10-24-2019, 08:42 AM
ILI's dominant function is Si+ and IEI's dominant function is Fe+. ILI can compromise with Fe+ but he/she cannot compromise with Si+, and IEI can compromise with Si+ but he/she cannot compromise with Fe+. That is why Si+ (Fe+) and Fe+ (Si+) look so different.
'Generally, children with more advanced theory of mind abilities display more advanced social skills, greater adaptability to new situations, and greater cooperation with others. As a result, these children are typically well-liked. However, “children may use their mind-reading abilities to manipulate, outwit, tease, or trick their peers”.'
Fe is definitely related to theory of mind. But ILI usually doesn't manipulate people, so why is Fe+ a conscious (or strong) function? I think ILI's Fe+ is passive and he/she is aware of manipulative people.
"The second peculiarity: the contents of vital track functions is the result of individual period of psyche development, the period when we are individuals, when we are the hub of the universe, when everything rotates around us, around our interests, when we are still children and we are not interested in the society with all its demands. Socionists say: the vital track is the superblock of individual life activity. This means that vital track functions work for our individual needs and in the way that is customary and comfortable for us."
This could be another reason why ILI's Fe+ is different from IEI's Fe+. ILI's Fe+, Fi-, Se+ and Si- would be "individual functions".
Here's yet another explanation.
All functions can lead, so IEI does not play tennis (for example) with a leading Fe+. But some functions can more easily become leading functions.
Si+ and auxiliary functions (Fe+, Se- and Fi-)
Se- and auxiliary functions (Fi-, Si+ and Fe+)
Fi+ and auxiliary functions (Se+, Fe- and Si-)
Fe- and aux...
Si- and aux...
Se+ and aux...
Fi- and aux...
Fe+ and aux...
... or the strong functions can lead:
Si+ (Fe+) Se- (Fi-) ... ego
Fi+ (Se+) Fe- (Si-) ... super-ego
Se+ (Fi+) Si- (Fe-)
Fe+ (Si+) Fi- (Se-)
Last edited by Petter; 11-25-2019 at 07:36 AM.
10-25-2019, 09:46 AM
Si-, Se+, Si+, Se-.gif
You cannot associate the suitcase (i.e. the object/pattern) with a mug. Why? Because the suitcase includes a context (a traveler or a train etc). But you can associate the suitcase with a new/different context (Si+).
It is possible that Se+ (or Ne) does not associate between objects (or the structure of objects). Instead, it carefully examines the structure (rotates it etc) and Si- then recognizes a "new object".
Ne = Se+ combined with Si- (?)
Si-/Se+ ... the fundamental structure is changed, so the context (or object/pattern) is also changed ... pattern + change = new pattern (i.e. known pattern or previously non-existent pattern)
"What's the only difference between a vacuum and a Harley? Where the dirt bag sits." ... the object and the context have changed, i.e. dirtbag now describes a dirty person (with a different context)
Si+/Se- ... the object is moved to a new/different context, which is added to the object (and gives it a deeper meaning) ... pattern + pattern = different pattern
Ni/Si+ you visualize a big parachute on top of a Boeing 737 ... the objects/patterns have not changed, but there is an additional pattern
Se- assembles a product ... every part of the product is an object/pattern ... pattern + pattern + pattern + pattern etc. = different pattern (Si+)
Si+ combines known objects (or patterns) and creates a different object (or a new/different context), so Se- cannot change the fundamental structure.
Se- can saw a plank in half since the fundamental structure is the same.
Se+ changes the fundamental structure (or shape), so Si- must provide known/actual objects.
Se+ cannot change the structure of an unclear/unfinished object.
... so SLI / ISTJ (or ISTp) is an "Ne user" (when Si- leads).
Last edited by Petter; 10-30-2019 at 05:42 AM.
