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Thread: Model D

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    PFC and the premotor cortex.png

    It is possible that a single-tasker gives more weight to the current goal.
    nardi 4.jpg

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    https://medicalxpress.com/news/2014-...man-brain.html

    "inferential and creative processes are tightly linked in the human prefrontal cortex"

    "Alternatively, rodents have no lateral prefrontal cortex, so that they can only infer and decide to stay or to switch reactively after acting and experiencing action outcomes. Primates with the lateral prefrontal cortex can do that proactively before acting – but thanks to the frontopolar cortex, humans also make inferences on concurrent strategies and can infer and decide to switch directly to one of these alternative strategies."

    PFC 2.jpg

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    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3096488/

    "The dorsomedial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices (dmPFC and dlPFC) together support cognitive control, with dmPFC responsible for monitoring performance and dlPFC responsible for adjusting behavior."

    dmPFC and dlPFC.jpg

    ------

    dmPFC and vmPFC <--> decision-making

    dlPFC and vlPFC <--> problem-solving

    (?)

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    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3925887/ (Dissociable roles of the hippocampus and parietal cortex in processing of coordinate and categorical spatial information)

    It is generally accepted that spatial relationships and spatial information are critically involved in the formation of cognitive maps. It remains unclear, however, which properties of the world are explicitly encoded and how these properties might contribute to the formation of such maps. It has been proposed that spatial relations are encoded either categorically, such that the relative positions of objects are defined in prepositional terms; or as visual coordinates, such that the precise distances between objects are represented. Emerging evidence from human and animal studies suggests that distinct neural circuits might underlie categorical and coordinate representations of object locations during active spatial navigation. Here we review evidence for the hypothesis that the hippocampal formation is crucial for encoding coordinate information, whereas the parietal cortex is crucial for encoding categorical spatial information. Our short review provides a novel view regarding the functions and potential interactions of these two regions during active spatial navigation."

    As humans navigate they build up mental models of the physical world, which are indispensable for finding one’s way in complex environments and planning routes to distant locations. Previous human and animal studies have suggested that mental models of spatial environments are not maintained as a unitary representation; instead, different aspects of space appear to be underpinned by many different cognitive subsystems and brain regions (e.g., Bohbot et al., 2000; Epstein and Higgins, 2007; Zhang et al., 2012; Baumann and Mattingley, 2013). A prominent example of this representational fragmentation is the distinction between egocentric and allocentric representations of object locations. The egocentric representational system is thought to provide transient action-oriented representations of the environment from the viewpoint of the navigator (for an overview see reviews by Klatzky, 1998; Burgess, 2006). Several lines of evidence indicate that egocentric representations are supported by the parietal lobe. For example, lesions of the posterior parietal cortex are known to disrupt patients’ ability to point to the locations of objects in the absence of visual input (Levine et al., 1985), and neurons in the intraparietal sulcus have been found to respond to visual and auditory targets in a body-centered fashion (Mullette-Gillman et al., 2005). In contrast, the allocentric system is thought to provide a comprehensive and enduring representation of the environment that is accessible from any viewpoint (Klatzky, 1998; Burgess, 2006). In humans and rodents, the hippocampus has been found to contain view-invariant cells that fire selectively as a function of an animal’s location in space, but show little dependence on the animal’s egocentric orientation during active navigation (O’Keefe and Dostrovsky, 1971; Ekstrom et al., 2003).

    Another hypothesized dichotomy within spatial memory is the distinction between categorical and coordinate representations of space. Categorical spatial relationships capture general properties of the spatial layout, referring to broad equivalence classes of spatial positions relative to reference stimuli (e.g., left/right, below/above, inside/outside). By contrast, coordinate spatial relationships refer to precise spatial locations, which can be expressed in terms of metric units between locations (e.g., Object A is located 2.4 m from Object B).
    mathematics <--> (mainly) categorical spatial relationships

    chess <--> (mainly) coordinate spatial relationships

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    https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics...frontal-cortex

    According to Corbetta et al. (2008), SMG, and particularly right TPJ, forms with the ventral PFC a network of coactive regions they call the ventral network. They propose that the ventral network, which is different from the DMN, supports bottom-up attention to important, behaviorally relevant stimuli, even if they are not salient or distinctive. Thus, according to their view, SMG, but not AG, would support bottom-up attention. Like the DMN, the ventral network is deactivated during focused demanding tasks. According to Corbetta et al. (2008), the deactivation reflects “filtering” of irrelevant stimuli, and increases with task demands.

