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Thread: Model D

  1. #521
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    It is possible that VAN is the extroverted version of "Si" and the MTL subsystem is the introverted version of "Si"/"Ni" (see post #519).

  2. #522
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    It is possible that VAN is the extroverted version of "Si" and the MTL subsystem is the introverted version of "Si"/"Ni" (see post #519).
    ... or "Se 1" = DAN and "Se 2" = VAN

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    Harold Schlosberg.jpg

    pleasantness–​unpleasantness <--> Dopamine

    attention–rejection <--> Noradrenaline

    level of activation <--> Serotonin

    (?)

  4. #524
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    Harold Schlosberg.jpg

    pleasantness–​unpleasantness <--> Dopamine

    attention–rejection <--> Noradrenaline

    level of activation <--> Serotonin

    (?)
    https://imgur.com/7HLfjgb

  5. #525
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    surprise <--> amazement ... not a startle response

  6. #526
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    information ---> interest (motivation) ---> related information ---> pattern, conclusion, knowledge

    information ---> surprise/amazement (motivation) ---> related information ---> categorization, creativity

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    interest and surprise <--> new information/conclusions ... and potentially important for survival. This is why tense is included.

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    pleasantness (like) <--> agree with information/conclusions

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    1. high level of attention vs. low level of attention

    2. attention vs. rejection

    3. narrow, focused attention vs. broad attention (most likely)

  10. #530
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    interest and boredom

    https://imgur.com/STkeT73

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    interest = positive excitement

    anger = negative excitement

  12. #532
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    surprise <--> stop and rethink

    fear <--> be quiet, hide

  13. #533
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    Noradrenaline

    1) attention

    2) energy

    ------

    joy <--> high energy (?)

  14. #534
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    https://www.hormone.org/your-health-...norepinephrine

    "Bursts of norepinephrine can lead to euphoria (very happy) feelings..."

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    interest = positive excitement

    anger = negative excitement
    try hard and succeed ---> interest ---> more energy ---> continue

    try hard and fail ---> anger ---> more energy ---> try again

  16. #536
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    https://www.scielo.br/j/bjmbr/a/5QWC...MnG8H/?lang=en

    "A large body of evidence has established the importance of the central neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) in the control of the autonomic nervous system, among other functions."

    (tense vs. relaxed)

  17. #537
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    https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22076606/

    "Higher-order executive tasks such as learning, working memory, and behavioral flexibility depend on the prefrontal cortex (PFC), the brain region most elaborated in primates. The prominent innervation by serotonin neurons and the dense expression of serotonergic receptors in the PFC suggest that serotonin is a major modulator of its function."

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    partial success and complete success is possible ---> interest ---> more energy ---> continue

    partial failure but complete success is possible ---> anger ---> more energy ---> try again

    partial success but complete success is not possible ---> surprise ---> less energy ---> continue with a different approach

    partial failure and complete failure is possible ---> fear ---> less energy ---> slow down or stop

    success ---> joy

    failure ---> sadness

    ------

    I am not entirely sure pleasantness and disgust are basic emotions.

  19. #539
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    http://www.socialemotiveneuroscience.org/pubs/Kemp.pdf

    "Interestingly, and in contrast to Ekman, he specifically argues that disgust is not a basic emotion; rather, he categorizes disgust, like hunger, as a sensory and homeostatic affect."

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    Oxford Handbook of Evolutionary Psychology

    'Disgust' is not a basic emotion because it is a fundamental sensory rather than emotional affect. This is not to say that the feeling of sensory disgust is not basic. But just like feelings of tiredness, sweetness, etc., they simply are not emotional affects, namely ones that require a flexibly complex instinctual action apparatus (one that is dynamically responsive to relevant sensory events). However, through social learning, the feeling of revulsion can be re-symbolized into the emotional domain, as social disgust/disdain/scorn, but there is no clear data that brain evolution engendered that re-symbolization. Human imagination and social learning may have sufficed. Similar argument could be made for emotions such as jealousy, shame and many others.

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    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Self-discrepancy_theory

    The self-discrepancy theory states that individuals compare their "actual" self to internalized standards or the "ideal/ought self". Inconsistencies between "actual", "ideal" (idealized version of yourself created from life experiences) and "ought" (who persons feel they should be or should become) are associated with emotional discomforts (e.g., fear, threat, restlessness). Self-discrepancy is the gap between two of these self-representations that leads to negative emotions.

  22. #542

  23. #543
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    (success <--> joy + self-reflection) <--> pride

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    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Love

    Biological models of sex tend to view love as a mammalian drive, much like hunger or thirst. Helen Fisher, an anthropologist and human behavior researcher, divides the experience of love into three partly overlapping stages: lust, attraction, and attachment. Lust is the feeling of sexual desire; romantic attraction determines what partners mates find attractive and pursue, conserving time and energy by choosing; and attachment involves sharing a home, parental duties, mutual defense, and in humans involves feelings of safety and security. Three distinct neural circuitries, including neurotransmitters, and three behavioral patterns, are associated with these three romantic styles.

