Page 19 of 20 FirstFirst ... 9151617181920 LastLast
Results 721 to 760 of 774

Thread: Model D

  1. #721
    Petter's Avatar
    Join Date
    Mar 2016
    TIM
    ILI
    Posts
    1,044
    Mentioned
    21 Post(s)
    Tagged
    0 Thread(s)

    Default

    a physicist: rFPN 2 > rFPN 1 > lFPN 1 > aDMN > FN (active) > rVAN etc + inexpressive

    a mathematician: rFPN 1 > lFPN 1 > rFPN 2 > aDMN > FN (active) > rDAN etc + inexpressive
    a physicist: rFPN 2 > aDMN > rFPN 1 > lFPN 1 > pDMN > rVAN etc + inexpressive

    a mathematician: rFPN 1 > aDMN > lFPN 1 > rFPN 2 > pDMN > rDAN etc + inexpressive

  2. #722
    Petter's Avatar
    Join Date
    Mar 2016
    TIM
    ILI
    Posts
    1,044
    Mentioned
    21 Post(s)
    Tagged
    0 Thread(s)

    Default

    dichotomies

    1. deliberateness/perfectionism vs. tolerates disorder ... or single-tasking vs. multitasking (?)

    2. task-oriented vs. people-oriented ... or self vs. others (FPN vs. CON)

    3. the external world vs. the internal world (DAN/VAN vs. DMN)

    4. the dorsal stream vs. the ventral stream

    5. the left hemisphere vs. the right hemisphere

    6. expressive vs. inexpressive

    7. decision-making vs. problem-solving (FPN+FN vs. FPN >> FN ... CON+FN vs. CON >> FN)

    8. openness to change vs. traditional/habitual behavior (PFC vs. the striatum)

  3. #723
    Petter's Avatar
    Join Date
    Mar 2016
    TIM
    ILI
    Posts
    1,044
    Mentioned
    21 Post(s)
    Tagged
    0 Thread(s)

    Default

    https://www.sciencedirect.com/scienc...28393221003407

    "A primary function of DMN activation is to process motivationally relevant events."

    "mPFC enhancement is hypothesized to reflect emotional processing during imagery"




    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Precuneus

    "A recent study showed that only ventral precuneus is involved in the default network."




    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frontoparietal_network

    "The FPN is primarily composed of the rostral lateral and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (especially the middle frontal gyrus) and the anterior inferior parietal lobule. Additional regions include the middle cingulate gyrus and potentially the dorsal precuneus, posterior inferior temporal lobe, dorsomedial thalamus and the head of the caudate nucleus."




    brain22.png
    Last edited by Petter; 07-31-2022 at 09:04 AM.

  4. #724
    Petter's Avatar
    Join Date
    Mar 2016
    TIM
    ILI
    Posts
    1,044
    Mentioned
    21 Post(s)
    Tagged
    0 Thread(s)

    Default

    the external world and logical reasoning: DAN/VAN and FPN

    the internal world and logical reasoning: the precuneus and FPN

    the external world and emotional evaluation: CON

    the internal world and emotional evaluation: DMN

    (?)

  5. #725
    Petter's Avatar
    Join Date
    Mar 2016
    TIM
    ILI
    Posts
    1,044
    Mentioned
    21 Post(s)
    Tagged
    0 Thread(s)

    Default

    a physicist: rFPN 2 > aDMN > rFPN 1 > lFPN 1 > pDMN > rVAN etc + inexpressive

    a mathematician: rFPN 1 > aDMN > lFPN 1 > rFPN 2 > pDMN > rDAN etc + inexpressive
    a physicist: rFPN 2 > rVAN > rFPN 1 > lFPN 1 > rDAN > lDAN etc + inexpressive

    a mathematician: rFPN 1 > lFPN 1 > rDAN > lDAN > rVAN > rFPN 2 etc + inexpressive

  6. #726
    Petter's Avatar
    Join Date
    Mar 2016
    TIM
    ILI
    Posts
    1,044
    Mentioned
    21 Post(s)
    Tagged
    0 Thread(s)