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    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3096488/

    "The dorsomedial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices (dmPFC and dlPFC) together support cognitive control, with dmPFC responsible for monitoring performance and dlPFC responsible for adjusting behavior."

    dmPFC and dlPFC.jpg

    ------

    dmPFC and vmPFC <--> decision-making

    dlPFC and vlPFC <--> problem-solving

    (?)
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emotio...ecision-making

    Pfister and Böhm (2008) have developed a classification of how emotions function in decision-making that conceptualizes an integral role for emotions, rather than simply influencing decision-making.

    The four roles played by emotions in this framework are:

    Providing information: This includes both positive and negative emotions that arise directly from the options being considered by the decision maker, who can then evaluate choices with this "information." This role is especially likely when the felt emotion is reducible; that is, easily reduced to a simple comparison (for example, attraction and repulsion), and unequivocally positive or negative. Pleasure and displeasure make up the spectrum of these emotions.

    Improving speed: While making a good decision is important, making a quick decision is also important. Therefore, emotions and associated somatic conditions can offer mechanisms for encouraging a decision maker to decide quickly, especially when one or more options are potentially dangerous. Hunger, anger and fear can all induce a speedy decision.

    Assessing relevance: Emotions help decision makers decide whether a certain element of the decision is relevant to their particular situations. Each person’s personal history and state(s) of mind leads to a different set of relevant information. The two such emotions most studied to date are regret and disappointment.

    Enhancing commitment: In some ways, making the decision best for the self may be construed "the best" overall. However, acting in the best interests of others is also important in human civilization, and moral sentiments, or emotions, serve to help decision makers commit to such a decision rather than being drawn back toward pure self-interest. Emotions such as guilt and love help decision makers make such commitments.

    ------

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dorsom...ecision_making

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ventro...ecision_making

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    dichotomies

    task-oriented vs. people-oriented (FPN vs. CON)
    ... or self vs. others

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    https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-017-18784-y

    "Individuals from populations with a highly efficient dopamine system are biased towards behavioural approach traits (Extraversion and Emotional Stability) due to higher perceived reward values, whereas individuals from populations with a less efficient dopaminergic system are biased towards risk avoidance."




    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Striatum

    "The striatum is a critical component of the motor and reward systems; receives glutamatergic and dopaminergic inputs from different sources; and serves as the primary input to the rest of the basal ganglia."

    "The ventral striatum, and the nucleus accumbens in particular, primarily mediates reward, cognition, reinforcement, and motivational salience, whereas the dorsal striatum primarily mediates cognition involving motor function, certain executive functions (e.g., inhibitory control and impulsivity)..."

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    dichotomies

    1. deliberateness/perfectionism vs. impulsivity/quick decisions (PFC vs. the striatum)

    2. task-oriented vs. people-oriented ... or self vs. others (FPN vs. CON)

    3. the external world vs. the internal world (CON vs. DMN ... FPN+DAN/VAN vs. FPN+DMN)

    4. the dorsal stream vs. the ventral stream

    5. the left hemisphere vs. the right hemisphere

    6. high energy vs. low energy (dopamine sensitivity ... the sympathetic nervous system vs. the parasympathetic nervous system ... 16PF: Liveliness, F)

    7. decision-making (goal-oriented) vs. problem-solving ... or single-tasking vs. multitasking (DMN > FPN vs. DMN < FPN ... DAN/VAN > FPN vs. DAN/VAN < FPN ... or BA10: active vs. inactive)

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    deliberateness/perfectionism (or open to change) <--> "Jungian subjectivity" (I)

    impulsivity/quick decisions (or traditional) <--> "Jungian objectivity" (E) ... the facts

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    quick decisions: 1 or 6 (or both)

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    a physicist: deliberateness/perfectionism, task-oriented, the internal world, the ventral stream, the right hemisphere, low energy, problem-solving

    a political scientist: deliberateness/perfectionism, task-oriented, the internal world, the ventral stream, the right hemisphere, low energy (or high energy), decision-making

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    https://medicalxpress.com/news/2020-...lly-space.html

    Episodic memory refers to the human ability to recall and play out specific experiences or events from the past. Past neuroscience studies suggest that the mapping of time-space associated with episodic memory is rooted in a specific region of the brain: the hippocampus.

