJ: Ni Te Se Fe // Ne Ti Si Fi

    ENTJ: Te Ni Fi Si // Ti Ne Fe Se

    INFJ: Ni Fe Se Te // Ne Fi Si Ti

    ENFJ: Fe Ni Ti Si // Fi Ne Te Se
    Last edited by Petter; 05-22-2020 at 05:33 AM.

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    Si+ (synthesis) ... A + B + C + D --> ABCD

    Se- (analysis) ... 'A' is on the left side of 'B', the distance between 'A' and 'D' is about one centimeter etc.
    This could be incorrect, since Si+ does not perceive spatial relations. Si+/- is about temporal-sequential relations. So Se- analyzes 'A', then 'B', then 'C' etc.

    Se+ synthesizes structures/shapes: '\' + '/' + '-' --> \/- ... or A + B + C + D --> ABCD ... Here they are not perceived as patterns.

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    Is this the key difference between Si+ and Si- ?

    Si+ zooms out ... spoon --> cereal bowl --> breakfast table --> kitchen --> home --> ??? an intuitive step (synthesis)

    Si- zooms in ... home --> kitchen --> breakfast table --> cereal bowl --> spoon --> structures/shapes (analysis)

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    "In addition, users of type often forget that inferior or unconscious functions are inferior to consciousness not inferior in strength in the psyche (Jung, 1971 p.450)."

    I think the functions seem strong or weak. High or low mental energy is probably a more accurate description.

    PFC/working memory (logic and intuition) is about actual strength, though.

    -----

    "Once a person is able to distinguish between the opposite functions and attitudes, the next requirement for good type development is that one of each pair become more conscious, accessible, practiced, and reliable than the other. This occurs when a person habitually devotes a larger amount of psychic energy to one of each pair of opposites, using it more, enjoying it more, becoming more and more confident and comfortable with it. This process of habitually favoring one of a pair of opposites over the other results in a psychological preference."

    I don't think "enjoying it more" is accurate. ILI enjoys Se- (Si+) but there is a lack of patience since it easily flips back to Si+ (Se-).

    ILI prefers Si+ over Si-, Fe+ over Fe- etc.

    -----

    "To be clear, extroverts and introverts use both sides of their nervous systems at different times. But which side do we introverts generally prefer? You’ve probably already guessed: According to Dr. Laney, we prefer the parasympathetic side, which slows and calms us."

    ILI is an introvert so he or she leads with Si+ instead of Fi+.

    -----

    There is a difference between "individual life activity" and "social life activity", so four preferred functions make sense.
    Last edited by Petter; 05-22-2020 at 06:13 AM.

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    Is this the key difference between Si+ and Si- ?

    Si+ zooms out ... spoon --> cereal bowl --> breakfast table --> kitchen --> home --> ??? an intuitive step (synthesis)
    I now think that PFC/Intuition must be used in all these steps: spoon + Intuition --> cereal bowl + Intuition --> breakfast table + Intuition etc.

    Why? Because we move from a known pattern to an unknown pattern. So 'spoon' must be kept in working memory at the same time as we recall a memory/pattern or read about something that includes a spoon.

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    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baddel...pisodic_buffer

    "The episodic buffer allows individuals to use integrated units of information they already have to imagine new concepts."


    https://www.tutor2u.net/psychology/t...pisodic-buffer

    "The episodic buffer is one of the components of working memory model. It is a temporary store that integrates information from the other components and maintains a sense of time, so that events occur in a continuing sequence."


    https://psychology.wikia.org/wiki/Vi...tial_sketchpad

    "Visuospatial Sketchpad is a component of Working Memory Model proposed by Alan Baddeley and Graham Hitch in 1974. The visuospatial sketchpad (VS) is the section of one's normal mental facility which provides a virtual environment for physical simulation, calculation, visualization and optical memory recall."


    I think the episodic buffer corresponds to intuition and the visuospatial sketchpad corresponds to logic.





