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Thread: Model D

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    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3388718/

    The division of cortical visual processing into distinct dorsal and ventral streams is a key framework that has guided visual neuroscience. The characterization of the ventral stream as a ‘What’ pathway is relatively uncontroversial, but the nature of dorsal stream processing is less clear. Originally proposed as mediating spatial perception (‘Where’), more recent accounts suggest it primarily serves non-conscious visually guided action (‘How’). Here, we identify three pathways emerging from the dorsal stream that consist of projections to the prefrontal and premotor cortices, and a major projection to the medial temporal lobe that courses both directly and indirectly through the posterior cingulate and retrosplenial cortices. These three pathways support both conscious and non-conscious visuospatial processing, including spatial working memory, visually guided action and navigation, respectively.

    -----

    Se: conscious visuospatial processing ... ‘where’ ... an object's position in space

    Si: conscious visuospatial processing ... ‘what’ ... object/pattern recognition and a causal chain (i.e. the meaning of the object)

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    Se: conscious visuospatial processing ... ‘where’ ... an object's position in space
    1) "Spatial boundaries" is perhaps a better definition of Se, since it includes size and quantity.

    2) An object's position in space in relation to other objects ... which includes size and quantity.
    Last edited by Petter; 08-03-2020 at 07:24 PM.

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    "Let us imagine a stream of electrons coming from the negative glow; the electric force in this region is exceedingly small, so that these electrons will have very little energy and will be unable to ionize the gas..."

    "Einstein's thought experiments took diverse forms. In his youth, he mentally chased beams of light. For special relativity, he employed moving trains and flashes of lightning to explain his most penetrating insights."

    A physicist imagines an object and perceives spatial relations at the same time. So ILI: Si+ (Se-) etc is incorrect, and ILI: Si // Se with Intuition etc is correct.

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    ILI:

    Si // Se => Intuition

    Intuition => Si // Se

    This means that ILI must process Se // Si without Intuition.

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    LII and SLI prefer allocentric spatial processing without Intuition and egocentric spatial processing with Intuition.

    LSI and ILI prefer allocentric spatial processing with Intuition and egocentric spatial processing without Intuition.

    ???

    egocentric and allocentric.png

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    ILI

    allocentric spatial processing with Intuition // egocentric spatial processing with Intuition

    egocentric spatial processing without Intuition // ...

    egocentric spatial processing with Intuition + CON-mirror neurons // ...

    allocentric spatial processing without Intuition + CON-mirror neurons // ...

    ???

    CON = cingulo-opercular network
    Last edited by Petter; 08-06-2020 at 07:16 AM.

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    https://www.researchgate.net/figure/...fig1_258254997

    http://www.nmr.mgh.harvard.edu/mkozh...ag=allocentric

    http://www.nmr.mgh.harvard.edu/mkozhevnlab/?page_id=618

    "Our central finding is that some individuals use imagery to construct vivid, concrete, and detailed images of individual objects (object visualizers), whereas others use imagery to represent the spatial relationships between objects and perform spatial transformations, such as mental rotation (spatial visualizers). Moreover, our behavioral results showed that there is a trade-off between object and spatial imagery abilities: while object visualizers score poorly on spatial imagery tasks but excel on object imagery tasks, spatial visualizers score high on spatial imagery tasks but poorly on object imagery tasks."

    -----

    1) object visualization (Si) vs. spatial visualization (Se)

    2) allocentric spatial processing (Si) vs. egocentric spatial processing (Se)
    Last edited by Petter; 08-06-2020 at 05:22 PM.

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    https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/...18.2010.539700

    We report two experiments on the relationship between allocentric/egocentric frames of reference and categorical/coordinate spatial relations. Jager and Postma (2003) suggest two theoretical possibilities about their relationship: categorical judgements are better when combined with an allocentric reference frame and coordinate judgements with an egocentric reference frame (interaction hypothesis); allocentric/egocentric and categorical/coordinate form independent dimensions (independence hypothesis). Participants saw stimuli comprising two vertical bars (targets), one above and the other below a horizontal bar. They had to judge whether the targets appeared on the same side (categorical) or at the same distance (coordinate) with respect either to their body-midline (egocentric) or to the centre of the horizontal bar (allocentric). The results from Experiment 1 showed a facilitation in the allocentric and categorical conditions. In line with the independence hypothesis, no interaction effect emerged. To see whether the results were affected by the visual salience of the stimuli, in Experiment 2 the luminance of the horizontal bar was reduced. As a consequence, a significant interaction effect emerged indicating that categorical judgements were more accurate than coordinate ones, and especially so in the allocentric condition. Furthermore, egocentric judgements were as accurate as allocentric ones with a specific improvement when combined with coordinate spatial relations. The data from Experiment 2 showed that the visual salience of stimuli affected the relationship between allocentric/egocentric and categorical/coordinate dimensions. This suggests that the emergence of a selective interaction between the two dimensions may be modulated by the characteristics of the task.