    Based on research findings gathered so far, humans are the only species on Earth also able to imagine chronological sequences that never happened but that might be in some ways connected to real events. This ability lies at the basis of what is known as causal reasoning, which entails identifying cause-and-effect relationships, such as 'if this thing happens in the future, then that other thing could happen.'

    ------

    the ventral stream <--> MTL and the hippocampus

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    a legal philosopher: deliberateness/perfectionism, task-oriented, the internal world, the ventral stream, the left hemisphere, low energy (or high energy), problem-solving

    a lawyer: deliberateness/perfectionism, task-oriented, the internal world, the ventral stream, the left hemisphere, low energy (or high energy), decision-making

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    I think openness to change vs. traditional/habitual behavior is a dichotomy (PFC vs. the striatum ... see post #672) and deliberateness vs. impulsivity/quick decisions is related to Perfectionism (16PF).

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    https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-019-48704-1

    "In the long history of identifying factors to predict academic performance, conscientiousness, a so-called ‘big five’ personality trait describing self-regulation and goal-directed behavior ..."

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    single-tasking vs. multitasking <--> Perfectionism (Q3)

    BA10: goal-oriented, planning, organizing

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    the ventral stream <--> MTL and the hippocampus
    ... and the fusiform gyrus (pattern recognition)

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    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6673813/

    Many real-life decision-making problems incorporate higher-order structure, involving interdependencies between different stimuli, actions, and subsequent rewards. It is not known whether brain regions implicated in decision making, such as the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), use a stored model of the task structure to guide choice (model-based decision making) or merely learn action or state values without assuming higher-order structure as in standard reinforcement learning. To discriminate between these possibilities, we scanned human subjects with functional magnetic resonance imaging while they performed a simple decision-making task with higher-order structure, probabilistic reversal learning. We found that neural activity in a key decision-making region, the vmPFC, was more consistent with a computational model that exploits higher-order structure than with simple reinforcement learning. These results suggest that brain regions, such as the vmPFC, use an abstract model of task structure to guide behavioral choice, computations that may underlie the human capacity for complex social interactions and abstract strategizing.

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    dichotomies

    1. deliberateness/perfectionism (goal-oriented) vs. tolerates disorder ... or single-tasking vs. multitasking (BA10: active vs. inactive)

    2. task-oriented vs. people-oriented ... or self vs. others (FPN vs. CON)

    3. the external world vs. the internal world (CON vs. DMN ... FPN+DAN/VAN vs. FPN+DMN)

    4. the dorsal stream vs. the ventral stream

    5. the left hemisphere vs. the right hemisphere

    6. high energy/quick decisions vs. low energy (dopamine sensitivity ... the sympathetic nervous system vs. the parasympathetic nervous system ... 16PF: Liveliness, F)

    7. decision-making vs. problem-solving ... (DMN > FPN vs. DMN < FPN ... DAN/VAN > FPN vs. DAN/VAN < FPN)

    8. openness to change vs. traditional/habitual behavior (PFC vs. the striatum)

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    Terence Tao: tolerates disorder, task-oriented, the internal world, the dorsal stream, the right hemisphere, low energy, problem-solving, openness to change

    Bill Gates: deliberateness/perfectionism, task-oriented, the internal world, the dorsal stream, the left hemisphere, low energy, problem-solving, openness to change

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    https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26337006/

    Neuroticism is a personality trait associated with vulnerability for mood and anxiety disorders. Serotonergic mechanisms likely contribute to neuroticism. Serotonin 5-HT1A receptors are altered in mood and anxiety disorders, but whether 5-HT1A receptors are associated with neuroticism in healthy subjects is unclear. We measured brain serotonin 5-HT1A receptor in 34 healthy subjects in vivo using positron emission tomography (PET) and [carbonyl-(11)C]WAY-100635. Binding potential (BPP) was determined using the golden standard of kinetic compartmental modeling using arterial blood samples and radiometabolite determination. Personality traits were assessed using the Karolinska Scales of Personality. We found a strong negative association between serotonin 5-HT1A receptor BPP and neuroticism. That is, individuals with high neuroticism tended to have lower 5-HT1A receptor binding than individuals with low neuroticism. This finding was confirmed with an independent voxel-based whole-brain analysis. Other personality traits did not correlate with 5-HT1A receptor BPP. Previous observations have reported lower serotonin 5-HT1A receptor density in major depression. This neurobiological finding may be a trait-like phenomenon and partly explained by higher neuroticism in patients with affective disorders. The link between personality traits and 5-HT1A receptors should be studied in patients with major depression.