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    It is also possible that the episodic buffer corresponds to Ni/Si+ and the visuospatial sketchpad corresponds to Ne/Se+ (and logic/Ti). Ne sketches, Si perceives a useful pattern and Ti draws conclusions.

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    I am starting to doubt that ILI's supporting Si+ is weak, i.e. Se- (Si+), and question whether Se- ever leads. Also, ILI needs Fe+ as a "social life" function, so I am considering this model instead.


    ILI

    Si+ (Fe+) // Fe+ (Si+) ... strong (ego)

    Se- (Fi-) // Fi- (Se-) ....... weak ............................ extroverted (?)
    _________________

    Fi+ (Se+) // Se+ (Fi+) ... strong (super-ego) ......... extroverted (?)

    Fe- (Si-) // Si- (Fe-) ....... weak
    Last edited by Petter; 06-09-2020 at 04:47 PM.

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    Si and Se are based on the ventral and dorsal streams, but I am still considering large-scale brain networks (DMN, FPN...).
    SLE and LSI: DAN > FPN

    ILE and LII: FPN > DAN

    LSE and SLI: VAN > DMN

    LIE and ILI: DMN > VAN

    ???


    DAN = dorsal attention network

    VAN = ventral attention network
    Last edited by Petter; 06-10-2020 at 06:09 AM.

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    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baddel...pisodic_buffer

    "The episodic buffer allows individuals to use integrated units of information they already have to imagine new concepts."


    https://www.tutor2u.net/psychology/t...pisodic-buffer

    "The episodic buffer is one of the components of working memory model. It is a temporary store that integrates information from the other components and maintains a sense of time, so that events occur in a continuing sequence."


    https://psychology.wikia.org/wiki/Vi...tial_sketchpad

    "Visuospatial Sketchpad is a component of Working Memory Model proposed by Alan Baddeley and Graham Hitch in 1974. The visuospatial sketchpad (VS) is the section of one's normal mental facility which provides a virtual environment for physical simulation, calculation, visualization and optical memory recall."


    I think the episodic buffer corresponds to intuition and the visuospatial sketchpad corresponds to logic.
    It is also possible that the episodic buffer corresponds to Ni/Si+ and the visuospatial sketchpad corresponds to Ne/Se+ (and logic/Ti). Ne sketches, Si perceives a useful pattern and Ti draws conclusions.

    Si+ ... patterns and PFC/working memory

    This is about temporal-sequential connections. A pattern is kept in working memory and added to another pattern.



    Se+ ... shapes/structures and PFC/working memory

    This is about spatial connections. A shape (geon) is kept in working memory and added to another shape. The base (i.e. shape/structure) of a triangle is placed on (top of) one side of a rectangle.
    Last edited by Petter; 06-11-2020 at 02:39 AM.

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    Chess is probably the best example of Si+. Each move corresponds to a specific pattern, and several moves/patterns are strung together.

    -----

    The combination of all pieces (and the board) is a pattern. A pawn/piece is also a pattern.

    A pawn is moved to another square: pattern 1 (the original positions of all pieces) --> pattern 2 (the pawn is kept in working memory) --> pattern 3 (the new positions of all pieces)

    This is not about spatial relations between the pawn and the other pieces. Why? Because we cannot perceive spatial relations and patterns at the same time. The pawn is "teleported" to a new position on the chessboard.

    -----

    The squares are related to each other but they are independent of the outside world, so there are no left/right and up/down. The ventral stream is allocentric.
    Last edited by Petter; 06-12-2020 at 05:13 AM.

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    object 1 + object 2 + object 3 = pattern ... (an object is also a pattern) ... Both Si- and Si+ recognize and memorize this pattern.

    object 2 AND object 4 + object 5 + object 6 --> object 2 + object 4 + object 5 + object 6 = pattern ??? ... object 2 is kept in working memory and added to a new context.

    Si- recognizes and memorizes more useful patterns than Si+.

    Si+ recognizes and memorizes useful patterns and creates new patterns.