    Default

    2. task-oriented vs. people-oriented ... or self vs. others (FPN vs. CON)

    3. the external world vs. the internal world (DAN/VAN vs. DMN)
    2. task-oriented vs. people-oriented (FPN vs. CON ... FPN vs. DMN)

    3. the external world vs. the internal world (DAN/VAN vs. the precuneus)

  7. #727
    Petter's Avatar
    Join Date
    Mar 2016
    TIM
    ILI
    Posts
    1,044
    Mentioned
    21 Post(s)
    Tagged
    0 Thread(s)

  8. #728
    Petter's Avatar
    Join Date
    Mar 2016
    TIM
    ILI
    Posts
    1,044
    Mentioned
    21 Post(s)
    Tagged
    0 Thread(s)

    Default

    1. CON (the external world)

    2. CON (the internal world) ... vmPFC etc

    3. a mirror network

    4. dmPFC and the precuneus (DMN)

  9. #729
    Petter's Avatar
    Join Date
    Mar 2016
    TIM
    ILI
    Posts
    1,044
    Mentioned
    21 Post(s)
    Tagged
    0 Thread(s)

    Default

    3. the external world vs. the internal world (DAN/VAN vs. the precuneus)
    ... a mirror network vs. dmPFC and the precuneus

    ... CON (the external world) vs. CON (the internal world)

  10. #730
    Petter's Avatar
    Join Date
    Mar 2016
    TIM
    ILI
    Posts
    1,044
    Mentioned
    21 Post(s)
    Tagged
    0 Thread(s)

    Default

    2. task-oriented vs. people-oriented (FPN vs. CON ... FPN vs. DMN)
    ... mirror network 1 vs. mirror network 2

  11. #731
    Petter's Avatar
    Join Date
    Mar 2016
    TIM
    ILI
    Posts
    1,044
    Mentioned
    21 Post(s)
    Tagged
    0 Thread(s)

    Default

    https://www.researchgate.net/publica...tanding_Action

    "Mirror neurons are a specific class of neurons that respond when an individual performs a given action and when s/he observes a similar action performed by others. There is now a general consensus that there are at least two mirror neuron systems, one located on the lateral convexity on the brain, the other in the insula and in the cingulate cortex. The first translates observed actions devoid of any emotional content into the corresponding motor representations, while the second converts emotional behaviours into the corresponding viscero-motor responses (Rizzolatti and Sinigaglia 2008a)."

  12. #732
    Petter's Avatar
    Join Date
    Mar 2016
    TIM
    ILI
    Posts
    1,044
    Mentioned
    21 Post(s)
    Tagged
    0 Thread(s)

    Default

    https://neurosciencenews.com/lonelin...l-brain-16539/

    "Thinking about someone from each category corresponded to a different activity pattern in the mPFC: one for the self, one for the social network (both friends and acquaintances), and one for celebrities. The closer the relationship, the more the pattern resembled the pattern seen when thinking about the self."



    https://greatergood.berkeley.edu/article/item/five_ways_oxytocin_might_shape_your_social_life

    oxytocin <--> self vs. others
    Last edited by Petter; 08-09-2022 at 05:28 PM.

  13. #733
    Petter's Avatar
    Join Date
    Mar 2016
    TIM
    ILI
    Posts
    1,044
    Mentioned
    21 Post(s)
    Tagged
    0 Thread(s)

    Default

    ... mirror network 1 vs. mirror network 2
    1 and 2 do not refer to the dorsal stream and the ventral stream here.

  14. #734
    Petter's Avatar
    Join Date
    Mar 2016
    TIM
    ILI
    Posts
    1,044
    Mentioned
    21 Post(s)
    Tagged
    0 Thread(s)

    Default

    dichotomies

    1. perfectionism vs. tolerates disorder ... or single-tasking vs. multitasking (?)