    https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/b...nsitive-person

    Highly sensitive people have a special variation of the serotonin transporter gene that behaves a little differently. If you have this gene variant, you have lower serotonin levels, and chances are good you'll be a highly sensitive person.




    https://hexaco.org/scaledescriptions

    Emotionality Domain

    The Fearfulness scale assesses a tendency to experience fear. Low scorers feel little fear of injury and are relatively tough, brave, and insensitive to physical pain, whereas high scorers are strongly inclined to avoid physical harm.

    The Anxiety scale assesses a tendency to worry in a variety of contexts. Low scorers feel little stress in response to difficulties, whereas high scorers tend to become preoccupied even by relatively minor problems.

    The Dependence scale assesses one's need for emotional support from others. Low scorers feel self-assured and able to deal with problems without any help or advice, whereas high scorers want to share their difficulties with those who will provide encouragement and comfort.

    The Sentimentality scale assesses a tendency to feel strong emotional bonds with others. Low scorers feel little emotion when saying good-bye or in reaction to the concerns of others, whereas high scorers feel strong emotional attachments and an empathic sensitivity to the feelings of others.
    Last edited by Petter; 05-18-2022 at 06:34 AM.

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    2. task-oriented vs. people-oriented ... or self vs. others (CON << FPN vs. CON+FPN ... CON << DAN/VAN vs. CON+DAN/VAN)

    3. the external world vs. the internal world (CON vs. DMN ... DAN/VAN vs. DMN)

    7. decision-making vs. problem-solving (DMN >> FPN vs. DMN+FPN or DAN/VAN+FPN)

    ------

    >> 'much greater than'

  24. #704
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    Craig Ferguson

    expressive

    people-oriented

    the internal world ("Ne-" <--> dmPFC)

    the dorsal stream

    multitasking

    the right hemisphere

    open to change
    ... and decision-making

  25. #705
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    a psychologist (or a journalist): expressive, people-oriented, the internal world, the dorsal stream, multitasking, the right hemisphere, openness to change, decision-making

    an engineer (or a businessman): expressive, people-oriented, the internal world, the dorsal stream, multitasking, the right hemisphere, openness to change, problem-solving

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    expressive types:

    1. quick decisions

    2. reward-sensitive

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    Petter can you help me out with figuring out my own type? According to what other people say and what i also think, I believe my Si is strong but would like to narrow it down to Si- or Si+

    I am leaning towards Si- as it is about aesthetics and beauty. I think im good at artistic things, making colours coordinate and i make sure each room in my house has a matching colour scheme. I also have good facial recognition if that's relevant. I get really bothered when colours dont match and things like that. I enjoy looking at art and creating art. I'm good at matching aesthetics with each other and classifying what type of aesthetic it is. for example I realize that a certain fashion trend comes from X decade.
    However I also want to be in a comfortable space, i try to buy things that are comfy or have a practical use that is good for comfort (like pillows, clothes suited to the weather etc) but im not really that comfortable most of the time. And I have difficulty relaxing, despite trying hard to make my living space or working space nice. I need other people around me to be able to relax properly. Or i need to leave the house and let someone else to it like go to a relaxing store or a spa.

    It kinda feels like my Si- is high dimensionality and my Si+ seems low dimensional. Which i understand is the idea of model D, if the + form is strong then the - form is weak and vice versa. Does this sound like Si+ ignoring to you or something else?

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    Hi photon, I don't use Si+ and Si- anymore and I don't think it is possible to have high dimensional Si- and low dimensional Si+ unless '+' means PFC/working memory (or "Intuition").

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    a physicist: rFPN 2 > rFPN 1 > lFPN 1 > aDMN > FN (active) > rVAN etc + inexpressive

    a mathematician: rFPN 1 > lFPN 1 > rFPN 2 > aDMN > FN (active) > rDAN etc + inexpressive

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    a political scientist: rFPN 2 > aDMN > lFPN 2 > FN (active) > rVAN > lFPN 1 etc + inexpressive

    a political advisor: aDMN > rFPN 2 > lFPN 2 > FN (active) > rVAN > lFPN 1 etc + inexpressive

    ------

    1. the dorsal stream

    2. the ventral stream

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