    -----

    'America' is a useful pattern

    'track' is a useful pattern

    'Am' is kept in working memory and added to 'track', i.e. Amtrak ... This is a new useful pattern (Si+).

    -----

    object 1 + object 2 + object 3 = pattern ... before move 1 (chess)

    object 2 is a pawn (for example)

    object 2 + object 4 + object 5 + object 6 = new pattern ... after move 1

    -----

    Both Si- and Si+ recognize and memorize objects/patterns, but only Si+ contextualizes objects/patterns.

    -----

    Si+ produces a sequence of patterns, so it is directly related to time.

    Both Si+ and Si- experience a sequence of patterns, so Si- is also related to time.
    Last edited by Petter; 06-13-2020 at 06:43 AM.

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    An object is a pattern, and a combination of objects is also a pattern.

    Se+ changes the shape/structure of an object (i.e. an interaction), and thereby creates a new pattern. Si- (and Si+) then discovers a potentially useful pattern.
    Last edited by Petter; 06-14-2020 at 04:09 AM.

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    These four processes are fed by either Se or Si, so there are eight processes in total.
    I am ignoring Fe and Fi (mirror neurons) here.


    LIE and ILI

    Si // Se with PFC ... strong

    Se // Si without PFC ... weak

    OR

    DMN // FPN with PFC ... strong

    DAN // VAN without PFC ... weak

    OR

    Si // Se with Intuition ... strong

    Se // Si without Intuition ... weak
    Last edited by Petter; 06-17-2020 at 02:05 PM.

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    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cognitive_flexibility

    Research has suggested that cognitive flexibility is related to other cognitive abilities, such as fluid intelligence, reading fluency, and reading comprehension. Fluid intelligence, described as the ability to solve problems in new situations, enables fluid reasoning ability. When one is able to reason fluidly, they are in turn more likely to be cognitively flexible. Furthermore, those who are able to be cognitively flexible have been shown to have the ability to switch between and/or simultaneously think about sounds and meanings, which increases their reading fluency and comprehension. Cognitive flexibility has also been shown to be related to one's ability to cope in particular situations. For example, when individuals are better able to shift their thinking from situation to situation they will focus less on stressors within these situations.

    The mechanisms underlying cognitive flexibility have been explored extensively using various methods. Human studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have revealed a variety of distinct regions of the brain that work in concert from which flexibility could be predicted reliably, including the prefrontal cortex (PFC), basal ganglia, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and posterior parietal cortex (PPC).

    -----

    Both intuition and logic use PFC/working memory.

    Intuition produces/creates new patterns.

    Logic is a comparison between two or more objects. How are they similar or different? (number, size, position, change etc.)

    Logic is directly related to IQ.

    -----

    Cognitive flexibility is related to both intuition and logic.

    Cognitive flexibility is intelligence. (?)
    Last edited by Petter; 06-18-2020 at 09:11 AM.

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    LIE and ILI

    Si // Se with Intuition ... strong

    Se // Si without Intuition ... weak
    I am convinced that Si and Se support each other all the time.

    1) Si+ (Se-) // ... OR 2) Si+ (Fe+) // ... Se- (Fi-) // ...

    This would mean that intuition is turned on and off. Hmm... That doesn't seem right.
    Last edited by Petter; 06-21-2020 at 06:14 PM.

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    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Memory#Working_memory

    The episodic buffer is dedicated to linking information across domains to form integrated units of visual, spatial, and verbal information and chronological ordering (e.g., the memory of a story or a movie scene). The episodic buffer is also assumed to have links to long-term memory and semantical meaning.

    -----

    It is possible that Si+ does not work, so I must use Ni (and Ne) instead. Si perceives patterns, Se perceives spatial relations, Ni creates dynamic patterns and Ne creates static patterns.

    -----

    "contextual patterns" or "causal patterns" is perhaps better than "dynamic patterns"

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    It is either 1) pattern vs. structure/shape, or 2) contextual/causal vs. "static".


    2) Ni/Si+

    frame 1: y..............x..............................

    frame 2: ......y.......x...............................

    frame 3: ...............yx..............................

    frame 4: ....................y...........x..............



