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Thread: Model D

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    monoamine neurotransmitter 3.jpg

    noradrenaline and serotonin <--> anger and fear

    noradrenaline and dopamine <--> interest and surprise

    dopamine and serotonin <--> joy and sadness

    (?)

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    fear ---> be more careful (serotonin: wakefulness and inhibition of impulses)
    anger ---> be less careful (or more reckless)

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    anger: high energy/low vigilance, high tension, neutral valence

    fear: low energy/high vigilance, high tension, neutral valence



    interest: low energy/high vigilance, neutral tension, positive valence

    surprise: low energy/high vigilance, neutral tension, negative valence



    joy: neutral energy/vigilance, low tension, positive valence

    sadness: neutral energy/vigilance, low tension, negative valence

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    "What is the facial expression of disgust?

    Disgust. Facial movements: Eyebrows pulled down, nose wrinkled, upper lip pulled up, lips loose. The disgust face doesn't just show our distaste, it also works to protect us. Wrinkling the nose closes the nasal passage protecting it from dangerous fumes and squinting our eyes shields them from damage."

    ------

    Disgust is probably not a basic emotion (see post #540).

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    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Surprise_(emotion)

    "It has been suggested that surprise is an envelope term for both the startle response and also disbelief. More recent research shows that raising of the eyebrows does provide facial feedback to disbelief but not to the startle."

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    interest/excitement ---> pay attention to the object

    surprise ---> do not pay attention to the object (it does not make any sense)

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    disgust (or dislike)

    1. rotten food etc ... stop eating it (motivation)

    2. asymmetric objects (not motivation)

    3. asymmetric face/body (motivation ... no attraction)

    4. different/"wrong" shape, pattern, behavior, conclusion etc (not motivation)

    5. immoral behavior (motivation: mirror neurons <--> joy/sadness)

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    disgust (or dislike)

    2. asymmetric objects (not motivation)
    https://www.simplypsychology.org/maslow.html

    "Aesthetic needs - appreciation and search for beauty, balance, form, etc."

    ------

    Aesthetic needs (if they exist) deal with motivation and health but they are not related to basic emotions (they are too specific).

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    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Contempt

    "Contempt is a pattern of attitudes and behaviour, often towards an individual or group, but sometimes towards an ideology, which has the characteristics of disgust and anger."

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    shame: a person causes sadness <--> empathy and self-reflection (mirror neurons)

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    awe: admiration/reverence (like <--> self-reflection) + fear and/or surprise

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    shame: a person causes sadness <--> empathy and self-reflection (mirror neurons)
    Social dominance hierarchy and the pride-shame system

    Warren D. TenHouten

    "Both guilt and shame involve fear, but while the fear of guilt is of retribution or punishment for one’s transgressions, shame involves the fear of negative evaluation, reproach, or condemnation by others. Just as pride motivates a need for achievement, shame involves a fear of failure. Individuals high in fear of failure report greater shame upon a perceived failure than do those low in fear of failure (McGregor and Elliot 2005). Those most fearful of failure see failure as an unacceptable event with negative implications for their self-worth; they will be highly motivated to avoid failure in achievement-related situations and the shame that will follow. Fear is a basic emotional reaction whose behavioral concomitant is withdrawal, avoidance, flight, and hiding, as if one had disappeared from society itself (Mascolo and Fischer 1995), or as if one were ‘hiding from humanity’ (Nussbaum 2004). That fear which is interior to shame can be seen in shame-driven behaviors, which involve looking down or away from the gaze of others (Keltner et al. 1995), a desire to ‘hide’ or ‘crawl under the rug’, and to engage in various other forms of what Plutchik sees as the core behavior of fear, namely ‘running, or flying away’ from (Plutchik 1980, p. 289), disappearing from, or escaping the psychological pain of a shame-eliciting situation (H. Lewis 1971, pp. 196–250). Shame is typically hidden, and this hiding behavior involves concealment of one’s shame, or the anticipation of future shame, from the self."

    ------

    I don't think shame itself contains fear.

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    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Remorse

    "Remorse is a distressing emotion experienced by an individual who regrets actions which they have done in the past that they deem to be shameful, hurtful, or wrong. Remorse is closely allied to guilt and self-directed resentment."

    ------

    sadness + disgust/regret <--> self-reflection

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    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guilt_(emotion)

    "Guilt is a moral emotion that occurs when a person believes or realizes—accurately or not—that they have compromised their own standards of conduct or have violated universal moral standards and bear significant responsibility for that violation. Guilt is closely related to the concept of remorse, regret, as well as shame."