    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4673307/

    The use and neural representation of egocentric spatial reference frames is well-documented. In contrast, whether the brain represents spatial relationships between objects in allocentric, object-centered, or world-centered coordinates is debated. Here, I review behavioral, neuropsychological, neurophysiological (neuronal recording), and neuroimaging evidence for and against allocentric, object-centered, or world-centered spatial reference frames. Based on theoretical considerations, simulations, and empirical findings from spatial navigation, spatial judgments, and goal-directed movements, I suggest that all spatial representations may in fact be dependent on egocentric reference frames.

    [...]

    The current review demonstrates several difficulties and challenges in teasing apart allocentric spatial reference frames, non-spatial mechanisms, and egocentric representations. The examples given here illustrate that it is possible to explain a wide variety of allocentric task effects using egocentric spatial reference frames. The interpretation offered here is of course only one possible interpretation, and it is certainly possible to refer to object recognition as “allocentric” if what is meant by that is the ability to categorize multiple viewpoints as the same object. However, this is not necessarily an agreed-upon definition. Future studies could test the specific predictions made by the egocentric account and control for alternative non-spatial explanations. A clear and consistent definition of the term allocentric will be a key step in this direction.



    https://www.slideshare.net/petemandi...tric-interface

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hippoc...and_navigation
    Last edited by Petter; 08-09-2020 at 12:52 PM.

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    1) object visualization (Si) vs. spatial visualization (Se)

    2) allocentric spatial processing (Si) vs. egocentric spatial processing (Se)
    3) allocentric spatial processing (Se+) vs. egocentric spatial processing (Se-)

    4)
    egocentric/allocentric, i.e. hybrid representations (Se+) vs. egocentric (Se-) ... and allocentric (Si)
    Last edited by Petter; 08-09-2020 at 01:07 PM.

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    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hippoc...and_navigation

    "There are several navigational cells in the brain that are either in the hippocampus itself or are strongly connected to it, such as the speed cells present in the medial entorhinal cortex. Together these cells form a network that serves as spatial memory. The first of such cells discovered in the 1970s were the place cells, which led to the idea of the hippocampus acting to give a neural representation of the environment in a cognitive map. When the hippocampus is dysfunctional, orientation is affected; people may have difficulty in remembering how they arrived at a location and how to proceed further."

    This is definitely related to SLI.

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    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hippocampus

    "The hippocampus is part of the limbic system, and plays important roles in the consolidation of information from short-term memory to long-term memory, and in spatial memory that enables navigation."


    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Place_cell#Episodic_memory


    "Place cells play an important role in episodic memory. One important aspect of episodic memory is the spatial context in which the event occurred. Hippocampal place cells have stable firing patterns even when cues from a location are removed and specific place fields begin firing when exposed to signals or a subset of signals from a previous location. This suggests that place cells provide the spatial context for a memory by recalling the neural representation of the environment in which the memory occurred. By establishing spatial context, place cells play a role in completing memory patterns. Furthermore, place cells are able to maintain a spatial representation of one location while recalling the neural map of a separate location, effectively differentiating between present experience and past memory. Place cells are therefore considered to demonstrate both pattern completion and pattern separation qualities."

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    Se: egocentric spatial processing and/or egocentric-allocentric spatial processing (i.e. hybrid representations)

    Si: "allocentric" spatial processing (i.e. spatial memory) and object/pattern recognition
    Last edited by Petter; 08-10-2020 at 10:03 AM.

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    Si+ anticipation ********************, surprise *******************

    Si- anticipation ***, surprise ***

    This is probably incorrect. Both Si+ and Si- try to maximize anticipation/interest and minimize surprise/confusion.