10-27-2019, 10:18 AM
"Flights of fantasy and blurry boundlessness – such things are not characteristic of SLI. He cannot sufficiently evaluate the long-term prospects of one task over another or accurately predict someone's actions, and thus finds it difficult to solve strategic problems. Sometimes he makes mistakes in judging people and is inclined to view them in a more positive, advantageous light, and then later feels deceived by his expectations. In his designs and assessments of future prospects, he has to depend on his ability to make realistic estimates rather than intuition. For additional certainty, he discusses his plans with his colleagues, to confirm that they correspond to the established regulations and norms, which others deem sensible."
I think this is an accurate description of SLI's Ni, but I don't see how it can be the third most conscious function.
"This role function is also called the third function. When a person is actively using his base function, the role function is essentially turned off. The two cannot both be "on" at the same time, because they represent two opposing approaches to similar things."
I agree with Wikisocion here, but this means that Si-Te-Ni-Fe is not a mental track.
EDIT: I think Si and Ni complement each other. Si is more basic, though, so you can use Si without Ni but you cannot use Ni without Si.
Last edited by Petter; 10-31-2019 at 05:23 AM.
10-29-2019, 07:28 AM
Si-/Se+ ... the object/pattern is static, the fundamental structure is dynamic
Si- zooms in on an object/pattern ... Se+ moves geons (or other 3D shapes) and changes the fundamental structure ... engineering
Si+/Se- ... the object/pattern is dynamic, the fundamental structure is static
one object/pattern always moves towards another pattern/context ... nuts and bolts etc --> machine ... or this particle --> these particles?
Si-/Se- ... this does not work ... you would experience the world like an animal (i.e. only reactions).
Si+/Se+ ... this does not work either ... Si+ is about a connection between two (or more) objects/patterns ... so if you zoom in on one object (in order to rotate it etc.) then you lose the connection.
Here's another way to put it: you cannot be an "Ne user" and an "Ni user".
Ni Te Fi Se etc (Grant) is not possible. Why? Because you need a starting point (i.e. a "scene"), so Ni is always preceded by a memory (Si).
Si: "Episodic memory is defined as the ability to recall and mentally reexperience specific episodes from one's personal past"
Ni: "Episodic future thinking refers to the capacity to imagine or simulate experiences that might occur in one's personal future."
Last edited by Petter; 11-01-2019 at 10:43 AM.
11-01-2019, 08:37 AM
An object is always related to other objects (i.e. it must be placed somewhere). If it is a useful relation/pattern, then you want to memorize it.
There are two questions (Si and Se): What objects are included in the pattern? (What is the pattern?) and Where is the object located (in relation to the other objects)?
If you are unsure about the pattern or find it useless, then you can change it by using Intuition/PFC (or trial-and-error). You can add a new object or a new context (Ni/Si+), and you can change the structure/interaction (stretch it, rotate it etc ... Ne/Se+).
11-04-2019, 06:31 AM
The medial temporal lobe (MTL) includes the hippocampus, amygdala and parahippocampal regions, and is crucial for episodic and spatial memory. MTL memory function consists of distinct processes such as encoding, consolidation and retrieval. Encoding is the process by which perceived information is transformed into a memory trace. After encoding, memory traces are stabilized by consolidation. Memory retrieval (recall) refers to the process by which memory traces are reactivated to access information previously encoded and stored in the brain. Although underlying neural mechanisms supporting these distinct functional stages remain largely unknown, recent studies have indicated that distinct oscillatory dynamics, specific neuron types, synaptic plasticity and neuromodulation, play a central role. The theta rhythm is believed to be crucial in the encoding and retrieval of memories. Experimental and computational studies indicate that precise timing of principal cell firing in the hippocampus, relative to the theta rhythm, underlies encoding and retrieval processes. On the other hand, sharp-wave ripples have been implicated in the consolidation through the “replay” of memories in compressed time scales.
The first functional area is the primary visual cortex. It contains a low-level description of the local orientation, spatial-frequency and color properties within small receptive fields. Primary visual cortex projects to the occipital areas of the ventral stream (visual area V2 and visual area V4), and the occipital areas of the dorsal stream—visual area V3, visual area MT (V5), and the dorsomedial area (DM).