    2) Ne/Se+

    frame 1: y z a b g

    frame 2: a..........

    frame 3: ..b........

    frame 4: ....g......

    frame 5: .......y...

    frame 6: ..........z

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    Se: shape, angle, direction, size, length, quantity, weight etc ... '/', '-', '\'

    Si: patterns ... 'A', 'ABC', 'artist' etc

    Ne/Se+: an object (or a geon) is kept in working memory and moved to another position ... 'ABC' --> 'ACB' ... both 'B' and 'C' are moved

    Ni/Si+: a pattern is linked to another pattern ... 'ABC' <--> 'ACB' ... the positions of 'B' and 'C' are tracked

    -----

    Ni/Si+: chess ... a pattern before move 1 is linked to a pattern after move 7 ... there is a "chain reaction" and the positions of the pieces are tracked
    Last edited by Petter; 06-30-2020 at 05:34 AM.

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    Se vs. Si

    1) dorsal stream vs. ventral stream ... i.e. spatial relations/"guidance of actions" vs. patterns/identification of objects

    2) FPN vs. DMN ... and/or ... DAN vs. VAN

    3) dynamic vs. static ... or ... static vs. dynamic (Socionics)

    4) real/analogous vs. symbolic/sequential

    5) C4 vs. C3 ... i.e. gross motor skills vs. fine motor skills

    6) Fp2 vs. Fp1

    7) egocentric vs. allocentric

    8) spatial/"static" vs. contextual/causal ... this is probably the same thing as 1)
    Last edited by Petter; 07-04-2020 at 04:09 AM.

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    Ne/Se+: an object (or a geon) is kept in working memory and moved to another position ... 'ABC' --> 'ACB' ... both 'B' and 'C' are moved

    Ni/Si+: a pattern is linked to another pattern ... 'ABC' <--> 'ACB' ... the positions of 'B' and 'C' are tracked

    -----

    Ni/Si+: chess ... a pattern before move 1 is linked to a pattern after move 7 ... there is a "chain reaction" and the positions of the pieces are tracked
    Ni visualizes a causal interaction between two or more objects. This is a dynamic situation.

    Ne visualizes a static situation. Rubik's Cube is a good example of Ne.

    Both Ne and Ni use working memory and (often) track many objects and many positions.
    Last edited by Petter; 07-03-2020 at 06:52 AM.

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    Si interprets the meaning of visual stimuli and establishes object/pattern recognition. It forms new memories and recall memories.

    8) spatial/"static" vs. contextual/causal ... this is probably the same thing as 1)

    "Cause-and-effect relationships define categories of objects. Wings are a feature of the category 'birds'; this feature is causally interconnected with another feature of the category, the ability to fly."

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    Ni/Si+

    "Episodic future thinking, as we have defined it, refers to an ability to project the self forward in time to pre-experience an event. It may be a distinguishing feature of our species. We have argued that episodic future thinking can hold explanatory value when considering recent work on such diverse topics as prospective memory, the planning fallacy, goal pursuit, and depression and anxiety. Neuropsychological evidence suggests that the frontal lobes constitute an important part of a wider neuronal network involved in episodic future thinking. Its developmental emergence might take place by the age of 5 yrs. The importance of episodic future thinking to human experience and behaviour remains to be fully explored, but glimpses of its potential importance for adaptive human functioning (e.g. positive health practices) can be found in current research."

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    Ni/Si+

    1) Ni/Si+ projects an object onto a "scene". The new pattern includes the object and the "scene".

    2) An object is kept in working memory and moved to another position. The object and the background are visualized separately, so this is like a flipbook.
    Last edited by Petter; 07-10-2020 at 09:57 AM.

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    I used to think that Te organizes objects (work etc) and Ti categorizes objects. But Te (PFC) and Ti (PFC) are dependent on Si and Se, so both functions organize objects and both functions categorize objects. Words that include an 'e' is a category, and 'e' is a pattern (Si).