    2. decision-making vs. problem-solving = people-oriented vs. task-oriented (CON vs. FPN ... DMN vs. FPN ... mirror network 1 vs. mirror network 2)

    3. the external world vs. the internal world (DAN/VAN vs. the precuneus ... a mirror network vs. dmPFC and the precuneus ... CON (the external world) vs. CON (the internal world))

    4. the dorsal stream vs. the ventral stream

    5. the left hemisphere vs. the right hemisphere

    6. expressive/quick decisions vs. inexpressive (dopamine sensitivity ... the sympathetic nervous system vs. the parasympathetic nervous system ... 16PF: Liveliness, F)

    7. a planner vs. not a planner (FPN+FN vs. FPN >> FN ... CON+FN vs. CON >> FN)

    8. openness to change vs. traditional/habitual behavior (PFC vs. the striatum)

    9. self vs. others (low oxytocin vs. high oxytocin)

    10. fearless vs. fearful (serotonin sensitivity ... neuroticism)

  15. #735
    Petter's Avatar
    Join Date
    Mar 2016
    TIM
    ILI
    Posts
    1,044
    Mentioned
    21 Post(s)
    Tagged
    0 Thread(s)

    Default

    https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32603799/

    "Empathy toward the distress of others is thought to motivate helping behaviour, in the form of voluntary action to eliminate that distress. Neuropeptide oxytocin is associated with various social cognitive abilities, including empathy and prosocial behaviour. The anterior cingulate cortex is known to be one of the brain regions underlying empathy, and one in which oxytocin receptors are expressed."

  16. #736
    Petter's Avatar
    Join Date
    Mar 2016
    TIM
    ILI
    Posts
    1,044
    Mentioned
    21 Post(s)
    Tagged
    0 Thread(s)

    Default

    https://www.sciencedirect.com/scienc...77042811020702

    "To examine the relationship between Perfectionism and self-esteem in a sample of athletes, 56 students (33 males, 23 females) from the University of Tehran were included in this study. All participants were asked to complete Farsi version of the Positive and Negativ Perfectionism Scale (FPANPS) and Coopersmith Self-esteem Inventory (SEI). The results showed that positive Perfectionism was positively associated with self-esteem and negative Perfectionism was negatively associated with self-esteem. Positive Perfectionism is supposed to increase level of self-esteem through enhancement of “self-competence” and “selfacceptance”.aonversely negative Perfectionism is supposed to decrease level of self-esteem through reducing “self-competence” and “self-accepatnce”, as well as developing or intensify psychological disorders such as depression, anxiety, and personality or interpersonal problems."

    16pf.png

  17. #737
    Petter's Avatar
    Join Date
    Mar 2016
    TIM
    ILI
    Posts
    1,044
    Mentioned
    21 Post(s)
    Tagged
    0 Thread(s)

    Default

    positive perfectionism <--> serotonin sensitivity (?)

  18. #738
    Petter's Avatar
    Join Date
    Mar 2016
    TIM
    ILI
    Posts
    1,044
    Mentioned
    21 Post(s)
    Tagged
    0 Thread(s)

    Default

    a physicist

    1. perfectionism > tolerates disorder ... or single-tasking vs. multitasking (?)

    2. decision-making << problem-solving = people-oriented vs. task-oriented (CON vs. FPN ... DMN vs. FPN ... mirror network 1 vs. mirror network 2)

    3. the external world < the internal world (DAN/VAN vs. the precuneus ... a mirror network vs. dmPFC and the precuneus ... CON (the external world) vs. CON (the internal world))

    4. the dorsal stream < the ventral stream

    5. the left hemisphere < the right hemisphere

    6. expressive/quick decisions << inexpressive (dopamine sensitivity ... the sympathetic nervous system vs. the parasympathetic nervous system ... 16PF: Liveliness, F)

    7. a planner <> not a planner (FPN+FN vs. FPN >> FN ... CON+FN vs. CON >> FN)

    8. openness to change >> traditional/habitual behavior (PFC vs. the striatum)

    9. self >> others (low oxytocin vs. high oxytocin)

    10. fearless <> fearful (serotonin sensitivity ... neuroticism)