The ventral stream is known for the processing the "what" in vision, while the dorsal stream handles the "where/how." This is because the ventral stream provides important information for the identification of stimuli that are stored in memory. With this information in memory, the dorsal stream is able to focus on motor actions in response to the outside stimuli.
The idea of a division between a dorsal and a ventral visual stream is one of the most basic principles of visual processing in the brain (Milner and Goodale, 1995). The ventral stream originates in primary visual cortex and extends along the ventral surface into the temporal cortex; the dorsal stream also arises in primary visual cortex, but continues along the dorsal surface into parietal cortex. The ventral stream (or “vision-for-perception” pathway) is believed to mainly subserve recognition and discrimination of visual shapes and objects, whereas the dorsal stream (or “vision-for-action” pathway) has been primarily associated with visually guided reaching and grasping based on the moment-to-moment analysis of the spatial location, shape, and orientation of objects. It has been proposed, however, that the dorsal stream also processes tools as a category, so that manipulable objects would be processed by those brain regions that are important for the execution of actions. However, because dorsal and ventral visual regions are heavily interconnected, it is difficult to tell in healthy subjects whether information is processed along the dorsal stream only, or whether it is fed to parietal cortex via ventral visual regions.
Spontaneous (real-time) brain activity using tNLM filtering of fMRI data
Why are there mental and vital functions? Because two functions must process information simultaneously. You cannot observe structural differences (Se: longer, higher, fewer...) without being somewhat aware of the object (Si).
Si+ (Fe+) // Se+ (Fi+) ... strong (ego)
Se- (Fi-) // Si- (Fe-) ... weak
Fi+ (Se+) // Fe+ (Si+) ... strong (super-ego)
Fe- (Si-) // Fi- (Se-) ... weak
Last edited by Petter; 11-04-2019 at 09:50 AM.
11-09-2019, 02:46 PM
"It has been proposed, however, that the dorsal stream also processes tools as a category, so that manipulable objects would be processed by those brain regions that are important for the execution of actions."
dorsal ventral 4.gif
Se does not want colors and other details, so the pattern/image is transformed into a manipulable object (i.e. matter in space or structure).
My current view is that Ne/Se+ (PFC) can move structures/shapes, and Ni/Si+ (PFC) can move patterns/objects.
Last edited by Petter; 11-09-2019 at 03:19 PM.
11-11-2019, 09:53 AM
"Why are there mental and vital functions? Because two functions must process information simultaneously."
Is this correct? hmm...
Si+ (Fe+) // Se+ (Fi+) ... strong (ego)
Se- (Fi-) // Si- (Fe-) ... weak
Fi+ (Se+) // Fe+ (Si+) ... strong (super-ego)
Fe- (Si-) // Fi- (Se-) ... weak
Si+ (Se-) // Fe+ (Fi-) ... strong (ego)
Se- (Si+) // Fi- (Fe+) ... weak
Fi+ (Fe-) // Se+ (Si-) ... strong (super-ego)
Fe- (Fi+) // Si- (Se+) ... weak
Last edited by Petter; 11-13-2019 at 12:22 AM.
11-16-2019, 07:53 AM
Here's a visualization of the functions.
11-22-2019, 08:15 AM
Relatively little is known about the neural bases of the Big Five personality trait Openness/Intellect. This trait is composed of two related but separable aspects, Openness to Experience and Intellect. On the basis of previous behavioral research (DeYoung, Peterson, & Higgins, 2005), we hypothesized that brain activity supporting working memory (WM) would be related to Intellect but not Openness. To test this hypothesis we used fMRI to scan a sample of 104 healthy adults, as they performed a difficult WM task. Intellect (and not Openness) was found to correlate with WM accuracy and with accuracy-related brain activity, in left lateral anterior prefrontal cortex and posterior medial frontal cortex. Neural activity in these regions mediated the association between Intellect and WM performance, implicating these regions in the neural substrate of Intellect. Intellect was also correlated significantly with scores on tests of intelligence and working memory capacity, but the association of Intellect with brain activity could not be entirely explained by cognitive ability.