    Psychology depicts love as a cognitive and social phenomenon. Psychologist Robert Sternberg formulated a triangular theory of love and argued that love has three different components: intimacy, commitment, and passion. Intimacy is a form in which two people share confidences and various details of their personal lives, and is usually shown in friendships and romantic love affairs. Commitment, on the other hand, is the expectation that the relationship is permanent. The last form of love is sexual attraction and passion. Passionate love is shown in infatuation as well as romantic love. All forms of love are viewed as varying combinations of these three components. Non-love does not include any of these components. Liking only includes intimacy. Infatuated love only includes passion. Empty love only includes commitment. Romantic love includes both intimacy and passion. Companionate love includes intimacy and commitment. Fatuous love includes passion and commitment. Lastly, consummate love includes all three components.

    ------

    love is not a specific emotion (nor joy + trust) ... but it includes joy, interest etc.

  25. #545
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    https://www.frontiersin.org/articles...019.00781/full

    Basic emotions evolved to handle fundamental life tasks, e.g., fear and anger can aid survival by influencing an organism to either flee for safety or fight to defend itself. The elements of basic emotions can be combined to form complex or compound emotions (Ekman, 1992b). Even though many psychologists have accepted the theory of basic emotions, there is no consensus about the precise number of basic emotions. Robert Plutchik proposed eight primary emotions: anger, fear, sadness, disgust, surprise, anticipation, trust and joy, and arranged them in a color wheel. Ekman proposed seven basic emotions: fear, anger, joy, sad, contempt, disgust, and surprise; but he changed to six basic emotions: fear, anger, joy, sadness, disgust, and surprise. However, a recent study found that disgust and anger shared similar wrinkled nose, and fear and surprise shared raised eyebrows (Jack et al., 2014). The differences between anger and disgust and the differences between fear and surprise, are thought to have developed later for social functions and not for survival per se (Mansourian et al., 2016). As such, Jack et al. (2014) proposed that we humans have four basic emotions: fear, anger, joy, and sad. Notably, other authors have also proposed fear, anger, joy, and sadness as four basic emotions (Gu et al., 2015, 2016; Wang and Pereira, 2016; Zheng et al., 2016). As Izard said: people need the category label of fear to explain flight to one another for safety, anger to explain the frustration of blocked goal responses, joy (or its equivalent) to explain the pride of achievement, and sadness to explain the experience of a life-changing loss (Izard, 2007).

  26. #546
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    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Silvan_Tomkins

    Disagreements among theorists persist today over Tomkins' firm insistence that there were nine and only nine affects, biologically based. The basic six are: interest-excitement, enjoyment-joy, surprise-startle, distress-anguish, anger-rage, and fear-terror. Tomkins always described the first six, and one that "evolved later" (shame-humiliation) in pairs. In these pairs, the first pair part names the mild manifestation and the second the more intense. The final two affects described by Tomkins are "dissmell" and disgust. Tomkins argued that these nine affects are quite discrete (whereas emotions are complex and muddled), that they manifest a shared biological heritage with what is called emotion in animals, and that they differ from Freudian drives in lacking an object.

  27. #547
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    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Envy

    Aristotle defined envy as pain at the sight of another's good fortune, stirred by "those who have what we ought to have". Bertrand Russell said that envy was one of the most potent causes of unhappiness. Not only is the envious person rendered unhappy by their envy, Russell argued, but that person may also wish to inflict misfortune on others to reduce their status.

    ------

    (another person's success <--> joy + self-reflection) <--> envy ... i.e. less happy

  28. #548
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    partial failure and complete failure is possible ---> fear ---> less energy ---> slow down or stop
    fear ---> be more careful (serotonin: wakefulness and inhibition of impulses)

  29. #549
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    https://www.sicotests.com/psyarticle.asp?id=302

    anger and fear <--> explicit goals

    interest and surprise <--> implicit motives

    (?)

  30. #550

  31. #551

  32. #552

  33. #553

  34. #554

  35. #555

  36. #556
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    https://imgur.com/dDLWev4

    I think anger is a neutral emotion with high energy.

  37. #557
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    "For example in the Schimmack and Grob model fear can be considered a high energy, high tension and low valence emotion; while excitement a high energy, low tension and high valence emotion."

  38. #558

  39. #559
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    This is probably an inaccurate model since tension is related to avoidance goals and interest is related to approach goals. I also think surprise has been "re-symbolized into the emotional domain" (see post #540), so fear and startle should be most tense.

    ... anger has high tension.
    Last edited by Petter; 08-01-2021 at 05:57 PM.

  40. #560
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    anger <--> positive attention

    fear <--> negative attention

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