  19. #739
    Petter's Avatar
    Join Date
    Mar 2016
    TIM
    ILI
    Posts
    1,044
    Mentioned
    21 Post(s)
    Tagged
    0 Thread(s)

    Default

    an experimental physicist: the external world < the internal world

    a theoretical physicist: the external world << the internal world

  20. #740
    Petter's Avatar
    Join Date
    Mar 2016
    TIM
    ILI
    Posts
    1,044
    Mentioned
    21 Post(s)
    Tagged
    0 Thread(s)

    Default

    a mathematical physicist: the dorsal stream <> the ventral stream

    a theoretical physicist: the dorsal stream < the ventral stream

  21. #741
    not fully certain of my sociotype
    Join Date
    Jan 2022
    TIM
    EII 5 so > 1sp > 4sp
    Posts
    451
    Mentioned
    19 Post(s)
    Tagged
    0 Thread(s)

    Default

    Quote Originally Posted by Petter View Post
    https://www.sciencedirect.com/scienc...77042811020702

    "To examine the relationship between Perfectionism and self-esteem in a sample of athletes, 56 students (33 males, 23 females) from the University of Tehran were included in this study. All participants were asked to complete Farsi version of the Positive and Negativ Perfectionism Scale (FPANPS) and Coopersmith Self-esteem Inventory (SEI). The results showed that positive Perfectionism was positively associated with self-esteem and negative Perfectionism was negatively associated with self-esteem. Positive Perfectionism is supposed to increase level of self-esteem through enhancement of “self-competence” and “selfacceptance”.aonversely negative Perfectionism is supposed to decrease level of self-esteem through reducing “self-competence” and “self-accepatnce”, as well as developing or intensify psychological disorders such as depression, anxiety, and personality or interpersonal problems."

    16pf.png
    I see SEI, I like

    just kidding, OP
    Last edited by welcome; 10-20-2022 at 04:06 PM.

  22. #742
    Petter's Avatar
    Join Date
    Mar 2016
    TIM
    ILI
    Posts
    1,044
    Mentioned
    21 Post(s)
    Tagged
    0 Thread(s)

    Default

    a physicist: the dorsal stream < the ventral stream

    a chess player: the dorsal stream << the ventral stream ... and he/she is a planner (i.e. goal-oriented/competitive)

  23. #743
    Petter's Avatar
    Join Date
    Mar 2016
    TIM
    ILI
    Posts
    1,044
    Mentioned
    21 Post(s)
    Tagged
    0 Thread(s)

    Default

    a chess player: decision-making < problem-solving

    a political scientist: decision-making <> problem-solving

    a political advisor: decision-making > problem-solving

  24. #744
    Petter's Avatar
    Join Date
    Mar 2016
    TIM
    ILI
    Posts
    1,044
    Mentioned
    21 Post(s)
    Tagged
    0 Thread(s)

    Default

    a physicist

    7. a planner * not a planner (FPN+FN vs. FPN >> FN ... CON+FN vs. CON >> FN)

    10. fearless * fearful (serotonin sensitivity ... neuroticism)
    * means > or < or <>

    <> they are equally strong/active

  25. #745
    Petter's Avatar
    Join Date
    Mar 2016
    TIM
    ILI
    Posts
    1,044
    Mentioned
    21 Post(s)
    Tagged
    0 Thread(s)

    Default

    https://ir.lib.uwo.ca/cgi/viewconten...14&context=etd

    "Together, these results suggest that emotional information modulates neural processing within ventral sensory processing streams, but not dorsal processing streams. These findings are discussed with respect to current models of emotional and sensory processing, including amygdala connections to sensory cortices and emotional effects on cognition and behaviour."