The Default Mode Network (DMN) regions exhibit deactivation during a wide variety of resource demanding tasks. However, recent brain imaging studies reported that they also show activation during various cognitive activities. In addition, studies have found a negative correlation between the DMN and the working memory network (WMN). Here, we investigated activity in the DMN and WMN regions during preparation and execution phases of a verbal working memory task. Results showed that the core DMN regions, including the medial prefrontal cortex and posterior cingulate cortex and WMN regions were activated during preparation. During execution, however, the WMN regions were activated but the DMN regions were deactivated. The results suggest that activation of these network regions is affected by allocation of attentional resources to the task relevant regions due to task demands. This study extends our previous results by showing that the core DMN regions exhibit activation during task preparation and deactivation during task execution.
Recent brain imaging studies showed that there are a number of large-scale brain networks, resting state and task-related, including the dorsal attentional network (DAN), the frontoparietal network (FPN) or executive working memory network (WMN), the primary motor network, the primary visual network and the Default Mode Network (DMN). These networks may sometimes work together to perform tasks, but may compete with each other for processing resources.
Human Memory: Third Edition ... by Gabriel A. Radvansky
The DMN is a collection of brain structures whose activity is highly correlated. The DMN is more active when a person does not have attention strongly engaged in som activity. That is, the activation of the DMn is negatively correlated with activity in of various attention networks in the brain (Andrews-Hanna, 2012). In some sense, this network in the brain that is more active by default when people are colloquially thinking about "nothing in particular," such as when they are daydreaming , mind-wandering, autobiographically remembering, or perhaps engaging in episodic future thinking about their own lives or people they know. This network is also active when a person is watching a television show or a film (Hasson, Furman, Clark, Dudai, & Davachi, 2008; Lerner, Honey, Silbert, & Hasson, 2011; Regev, Honey, Simony, & Hasson, 2013) and so may be involved in basic comprehension.
The DMN is made up of a number of structures, including parts of the parietal lobe, such as the posterior cingulate cortex (BAs 23 and 31), the angular gyrus (BA 39), and the precuneus (BA 7), parts of the frontal lobe, such as the dorsomedial and medial prefrontal cortices (BA 11), and parts of the temporal lobe, including its lateral portions and the anterior pole, as well as parts of the hippocampal complex such as the hippocampus, parahippocampus, and retrosplenial cortices (see the next section)(Andrews-Hanna, Smallwood, & Spreng, 2014). Keep in mind that the DMN is an example of one collection of structures working together. There are others.
The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is a prefrontal cortex region in the frontal lobes of the brain which is involved in the cognitive process of decision-making. In non-human primates it consists of the association cortex areas Brodmann area 11, 12 and 13; in humans it consists of Brodmann area 10, 11 and 47.
Multiple functions have been ascribed to the OFC including mediating context specific responding, encoding contingencies in a flexible manner, encoding value, encoding inferred value, inhibiting responses, learning changes in contingency, emotional appraisal, altering behavior through somatic markers, driving social behavior, and representing state spaces. While most of these theories explain certain aspects of electrophysiological observations and lesion related changes in behavior, they often fail to explain, or are contradicted by other findings. One proposal that explains the variety of OFC functions is that the OFC encodes state spaces, or the discrete configuration of internal and external characteristics associated with a situation and its contingencies. For example the proposal that the OFC encodes economic value may be a reflection of the OFC encoding task state value. The representation of task states could also explain the proposal that the OFC acts as a flexible map of contingencies, as a switch in task state would enable the encoding of new contingencies in one state, with the preservation of old contingencies in a separate state, enabling switching contingencies when the old task state becomes relevant again. The representation of task states is supported by electrophysiological evidence demonstrating that the OFC responds to a diverse array of task features, and is capable of rapidly remapping during contingency shifts. The representation of task states may influence behavior through multiple potential mechanisms. For example, the OFC is necessary for ventral tegmental area (VTA) neurons to produce a dopaminergic reward prediction error, and the OFC may encode expectations for computation of RPEs in the VTA.