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    1) Logical reasoning is directly related to intelligence/IQ, so it must be excluded from personality type theory (or the Big Five). EDIT ... It is dependent on Se and Si.

    2) Logical reasoning is included in Se and Si.

    -----

    I am leaning towards 1) since logical reasoning (i.e. Te/Ti) does not change the quality of information.
    This is still my point of view.

    3) Logical reasoning is included in Te and Ti, and independent of Si and Se (Socionics, Myers-Briggs...).
    Last edited by Petter; 07-16-2020 at 01:42 PM.

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    categorization: pattern 1, 2, 3... are unknown, the similarity (i.e. the category) is known

    logical reasoning: pattern 1, 2, 3... are known, the similarity is unknown

    -----

    All men are mortal.

    Socrates is a man.

    Therefore, Socrates is mortal.

    There is a similarity between All men are mortal and Socrates is a man (i.e. men).
    Last edited by Petter; 07-23-2020 at 04:38 PM.

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    Si (and Se, Fe, Fi) is ultimately about control and orientation, so we try to memorize as many useful patterns as possible.

    useful pattern 1 ______ useful pattern 2 ______ useful pattern 3 ______ useful pattern 4 etc. (experience)

    Logic and intuition fill in the blanks. We know that all men are mortal and Socrates is a man. Now we also know that Socrates is mortal. (We don't have to experience the death of Socrates.)

    -----

    A category is itself a pattern.

    dog _ animal _ cat _ animal _ zebra _ animal _ weasel _ etc.
    Last edited by Petter; 07-21-2020 at 07:14 AM.

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    Si and Te

    Cognitive Neuroscience of Causal Reasoning, by Joachim T. Operskalski and Aron K. Barbey

    "Others studies report different cross-hemispheric dissociations of deductive and inductive reasoning when directly contrasting the two against each other (Osherson et al., 1998). It initially appeared that deductive reasoning engaged a right-sided pattern of parietal activation, which would be consistent with visual and spatial representations being the primary mode of deduction (Osherson et al., 1998). However, when using stimuli that are more easily represented using propositional logic than spatial models (or at least an abstract code), another division of labor emerged; deductive reasoning engaged a right-sided frontal and temporal network (specifically, middle temporal lobe and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex), while inductive reasoning engaged a left-sided frontotemporal network (specifically, ventrolateral PFC, dorsomedial PFC, insula, posterior cingulate, and the medial temporal lobe) (Parsons & Osherson, 2001)."

    "On the basis of cognitive neuroscience theory concerning the functions that comprise reasoning through the use of Bayes Nets, the neural implementation of reasoning according to CM theory would engage neural correlates of counterfactual reasoning, working memory manipulation (rather than pure maintenance), probability judgments, and explanatory reasoning to resolve uncertainty. We would thus expect to see a primarily left hemispheric frontotemporal network supporting causal reasoning."

    -----

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bayesian_probability

    "The Bayesian interpretation of probability can be seen as an extension of propositional logic that enables reasoning with hypotheses..."
    Last edited by Petter; 07-22-2020 at 04:44 AM.

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    categorization: pattern 1, 2, 3... are unknown, the similarity (i.e. the category) is known

    logical reasoning: pattern 1, 2, 3... are known, the similarity is unknown

    -----

    All men are mortal.

    Socrates is a man.

    Therefore, Socrates is mortal.

    There is a similarity between All men are mortal and Socrates is a man (i.e. men).
    categorization: the intersection of two sets (or patterns)

    logical reasoning: A is a subset of B ... Socrates is a man is a subset of All men are mortal.
    Last edited by Petter; 07-27-2020 at 10:27 AM.

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    Si (and Se, Fe, Fi) is ultimately about control and orientation, so we try to memorize as many useful patterns as possible.

    useful pattern 1 ______ useful pattern 2 ______ useful pattern 3 ______ useful pattern 4 etc. (experience)

    Logic and intuition fill in the blanks. We know that all men are mortal and Socrates is a man. Now we also know that Socrates is mortal. (We don't have to experience the death of Socrates.)