  26. #746
    Petter's Avatar
    Join Date
    Mar 2016
    TIM
    ILI
    Posts
    1,044
    Mentioned
    21 Post(s)
    Tagged
    0 Thread(s)

    Default

    https://www.sciencedirect.com/scienc...5381191300894X

    "A large body of brain imaging research highlights a set of specific regions in the limbic, insular and prefrontal cortex as sensitive to static visual images of high emotional content. Here we report that when using more naturalistic stimuli (short audio–visual video clips) the most selective cortical loci demonstrating preferential activation to emotional content were centered on the dorsal, action related, stream of visual areas. Subjects underwent fMRI scanning while watching a set of highly emotional as well as neutral video clips. Following the scan, clips were rated by each subject for emotional arousal and valence. Surprisingly, activity in dorsal stream visual areas (such as IPS and SPL) showed the highest preference to emotional arousal compared to all other brain areas. In contrast, ventral stream visual areas showed a significantly weaker emotional preference. Control experiments ruled out low level visual or auditory cues as contributing factors to this effect. Furthermore, the specific spatial pattern of emotion-related activations was incompatible with general arousal or attentional effects. Given the established role of dorsal stream visual areas in action-related functions, these results support the long held hypothesis associating emotion with preparation for action."

  27. #747
    Petter's Avatar
    Join Date
    Mar 2016
    TIM
    ILI
    Posts
    1,044
    Mentioned
    21 Post(s)
    Tagged
    0 Thread(s)

    Default

    https://www.nmr.mgh.harvard.edu/~bra...logia_2014.pdf

    "A growing body of evidence suggests that the amygdala is central to handling the demands of complex social life in primates. In this paper, we synthesize extant anatomical and functional data from rodents, monkeys, and humans to describe the topography of three partially distinct large-scale brain networks anchored in the amygdala that each support unique functions for effectively managing social interactions and maintaining social relationships."

    large-scale brain networks 5b (social cognition).png

  28. #748
    Petter's Avatar
    Join Date
    Mar 2016
    TIM
    ILI
    Posts
    1,044
    Mentioned
    21 Post(s)
    Tagged
    0 Thread(s)

    Default

    https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32251841/

    "Although the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) plays a vital role in neuropathic pain-related aversion, the underlying mechanisms haven't been fully studied. The mesolimbic dopamine system encodes reward and aversion..."

  29. #749
    Petter's Avatar
    Join Date
    Mar 2016
    TIM
    ILI
    Posts
    1,044
    Mentioned
    21 Post(s)
    Tagged
    0 Thread(s)

    Default

    https://www.frontiersin.org/articles...21.626337/full (Neurobiological Bases of Social Networks)

    "A social network is a web that integrates multiple levels of interindividual social relationships and has direct associations with an individual’s health and well-being. Previous research has mainly focused on how brain and social network structures (structural properties) act on each other and on how the brain supports the spread of ideas and behaviors within social networks (functional properties). The structure of the social network is correlated with activity in the amygdala, which links decoding and interpreting social signals and social values. The structure also relies on the mentalizing network, which is central to an individual’s ability to infer the mental states of others. Network functional properties depend on multilayer brain-social networks, indicating that information transmission is supported by the default mode system, the valuation system, and the mentalizing system. From the perspective of neuroendocrinology, overwhelming evidence shows that variations in oxytocin, β-endorphin and dopamine receptor genes, including oxytocin receptor (OXTR), mu opioid receptor 1 (OPRM1) and dopamine receptor 2 (DRD2), predict an individual’s social network structure, whereas oxytocin also contributes to improved transmission of emotional and behavioral information from person to person. Overall, previous studies have comprehensively revealed the effects of the brain, endocrine system, and genes on social networks. Future studies are required to determine the effects of cognitive abilities, such as memory, on social networks, the characteristics and neural mechanism of social networks in mental illness and how social networks change over time through the use of longitudinal methods."

    "The egocentric network and sociocentric network describe the network structure from micro level and macro level, respectively. Therefore, these two different network indicators may reflect different brain areas and brain activities. Future studies should explore the sociocentric network to supplement the neural basis of social network at the macro level."