    Si-

    useful patterns: ********************

    potentially useful patterns: ***


    Si+

    useful patterns: ***

    potentially useful patterns: ********************

    -----

    For example, an SLI can be very interested in history, antiques, medicine, cookery etc. The difference is that he (or she) does not need Intuition and he knows it is useful knowledge.

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    Both useful patterns and potentially useful patterns are about facts, so ILI: Ni Te Si Fe etc does not work. Facts are directly related to observation/experience and memory (Si).

    "Facts may be checked by reason, experiment, personal experience, or may be argued from authority."

    ILI: read facts (i.e. potentially useful patterns ... and some useful patterns) ---> speculate (i.e. Intuition) ---> read facts ---> speculate ---> read facts etc.

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    Both useful patterns and potentially useful patterns are about facts, so ILI: Ni Te Si Fe etc does not work. Facts are directly related to observation/experience and memory (Si).

    "Facts may be checked by reason, experiment, personal experience, or may be argued from authority."

    ILI: read facts (i.e. potentially useful patterns ... and some useful patterns) ---> speculate (i.e. Intuition) ---> read facts ---> speculate ---> read facts etc.
    In this context, useful is essentially the same as practical. So SLI can be very detailed when it comes to practical and personal matters.

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    https://www.the16types.info/vbulleti...ion-(Filatova)

    "Si – Program function. Represented by the sensation of harmony, beauty and health. Everything must be balanced in the best way possible. At the same time, beauty must be combined with usefulness: this is applied to his work, relations with people, decoration and furnishing of living quarters, and in the comprehensive development of a physically healthy body."

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    https://introvertdear.com/news/intro...ng-to-science/

    Another difference between introverts and extroverts has to do with our nervous systems. Everyone’s nervous system has two “sides” — the sympathetic side, which triggers the “fight, fright, or flight” response, and the parasympathetic side, which is responsible for “rest and digest” mode.

    In other words, the sympathetic side is like hitting the gas pedal, while the parasympathetic side is like slamming on the brakes.

    When your sympathetic system is activated, your body gears up for action. Adrenaline is released, glucose energizes muscles, and oxygen increases. Areas of your brain that control careful, measured thinking are turned off, although dopamine increases alertness in the back of your brain.

    On the other hand, when you engage the parasympathetic side, your muscles relax, energy is stored like a squirrel preparing for winter, and food is metabolized. Acetylcholine increases alertness and blood flow to the front of your brain.

    To be clear, extroverts and introverts use both sides of their nervous systems at different times. But which side do we introverts generally prefer? You’ve probably already guessed: According to Dr. Laney, we prefer the parasympathetic side, which slows and calms us.

    Ever wonder why, as an introvert, you are prone to overthinking? It may have to do with how we process stimuli differently than extroverts.

    When information from the outside world — like someone’s voice or images on a computer screen — enters an extrovert’s brain, it travels a shorter pathway, Laney theorizes. It passes through “quick response” areas of the brain where taste, touch, sight, and sound are processed.

    [...]

    If Laney’s theory is correct, this means introverts process information more thoroughly than extroverts do. No wonder it can take us longer to put our thoughts into words, react, or make decisions!

    -----

    This is a definition of extraversion/introversion.

    Extroverts make fast decisions but they can be imprecise. Introverts make slow decisions but they are usually precise.

    -----

    This also explains why there are no ambiverts, since we are either in the extroverted mode or in the introverted mode.

    I also think everybody has a preferred side.
    Extroverts interact more with the external world than the internal world, so they must often make fast decisions.

    Introverts interact more with the internal world than the external world, so they can often make slow decisions.
    Last edited by Petter; 08-15-2020 at 04:02 PM.

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    ILI: read facts (i.e. potentially useful patterns ... and some useful patterns) ---> speculate (i.e. Intuition) ---> read facts ---> speculate ---> read facts etc.

    ILI: recall a memory (now it is a potentially useful pattern) ---> speculate ---> recall a memory ---> speculate ---> recall a memory etc.
    Last edited by Petter; 08-15-2020 at 05:19 AM.

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    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prospective_memory

    Both Si- and Si+ include prospective memory.

    -----

    Si includes short-term memory.

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Short-...working_memory

    "The relationship between short-term memory and working memory is described differently by various theories, but it is generally acknowledged that the two concepts are distinct. They both do not hold information for very long but short term memory simply stores information for a short while, while working memory retains the information in order to manipulate it. Short term memory is part of working memory but that doesn’t make it the same thing.