    -----

    A category is itself a pattern.

    dog _ animal _ cat _ animal _ zebra _ animal _ weasel _ etc.
    Another way of looking at it is that intuition creates/imagines potentially useful patterns and logic (categorization and logical reasoning) defines similarities between two (or more) patterns.

    If a pattern B is similar to a useful pattern A, then pattern B is also a useful pattern.
    Last edited by Petter; 07-29-2020 at 08:44 AM.

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    categorization: the intersection of two sets (or patterns)

    logical reasoning: A is a subset of B ... Socrates is a man is a subset of All men are mortal.
    categorization: we define a similarity between two (or more) patterns through observation

    logical reasoning: we relate some patterns and similarities to other patterns and similarities, and define a similarity between two (or more) patterns via argumentation
    Last edited by Petter; 07-28-2020 at 09:16 AM.

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    Ni/Si+

    Episodic future thinking and episodic counterfactual thinking: Intersections between memory and decisions

    by Daniel L. Schacter, Roland G. Benoit, Felipe De Brigard and Karl K. Szpunar

    "The collection of regions that show similarly increased activity during episodic memory and episodic future thinking – most prominently, medial temporal cortex, medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate, retrosplenial cortex, and lateral temporal and prefrontal regions – have been referred to as a ‘‘core network’’ (Schacter, Addis, & Buckner, 2007). This core network, in turn, overlaps substantially with the extensively studied default network (e.g., Raichle et al., 2001), which has been linked with internally focused thought and attention."
    Last edited by Petter; 07-29-2020 at 05:12 AM.

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    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hippoc...mpal_functions

    "Later research has focused on trying to bridge the disconnect between the two main views of hippocampal function as being split between memory and spatial cognition. In some studies, these areas have been expanded to the point of near convergence. In an attempt to reconcile the two disparate views, it is suggested that a broader view of the hippocampal function is taken and seen to have a role that encompasses both the organisation of experience (mental mapping, as per Tolman's original concept in 1948) and the directional behaviour seen as being involved in all areas of cognition, so that the function of the hippocampus can be viewed as a broader system that incorporates both the memory and the spatial perspectives in its role that involves the use of a wide scope of cognitive maps. This relates to the purposive behaviorism born of Tolman's original goal of identifying the complex cognitive mechanisms and purposes that guided behaviour."


    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Default_mode_network

    "Medial temporal subsystem: Autobiographical memory and future simulations

    Functional hubs: PCC, mPFC, and angular gyrus
    Hippocampus (HF+): Formation of new memories as well as remembering the past and imagining the future
    Parahippocampus (PHC): Spatial and scene recognition and simulation
    Retrosplenial cortex (RSC): Spatial navigation
    Posterior inferior parietal lobe (pIPL): Junction of auditory, visual, and somatosensory information and attention"


    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3040111/

    "It has been suggested that visual inputs are fed to the navigational network in cortex and hippocampus through dorsal and ventral intracortical streams"


    -----


    1) Dorsal stream (Se) vs. ventral stream (Si) is not possible.

    2) Dorsal stream (Se) vs. ventral stream (Si) is possible, but Se and Si are strongly connected ... so ILI: Si // Se with Intuition (etc).
    Last edited by Petter; 07-30-2020 at 04:32 PM.

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    Fe/Fi

    https://academic.oup.com/cercor/arti...9/2763/2926085

    The complex processing architecture underlying attentional control requires delineation of the functional role of different control-related brain networks. A key component is the cingulo-opercular (CO) network composed of anterior insula/operculum, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, and thalamus. Its function has been particularly difficult to characterize due to the network's pervasive activity and frequent co-activation with other control-related networks. We previously suggested this network to underlie intrinsically maintained tonic alertness. Here, we tested this hypothesis by separately manipulating the demand for selective attention and for tonic alertness in a two-factorial, continuous pitch discrimination paradigm. The 2 factors had independent behavioral effects. Functional imaging revealed that activity as well as functional connectivity in the CO network increased when the task required more tonic alertness. Conversely, heightened selective attention to pitch increased activity in the dorsal attention (DAT) network but not in the CO network. Across participants, performance accuracy showed dissociable correlation patterns with activity in the CO, DAT, and fronto-parietal (FP) control networks. These results support tonic alertness as a fundamental function of the CO network. They further the characterization of this function as the effortful process of maintaining cognitive faculties available for current processing requirements.



    https://europepmc.org/article/med/29850839

    Functional Fractionation of the Cingulo-opercular Network: Alerting Insula and Updating Cingulate.