  30. #750
    Petter's Avatar
    Join Date
    Mar 2016
    TIM
    ILI
    Posts
    1,044
    Mentioned
    21 Post(s)
    Tagged
    0 Thread(s)

    Default

    https://www.sciencedirect.com/scienc...10945220300356

    "Attachment theory, developed by Mary Ainsworth and John Bowlby about seventy years ago, has become one of the most influential and comprehensive contemporary psychology theories. It predicts that early social interactions with significant others shape the emergence of distinct self- and other-representations, the latter affecting how we initiate and maintain social relationships across the lifespan. A person's attachment history will therefore associate with inter-individual differences in emotional and cognitive mechanisms sustaining representations, modeling, and understanding of others on the biological and brain level."

    social neuroscience 1.jpg

    social neuroscience 2.jpg

  31. #751
    Petter's Avatar
    Join Date
    Mar 2016
    TIM
    ILI
    Posts
    1,044
    Mentioned
    21 Post(s)
    Tagged
    0 Thread(s)

    Default

    https://www.jneurosci.org/content/32/42/14729

    "Humans with amygdalae that are more strongly connected to brain regions important for social perception and affiliation also have larger and more complex social networks. These findings begin to suggest the mechanisms that support larger and more complex social networks. More connected individuals might be better equipped to perceive social cues like facial expression and be more motivated to or receive more reward from responding to these cues in a manner that promotes social affiliation. A limitation in the present investigation and all similar human studies to date is that their design precludes causal inferences: we do not yet know whether these structural and functional properties of the social brain are inborn and thus endow an individual with the propensity to be more gregarious or whether they are potentially modifiable by experience. A recent study in monkeys suggests that brain structure changes with social experience (Sallet et al., 2011), although this conclusion is not firm because the monkeys were not randomly assigned to cages for living groups of different sizes. A parsing of social function into specific processes subserved by distinct brain networks will enable future research to focus on how these psychological processes and their neural correlates not only differ among healthy adults but also how they fail to develop or disintegrate in neuropsychiatric conditions marked by social impairment like autism, antisocial personality disorder, and frontotemporal dementia."

  32. #752
    Petter's Avatar
    Join Date
    Mar 2016
    TIM
    ILI
    Posts
    1,044
    Mentioned
    21 Post(s)
    Tagged
    0 Thread(s)

    Default

    <> they are equally strong/active
    ... or conscious

  33. #753
    Petter's Avatar
    Join Date
    Mar 2016
    TIM
    ILI
    Posts
    1,044
    Mentioned
    21 Post(s)
    Tagged
    0 Thread(s)

    Default

    11. affective evaluation vs. mental state attribution and self-regulation (CON vs. DMN)

  34. #754
    Petter's Avatar
    Join Date
    Mar 2016
    TIM
    ILI
    Posts
    1,044
    Mentioned
    21 Post(s)
    Tagged
    0 Thread(s)

    Default

    https://www.pnas.org/doi/10.1073/pnas.012470999

    "The data support a role for dACC in reward-based decision making..."



    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orbitofrontal_cortex

    "The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is a prefrontal cortex region in the frontal lobes of the brain which is involved in the cognitive process of decision-making."

  35. #755
    Petter's Avatar
    Join Date
    Mar 2016
    TIM
    ILI
    Posts
    1,044
    Mentioned
    21 Post(s)
    Tagged
    0 Thread(s)

    Default

    2. decision-making vs. problem-solving = people-oriented vs. task-oriented (CON vs. FPN ... DMN vs. FPN ... mirror network 1 vs. mirror network 2)
    1. CON (the external world)

    2. CON (the internal world) ... vmPFC etc

    3. a mirror network

    4. dmPFC and the precuneus (DMN)
    CON: affective evaluation <--> decision-making

    DMN: people + the internal world

  36. #756
    Petter's Avatar
    Join Date
    Mar 2016
    TIM
    ILI
    Posts
    1,044
    Mentioned
    21 Post(s)
    Tagged
    0 Thread(s)

    Default

    CON: facial expressions <--> emotional states

    DMN: sense of self/identity, morality judgements, theory of mind, empathy, altruism

  37. #757
    Petter's Avatar
    Join Date
    Mar 2016
    TIM
    ILI
    Posts
    1,044
    Mentioned
    21 Post(s)
    Tagged
    0 Thread(s)