    Working memory is a theoretical framework that refers to structures and processes used for temporarily storing and manipulating information. As such, working memory might also be referred to as working attention. Working memory and attention together play a major role in the processes of thinking. Short-term memory in general refers, in a theory-neutral manner, to the short-term storage of information, and it does not entail the manipulation or organization of material held in memory. Thus, while there are short-term memory components to working memory models, the concept of short-term memory is distinct from these more hypothetical concepts.

    Within Baddeley's influential 1986 model of working memory there are two short-term storage mechanisms: the phonological loop and the visuospatial sketchpad. Most of the research referred to here involves the phonological loop, because most of the work done on short-term memory has used verbal material. Since the 1990s, however, there has been a surge in research on visual short-term memory, and also increasing work on spatial short-term memory."



    https://ir.lib.uwo.ca/hucjlm/vol45/iss1/17/

    "Extroverted individuals have been known to have lower cortical arousal and they tend to have better short term memories."

    "It has been found that introverted individuals have higher cortical arousal levels thus enhancing memory consolidation and storage abilities (Cox-Fuenzalisa, Angie, Holloway, Sohl, 2006). They have better memory for the long term."
    Last edited by Petter; 08-20-2020 at 05:25 PM.

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    Si-

    practical and personal knowledge/patterns: strong

    general knowledge/patterns: strong

    specific knowledge/patterns (besides work): weak

    new patterns (Intuition):
    non-existent



    Si+

    practical and personal knowledge/patterns: weak

    general knowledge/patterns: weak

    specific knowledge/patterns (besides work): strong

    new patterns (Intuition): strong
    Last edited by Petter; 08-19-2020 at 03:55 PM.

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    Se vs. Si

    11) ??? vs. decision-making ... which is related to propositional logic, cause and effect, temporal-sequential ordering etc.
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Decision-making

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dual_p...theory#Systems

    Si: system 1

    Se: system 2

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    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Analog...e_of_induction

    On the contrary, Ibn Taymiyya, Francis Bacon and later John Stuart Mill argued that analogy is simply a special case of induction. In their view analogy is an inductive inference from common known attributes to another probable common attribute, which is known only about the source of the analogy, in the following form:

    Premises:

    a is C, D, E, F, G

    b is C, D, E, F

    Conclusion:

    b is probably G

    -----

    It is possible that Ne is a special case of Thinking/logic.

    OR

    Ne = analogy (including metaphor, hyperbole, simile etc.)

    "Analogy is a cognitive process of transferring information or meaning from a particular subject (the analog, or source) to another (the target), or a linguistic expression corresponding to such a process. In a narrower sense, analogy is an inference or an argument from one particular to another particular, as opposed to deduction, induction, and abduction, in which at least one of the premises, or the conclusion, is general rather than particular in nature. The term analogy can also refer to the relation between the source and the target themselves, which is often (though not always) a similarity, as in the biological notion of analogy."

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    John Bargh reconceptualized the notion of an automatic process by breaking down the term "automatic" into four components: awareness, intentionality, efficiency, and controllability. One way for a process to be labeled as automatic is for the person to be unaware of it. There are three ways in which a person may be unaware of a mental process: they can be unaware of the presence of the stimulus (subliminal), how the stimulus is categorized or interpreted (unaware of the activation of stereotype or trait constructs), or the effect the stimulus has on the person's judgments or actions (misattribution). Another way for a mental process to be labeled as automatic is for it to be unintentional. Intentionality refers to the conscious "start up" of a process. An automatic process may begin without the person consciously willing it to start. The third component of automaticity is efficiency. Efficiency refers to the amount of cognitive resources required for a process. An automatic process is efficient because it requires few resources. The fourth component is controllability, referring to the person's conscious ability to stop a process. An automatic process is uncontrollable, meaning that the process will run until completion and the person will not be able to stop it. Bargh conceptualized automaticity as a component view (any combination awareness, intention, efficiency, and control) as opposed to the historical concept of automaticity as an all-or-none dichotomy.

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    The right PFC/Se can mentally rotate a bowl (on a table) 180 degrees and transform it into a completely different object (a simple drum) or a new object.
    This is probably incorrect. Both Se+ and Se- can mentally rotate objects.