    The anterior insula (AI) and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) are engaged in various cognitive and affective processes. An influential account posits that the AI and dACC's ubiquitous engagements reflect their role in the transient capture of attention by salient stimuli. Using fMRI here we tested this claim and functionally dissociated these regions. In the first experiment, we compared these regions' responses to emotion-laden and emotion-neutral salient "oddball" movie events. We found that while the AI only responded transiently to the onset and offset of neutral events, its response to affective events was sustained, challenging the transient attention capture account. By contrast, dACC remained transient regardless of event type. A second experiment distinguished the information encoded by these brain regions with the presentation of behaviorally salient events that require either maintaining the current task set or updating to a different one; the AI was found to signal the presence of the behaviorally relevant events, while the dACC was associated with switching of attention settings in response to the events. We conclude that AI and dACC are involved in signaling the presence of potentially or de facto behaviorally significant events and updating internal attention settings in response to these events, respectively.



    https://www.sciencedirect.com/scienc...60982219303227

    Understanding how we share the affective states of others is important for understanding social interactions. Neuroimaging shows that humans recruit their anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) both while experiencing pain and, vicariously, while witnessing pain in others. This vicarious activity is stronger in more empathic individuals and reduced in psychopathy. Reducing ACC activity using placebo or pharmacological analgesia alters empathy for pain. These findings make the ACC a region of particular interest in the search for a neural mechanism of affect sharing. Some suggest these neuroimaging findings reflect the existence of mirror neurons, i.e., neurons responding during the experience of pain and the perception of other people’s pain. That some ACC neurons respond to the observation and experience of pain is supported by reports of one such neuron in a human patient and by one report of neurons in the mouse ACC in which the immediate-early gene arc is more expressed following the experience of footshocks and witnessing another animal receive footshocks. The functional properties of these neurons, however, remain unknown



    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mirror_neuron#Empathy

    Stephanie Preston and Frans de Waal, Jean Decety, and Vittorio Gallese and Christian Keysers have independently argued that the mirror neuron system is involved in empathy. A large number of experiments using fMRI, electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) have shown that certain brain regions (in particular the anterior insula, anterior cingulate cortex, and inferior frontal cortex) are active when people experience an emotion (disgust, happiness, pain, etc.) and when they see another person experiencing an emotion. David Freedberg and Vittorio Gallese have also put forward the idea that this function of the mirror neuron system is crucial for aesthetic experiences. However, these brain regions are not quite the same as the ones which mirror hand actions, and mirror neurons for emotional states or empathy have not yet been described in monkeys.

    More recently, Christian Keysers at the Social Brain Lab and colleagues have shown that people who are more empathic according to self-report questionnaires have stronger activations both in the mirror system for hand actions and the mirror system for emotions, providing more direct support for the idea that the mirror system is linked to empathy. Some researchers observed that the human mirror system does not passively respond to the observation of actions but is influenced by the mindset of the observer. Researchers observed the link of the mirror neurons during empathetic engagement in patient care.



    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anterior_cingulate_cortex

    "Activity in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) has been implicated in processing both the detection and appraisal of social processes, including social exclusion."



    large-scale brain networks 2.png
    Last edited by Petter; 07-31-2020 at 07:12 AM.