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    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neuroscience_of_free_will

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    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guilt_(emotion)

    "Guilt is a moral emotion that occurs when a person believes or realizes—accurately or not—that they have compromised their own standards of conduct or have violated universal moral standards and bear significant responsibility for that violation. Guilt is closely related to the concept of remorse, regret, as well as shame."

    ------

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neuroscience_of_free_will
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Free_w...ological_state

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    Quote Originally Posted by CTzu View Post
    Hmmm, I don't want to sound criticizing but what's the purpose of having this model and how is the development of this Model D in advance? Is it flexible and reliable enough akin to another Socionics Model? What are advantages and disadvantages of using this model on purpose? And how do you define functions that are applied to your Model?
    Shh, here you're on Petter's personal notepad. Would you like it if I opened your personal text documents on your computer, and proceeded to add my own comments everywhere, between the lines ? Comments such as , "mmh this is dubious" ?
    Last edited by BaruchJorgell; 08-09-2021 at 07:13 AM.

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    Ah, I apologize for that, and yep, maybe I should learn more about this, thank you.
    PHILOTHEIST

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    Quote Originally Posted by CTzu View Post
    Ah, I apologize for that, and yep, maybe I should learn more about this, thank you.
    That was a joke. I will answer your questions later.

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    Hmmm, I don't want to sound criticizing but what's the purpose of having this model and how is the development of this Model D in advance? Is it flexible and reliable enough akin to another Socionics Model? What are advantages and disadvantages of using this model on purpose? And how do you define functions that are applied to your Model?
    Yep, here if you want to memorize those, but sure, thank you.
    PHILOTHEIST

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    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Free_will

    "In contrast, compatibilists hold that free will is compatible with determinism. Some compatibilists even hold that determinism is necessary for free will, arguing that choice involves preference for one course of action over another, requiring a sense of how choices will turn out. Compatibilists thus consider the debate between libertarians and hard determinists over free will vs. determinism a false dilemma."

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    Quote Originally Posted by CTzu View Post
    Yep, here if you want to memorize those, but sure, thank you.
    Model A is inaccurate in my view (see post #487) and the functions/information elements are questionable. For example, if Si means external dynamics of fields (one's internal state etc), then it is not possible to link SLI to traditional values. I think the functions should be based on large-scale brain networks (or subsystems) but I still don't know how to define them.

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    I think the functions should be based on large-scale brain networks
    I've read your post and it's such an interesting thought here. I agreed that Model A is imperfect in that extent although, at least, it ain't broken.
    PHILOTHEIST

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    http://www.tomkins.org/what-tomkins-...d-personality/

    "Disgust is an auxiliary of the hunger drive, an impulse to expel a noxious item that has been ingested. It functions as an affect because there are many things that we figuratively ingest (people, thoughts, sights, noises) that, when found to be toxic, need to be expelled."

    ------

    I don't think it is an affect or a basic emotion, though.

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    https://www.aipro.info/wp/wp-content...e_Reaction.pdf

    The startle response is not an emotion.

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    Shame and the Self

    Francis J. Broucek

    "According to Tomkins, the innate activator of shame is an incomplete reduction of interest-excitement or enjoyment-joy. Since Shame, in Tomkins's view, is an affect auxillary (that is to say, it is not a basic affect, per se, but is auxillary to the affects of interest-excitement and enjoyment-joy), any barrier to the ongoing experience of interest-excitement or enjoyment-joy that dampens but does not destroy such interest or enjoyment may activate shame. Although Tomkins's formula seems to fit very nicely with a great many shame experiences, it has the weakness that one can, without too much difficulty, think of numerous instances in which the formula apparently fails to hold. For example, one is watching, with great interest and excitement, a sporting event on TV when a technical problem briefly interrupts the transmission of the picture. One may feel distressed or enraged about this turn of events-but ashamed? Neither introspection nor observation of others confirms that shame is ordinarily activated in such a situation but, according to Tomkins's formula, it ought to be. Or imagine oneself enjoying a delicious meal when one's dinner companion shares some disconcerting information that dampens one's enjoyment of the meal. Is one likely to experience shame in such a situation. I think not."

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    https://time.com/4254089/science-crying/

    "But crying is more than a symptom of sadness, as Vingerhoets and others are showing. It’s triggered by a range of feelings—from empathy and surprise to anger and grief—and unlike those butterflies that flap around invisibly when we’re in love, tears are a signal that others can see. That insight is central to the newest thinking about the science of crying."