    Si recalls a memory/pattern, i.e. a drum. Ne (or '+') Se compares the rotated bowl to the memory/drum and sees similarities. Si, Se and Ne Intuition support each other, and Si often needs Ne Se and Intuition to recall a memory.

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mental_rotation

    "Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of brain activation during mental rotation reveal consistent increased activation of the parietal lobe, specifically the inter-parietal sulcus, that is dependent on the difficulty of the task. In general, the larger the angle of rotation, the more brain activity associated with the task. This increased brain activation is accompanied by longer times to complete the rotation task and higher error rates. Researchers have argued that the increased brain activation, increased time, and increased error rates indicate that task difficulty is proportional to the angle of rotation."
    Last edited by Petter; 08-23-2020 at 10:59 AM.

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    Ne/Se+ ... two objects (i.e. patterns) can have a similar structure/shape, so we can associate an object with another object ... a rotated bowl --> a drum

    Ni/Si+ ... two sequences of objects (i.e. patterns) can have one object/pattern in common, so we can associate an object with a different context ... tennis ball + tennis court --> tennis ball + dog

    Both Si- and Si+ experience new sequences of objects and contextualize objects, but only Si+ uses conscious/purposeful synthesis.

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    Se and Si perceive similarities, so there are no Ne and Ni. There is only Intuition, i.e. Prefrontal Synthesis, which synthesizes mental images.

    Si <--> Intuition <--> Se ... analogy (recall a memory) OR logical reasoning (compare premises)

    Si (sequences of objects/patterns) <--> Intuition <--> Se (transfer of force, probability etc) ... a new context (visualize a scenario) OR causal reasoning/decision-making (compare events)
    Last edited by Petter; 08-23-2020 at 10:58 AM.

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    Ne ... "projection-first" (analogy)

    1. Si recalls/visualizes a person, a bowl and a floor.

    2. Se rotates the bowl 180 degrees in relation to the floor and puts a person on top of it.

    3. Intuition synthesizes an image of a person and an image of a rotated bowl.

    4. Si perceives a person on top of a bowl and recalls a memory: a small bench

    -----

    logical reasoning and categorization ... "alignment-first"

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    1. Si recalls/visualizes a person, a bowl and a floor.

    2. Se rotates the bowl 180 degrees in relation to the floor and puts a person on top of it.

    3. Intuition synthesizes an image of a person and an image of a rotated bowl.

    4. Si perceives a person on top of a bowl and recalls a memory: a small bench
    5. Se compares the structure of a rotated bowl to the structure of a small bench.

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    Ne ... dorsolateral prefrontal cortex

    Ni ... ventrolateral prefrontal cortex

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    https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics...frontal-cortex

    Frontal Lobe Controls Knowledge Encoding and Retrieval

    The VLPFC controls encoding of mappings between knowledge stored in posterior areas and decision processes in frontal areas and subsequent retrieval. The human lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) is organized functionally along a gradient from abstract decision and action planning processes in more rostral parts (e.g., VLPFC) to increasingly more concrete response-related processes in more caudal parts (e.g., premotor cortex (PM)). This prefrontal system maintains patterns of activity for various types of information (e.g., linguistic, visuospatial, object, rules) in functionally distinct neural populations. Each influences (controls) other areas to accomplish a mental or overt action. For example, to decide the category of a visual object, dorsolateral PFC (DLPFC) and PM accumulate and compare visual evidence obtained from the occipitotemporal cortex to compute a decision according to a rule that determines the choice, which involves more rostral frontopolar (BA 10) areas. In the parietal lobe, the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) also accumulates evidence, consistent with its strong bidirectional connections with some decision-making regions. The VLPFC has an important role in disambiguating knowledge, as when multiple interpretations of the input result from initial processing (e.g., ambiguous figures, impoverished percepts, multiple alternative meanings or knowledge types are competing), and it interacts reciprocally with DLPFC and PM to recruit working memory resources to resolve uncertainty.



    https://www.sciencedirect.com/scienc...59438807000323

    Functional role of the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex in decision making

    To make deliberate decisions, we have to utilize detailed information about the environment and our internal states. The ventral visual pathway provides detailed information on object identity, including color and shape, to the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC). The VLPFC also receives motivational and emotional information from the orbitofrontal cortex and subcortical areas, and computes the behavioral significance of external events; this information can be used for elaborate decision making or design of goal-directed behavior. In this review, we discuss recent advances that are revealing the neural mechanisms that underlie the coding of behavioral significance in the VLPFC, and the functional roles of these mechanisms in decision making and action programming in the brain.
    Last edited by Petter; 08-31-2020 at 01:20 PM.