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    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frontal_lobe

    The entirety of the frontal cortex can be considered the "action cortex", much as the posterior cortex is considered the “sensory cortex". It is devoted to action of one kind or another: skeletal movement, ocular movement, speech control, the expression of emotions, etc. In humans, the largest part of the frontal cortex, i.e. the Prefrontal cortex, is responsible for internal, purposeful mental action, commonly called reasoning or Prefrontal Synthesis.

    The function of the PFC involves the ability to project future consequences that result from current actions (Ni and Ne). PFC functions also include override and suppression of socially unacceptable responses as well as differentiation of tasks (Fe/Fi and Te/Ti).


    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prefrontal_synthesis (Intuition)

    Prefrontal synthesis (PFS, also known as Mental Synthesis) is the conscious purposeful process of synthesizing novel mental images. PFS is neurologically different from the other types of imagination, such as simple memory recall and dreaming. Unlike dreaming, which is spontaneous and not controlled by the prefrontal cortex (PFC), PFS is controlled by and completely dependent on the intact lateral prefrontal cortex. Unlike simple memory recall that involves activation of a single neuronal ensemble (NE) encoded at some point in the past, PFS involves active combination of two or more object-encoding neuronal ensembles (objectNE). The mechanism of PFS is hypothesized to involve synchronization of several independent objectNEs. When objectNEs fire out-of-sync, the objects are perceived one at a time. However, once those objectNEs are time-shifted by the lateral PFC to fire in-phase with each other, they are consciously experienced as one unified object or scene.
    Last edited by Petter; 07-31-2020 at 01:45 PM.

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    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frontal_lobe

    The entirety of the frontal cortex can be considered the "action cortex", much as the posterior cortex is considered the “sensory cortex". It is devoted to action of one kind or another: skeletal movement, ocular movement, speech control, the expression of emotions, etc. In humans, the largest part of the frontal cortex, i.e. the Prefrontal cortex, is responsible for internal, purposeful mental action, commonly called reasoning or Prefrontal Synthesis.

    The function of the PFC involves the ability to project future consequences that result from current actions (Ni and Ne). PFC functions also include override and suppression of socially unacceptable responses as well as differentiation of tasks (Fe/Fi and Te/Ti).


    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prefrontal_synthesis (Intuition)

    Prefrontal synthesis (PFS, also known as Mental Synthesis) is the conscious purposeful process of synthesizing novel mental images. PFS is neurologically different from the other types of imagination, such as simple memory recall and dreaming. Unlike dreaming, which is spontaneous and not controlled by the prefrontal cortex (PFC), PFS is controlled by and completely dependent on the intact lateral prefrontal cortex. Unlike simple memory recall that involves activation of a single neuronal ensemble (NE) encoded at some point in the past, PFS involves active combination of two or more object-encoding neuronal ensembles (objectNE). The mechanism of PFS is hypothesized to involve synchronization of several independent objectNEs. When objectNEs fire out-of-sync, the objects are perceived one at a time. However, once those objectNEs are time-shifted by the lateral PFC to fire in-phase with each other, they are consciously experienced as one unified object or scene.
    logical reasoning:

    1. A = B ... or B = A
    2. B = C
    3. Therefore, A = C

    B = A and B = C are most likely fired in-phase with each other.

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    Se vs. Si

    1) dorsal stream vs. ventral stream ... i.e. spatial relations/"guidance of actions" vs. patterns/identification of objects

    2) FPN vs. DMN ... and/or ... DAN vs. VAN

    3) dynamic vs. static ... or ... static vs. dynamic (Socionics)

    4) real vs. symbolic ... right hemisphere vs. left hemisphere (EDIT)

    5) C4 vs. C3 ... i.e. gross motor skills vs. fine motor skills

    6) Fp2 vs. Fp1

    7) egocentric vs. allocentric

    8) spatial/"static" vs. contextual/causal ... this is probably the same thing as 1)

    9) objective vs. subjective ... Jung (EDIT)

    10) analogous vs. sequential (EDIT)
    11) ??? vs. decision-making ... which is related to propositional logic, cause and effect, temporal-sequential ordering etc.
    Last edited by Petter; 08-02-2020 at 07:03 AM.

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