    Default

    DMN: sense of self/identity, morality judgements, theory of mind, empathy, altruism
    ... and remembering the past and thinking about the future

  38. #758
    Petter's Avatar
    Join Date
    Mar 2016
    TIM
    ILI
    Posts
    1,044
    Mentioned
    21 Post(s)
    Tagged
    0 Thread(s)

    Default

    vmPFC is active in both CON and DMN

  39. #759
    Petter's Avatar
    Join Date
    Mar 2016
    TIM
    ILI
    Posts
    1,044
    Mentioned
    21 Post(s)
    Tagged
    0 Thread(s)

    Default

    https://www.sciencedirect.com/scienc...74742713002633

    This article considers two recent lines of research concerned with the construction of imagined or simulated events that can provide insight into the relationship between memory and decision making. One line of research concerns episodic future thinking, which involves simulating episodes that might occur in one’s personal future, and the other concerns episodic counterfactual thinking, which involves simulating episodes that could have happened in one’s personal past. We first review neuroimaging studies that have examined the neural underpinnings of episodic future thinking and episodic counterfactual thinking. We argue that these studies have revealed that the two forms of episodic simulation engage a common core network including medial parietal, prefrontal, and temporal regions that also supports episodic memory. We also note that neuroimaging studies have documented neural differences between episodic future thinking and episodic counterfactual thinking, including differences in hippocampal responses. We next consider behavioral studies that have delineated both similarities and differences between the two kinds of episodic simulation. The evidence indicates that episodic future and counterfactual thinking are characterized by similarly reduced levels of specific detail compared with episodic memory, but that the effects of repeatedly imagining a possible experience have sharply contrasting effects on the perceived plausibility of those events during episodic future thinking versus episodic counterfactual thinking. Finally, we conclude by discussing the functional consequences of future and counterfactual simulations for decisions.

    ------

    12. episodic memory vs. episodic simulation

  40. #760
    Petter's Avatar
    Join Date
    Mar 2016
    TIM
    ILI
    Posts
    1,044
    Mentioned
    21 Post(s)
    Tagged
    0 Thread(s)

    Default

    https://www.frontiersin.org/articles...019.00028/full

    FIGURE 1. Characteristics of the shift from goal-directed to habitual behavior. (A) Left: Goal-directed and habitual behaviors are competitive processes that act in balance. Goal-directed behavior is characterized by a high requirement for attention, is highly contingent on present reward value, and demonstrates flexibility of responding. Habitual behavior is stimulus-driven, less dependent on present reward value, and governed by behavioral automaticity. Right: Addiction/compulsion represents an extreme state of habit. (B) The transition from goal-directed behavior to habitual behavior and then into compulsion, or addiction is graded. Shift from goal-directed to habitual behavior and then to compulsion/addiction corresponds to strengthened stimulus-response association and reduced action-outcome contingency. These processes are bidirectional, i.e., a behavior can shift on the spectrum from goal-directed to habitual performance, and back again—though in the extremes of addiction whether it is possible to return fully to habit/goal-directed states is less clear. (C) During instrumental training, rates of responding for a reward increase. Post-training reward devaluation reduces response rates more quickly for goal-directed behaviors than it does for habitual behaviors, which take many more extinction trials to fully dissipate. The extremes of addiction are characterized by compulsive responding that is resistant even to punishment. (D) The balance between goal-directed and habitual behavioral states corresponds to relative levels of neural activity in the dorsomedial (DMS) vs. dorsolateral (DLS) striatum. (E) Task-bracketing activity pattern emerges in the DLS as animals are over-trained on a rewarded behavioral sequence (e.g., running a T-maze for a tasty reward). Spiny Projection Neurons (SPNs) exhibit high activity at the beginning of a learned motor sequence and again at the end as the animal approaches the reward. Fast-spiking interneurons (FSIs) exhibit high activity during the middle stages of a behavioral sequence.

    striatum.jpg

Posting Permissions

  • You may not post new threads
  • You may not post replies
  • You may not post attachments
  • You may not edit your posts
  •