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    ... there are no Ne and Ni. There is only Intuition, i.e. Prefrontal Synthesis, which synthesizes mental images.
    There could be two different kinds of Prefrontal Synthesis.

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    "Typical IQ test tasks involving PFS of several objects: (A) requires the combination of two objects. The top two rows of the matrix indicate the rule: 'the object in the right column is the result of the combination of the two objects shown in the left and middle row' (the solution in the 5th square). (B) shows a question that relies on the PFS of four objects. (C) shows a question in which PFS of two objects has to be conducted according to the following rule specified in the top row: 'the object in the middle column goes on top of the object in the left column' ( the solution in the second square)."

    Analogy (Ne), categorization (Ne: "alignment-first" analogy ... or Ti) and logical reasoning (Ti) use PFS.

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    https://groups.psych.northwestern.ed...rMarkman97.pdf

    "Analogy and similarity are often assumed to be distinct psychological processes. In contrast to this position, the authors suggest that both similarity and analogy involve a process of structural alignment and mapping, that is, that similarity is like analogy. In this article, the authors first describe the structure-mapping process as it has been worked out for analogy. Then, this view is extended to similarity, where it is used to generate new predictions. Finally, the authors explore broader implications of structural alignment for psychological processing."

    "Categorization. Structural alignment and mapping can provide insight into other cognitive processes (see Figure 5). As one example, similarity is often given a central role in categorization (Hampton, 1995 ; Rosch, 1975; Smith & Medin, 1981) . It is common to assume that objects can be categorized on the basis of perceptual, behavioral, or functional commonalities with the category representation (e .g ., robins are seen as birds because of their perceptual and behavioral similarity to a prototype bird or to many other birds that have been encountered)."

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    categorization: we define a similarity between two (or more) patterns through observation

    logical reasoning: we relate some patterns and similarities to other patterns and similarities, and define a similarity between two (or more) patterns via argumentation


    logical reasoning ... using abstractions and categories ... general <--> general

    categorization ... discovering new categories and selecting best match ... particular <--> general

    analogy ... particular <--> particular

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    A = B
    B = C
    Therefore, A = C

    1) Ne: categorization ... A --> the concept of A (i.e. an abstract object in the mind), B --> the concept of B, C --> the concept of C, = --> the concept of =

    2) Ti: logical reasoning ... concept <--> concept ... A = B <--> B = C

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    A = B
    B = C
    Therefore, A = C

    1) Ne: categorization ... A --> the concept of A (i.e. an abstract object in the mind), B --> the concept of B, C --> the concept of C, = --> the concept of =

    2) Ti: logical reasoning ... concept <--> concept ... A = B <--> B = C
    A, B and C are variables here so they refer to numbers, figures etc (i.e. similar size, quantity or shape).

    Si recognizes the letters and the equals sign.

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    ... there are no Ne and Ni. There is only Intuition, i.e. Prefrontal Synthesis, which synthesizes mental images.
    This is probably correct, so there is only one kind of PFS. Se and PFS = Se+ ... Si and PFS = Si+

    Ne ... dorsolateral prefrontal cortex

    Ni ... ventrolateral prefrontal cortex
    Se+ ... dorsolateral prefrontal cortex

    Si+ ... ventrolateral prefrontal cortex

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    Se+ ... dorsolateral prefrontal cortex
    "Ti" ... Se+ left hemisphere

    "Ne" ... Se+ right hemisphere

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    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Workin...y#In_the_brain

    Localization of brain functions in humans has become much easier with the advent of brain imaging methods (PET and fMRI). This research has confirmed that areas in the PFC are involved in working memory functions. During the 1990s much debate has centered on the different functions of the ventrolateral (i.e., lower areas) and the dorsolateral (higher) areas of the PFC. A human lesion study provides additional evidence for the role of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in working memory. One view was that the dorsolateral areas are responsible for spatial working memory and the ventrolateral areas for non-spatial working memory. Another view proposed a functional distinction, arguing that ventrolateral areas are mostly involved in pure maintenance of information, whereas dorsolateral areas are more involved in tasks requiring some processing of the memorized material. The debate is not entirely resolved but most of the evidence supports the functional distinction.

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