DMN and FPN.png
"It is also active when the individual is thinking about others, thinking about themselves, remembering the past, and planning for the future."
Si could be related to the default mode network (DMN, task-negative) and Se could be related to the fronto-parietal network (FPN, task-positive). This would explain the existence of mental and vital functions. But on the other hand, some researchers refer to FPN as a "flexible hub network". And DMN seems to include the angular gyrus, which deals with number processing (i.e. Se).
Last edited by Petter; 11-29-2019 at 09:36 AM.
11-24-2019, 06:10 AM
Some critics of the two-visual-systems hypothesis (TVSH) argue that it is incompatible with the fundamentally egocentric nature of visual experience (what we call the ‘perspectival account’). The TVSH proposes that the ventral stream, which delivers up our visual experience of the world, works in an allocentric frame of reference, whereas the dorsal stream, which mediates the visual control of action, uses egocentric frames of reference. Given that the TVSH is also committed to the claim that dorsal-stream processing does not contribute to the contents of visual experience, it has been argued that the TVSH cannot account for the egocentric features of our visual experience. This argument, however, rests on a misunderstanding about how the operations mediating action and the operations mediating perception are specified in the TVSH. In this article, we emphasize the importance of the ‘outputs’ of the two systems to the specification of their respective operations. We argue that once this point is appreciated, it becomes evident that the TVSH is entirely compatible with a perspectival account of visual experience.
It is possible that Si (Fe) is allocentric and Se (Fi) is egocentric.
"As alluded to earlier, early research tied the idea of an allocentric representation closely to a cognitive map, which was postulated to posses many of the same qualities as a cartographic map."
This is definitely related to SLI.
However, Si corresponds to object visualization and Se corresponds to spatial visualization.
Last edited by Petter; 11-29-2019 at 08:42 AM.
12-01-2019, 07:47 AM
"Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of brain activation during mental rotation reveal consistent increased activation of the parietal lobe, specifically the inter-parietal sulcus, that is dependent on the difficulty of the task."
My current view is that both Se- and Se+ can move an object. The difference is that Se+ moves an object to a new/unusual position.
Si+ cannot move an object. Instead, it projects an object onto a "scene". The new pattern includes the object and the "scene".
For example: a table is a pattern, a chair is a pattern, a bowl is a pattern, a spoon is a pattern ... and a spoon in a bowl, on a table, next to a chair is also a pattern ... so Si+/- does not perceive spatial relations.
Last edited by Petter; 12-02-2019 at 09:43 AM.
01-24-2020, 06:42 AM
Here's an example:
Originally Posted by Petter
Se+ ... math --> engineering --> a bridge --> no need to climb --> he or she avoids dangerous situations
I think robots are the ultimate expression of Se+.
01-24-2020, 08:29 AM
Originally Posted by Petter
I think Se and Si are accurately defined, but Fe and Fi have to be modified.
We interact with objects and we identify objects (Se and Si), and we interact with subjects and we identify subjects (Fi and Fe). But what does the latter mean? We can move an object but we (usually) cannot move another person. Instead, Fi and Fe deal with social relationships and cooperation. We need other people to hunt, to farm, for protection etc. That is why Fi is directly related to mirror neurons. Fi imitates another person, which is essential for cooperation, and builds a (new) relationship. Fe identifies the relationship via facial expressions, tone of voice and body language.
"The original role of emotions was to motivate adaptive behaviors that in the past would have contributed to the passing on of genes through survival, reproduction, and kin selection."
Joy informs a person that he/she is on the right track: Keep identifying a useful relationship.
02-01-2020, 06:19 AM
"The ACC area in the brain is associated with many functions that are correlated with conscious experience. Greater ACC activation levels were present in more emotionally aware female participants when shown short 'emotional' video clips. Better emotional awareness is associated with improved recognition of emotional cues or targets, which is reflected by ACC activation."
Fe is definitely related to the cingulate cortex.