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    safety needs (protect/defend resources) <--> anger and fear

    growth needs (explore resources) <--> interest and surprise

    esteem needs (gain/exploit resources) <--> joy/pride and sadness/shame

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    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maslow...archy_of_needs

    "According to Maslow, humans possess an effective need for a sense of belonging and acceptance among social groups, regardless of whether these groups are large or small. For example, some large social groups may include clubs, co-workers, religious groups, professional organizations, sports teams, gangs, and online communities. Some examples of small social connections include family members, intimate partners, mentors, colleagues, and confidants. Humans need to love and be loved – both sexually and non-sexually – by others."

    ------

    These are ​safety needs, esteem needs and physiological needs.

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    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ventro...frontal_cortex

    "Alternatively, Corbetta and Shulman have advanced the hypothesis that there are two distinct frontoparietal networks involved in spatial attention, with the right VLPFC being a component of a right-lateralized ventral attention network that governs reflexive reorienting. From this perspective, the right lateral PFC, along with a region spanning the right temporoparietal junction (TPJ) and the inferior parietal lobule, are engaged when abrupt onsets occur in the environment, suggesting that these regions are involved in re-orienting attention to perceptual events that occur outside the current focus of attention. Also, the VLPFC is the end point of the ventral pathway (stream) that brings information about the stimuli's characteristics."

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    dmPFC: analogy, categorization

    dlPFC: logical reasoning, creativity (mathematics)

    vmPFC: episodic future thinking, decision-making

    vlPFC: logical reasoning, creativity (pattern recognition and language)

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    https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/658757v1.full

    "From recent work that the DMN may represent a unique state of the mind e.g. [59], [60], [61], [52], we now suggest that the DMN is a marker of an egocentric state of mind, while a task-positive network, like the extrinsic mode network (EMN) [1] is a marker of an allostatic state of mind."



    https://www.frontiersin.org/articles...020.00281/full

    "The dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) has been implicated in numerous aspects of psychological functions (Ebitz and Hayden, 2016), such as detecting and resolving conflicts among competitive responses (Shenhav et al., 2016), searching for a new value beyond the current familiar state (Kolling et al., 2016), and computing decision values based on external sensory signals from the environment, unlike the vmPFC involved in internal valuation (Bouret and Richmond, 2010; Nakao et al., 2012; Howard et al., 2015)."

    "Based on these findings, it can be speculated that, when two or more competing responses come into conflict, the dmPFC is engaged to search for a new and more appropriate response to resolve the conflict by directing attention to external sensory information from the environment or information available in memory (Cabeza et al., 2002; Horst and Laubach, 2009), which may have little to do with fulfilling the immediate internal needs of the body."

    "The dmPFC has been often shown to respond to negative outcomes such as pain (Rainville et al., 1997), monetary loss (Liu et al., 2011), as well as social rejection (Eisenberger et al., 2003). Some recent theoretical works also suggested a more general function of the dmPFC, that is, to integrate multiple sources of information from a wide range of brain network to guide our thoughts and actions (Shackman et al., 2011), or to maintain the representation of expected reward and to allocate available physiological resources to meet or exceed task demands (Touroutoglou et al., 2020). One can speculate that experiencing negative outcome may trigger neural processes of re-allocating attention to the environment in order to search for a new potentially better alternative, whereas experiencing positive outcome may elicit a simpler strategy of maintaining previously chosen behavior that have led to the successful consequence."

    "In social neuroscience, contrary to the role of the vmPFC in processing “first-person” information, the dmPFC appears to be more involved in processing “third-person” information, which includes mentalization or perspective-taking (Amodio and Frith, 2006; Frith and Frith, 2006; Mitchell et al., 2006; Hampton et al., 2008; Behrens et al., 2009; Kang et al., 2013), valuation of decisions for others (Suzuki et al., 2012; Jung et al., 2013; Hutcherson et al., 2015; Sul et al., 2015), evaluation of outcomes given to others (Chang et al., 2013; Apps and Ramnani, 2014; Lockwood et al., 2015), and prosocial behavior (Waytz et al., 2012)."


    dmPFC, rmPFC and vmPFC.jpg

    dmPFC, rmPFC and vmPFC 2.jpg

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    "According to the influential anatomical studies (Vogt, 2005; Mackey and Petrides, 2014; Joyce and Barbas, 2018; Palomero-Gallagher et al., 2019), human mPFC can be broadly divided into three functionally and anatomically dissociable subregions: (1) the vmPFC [roughly corresponds to the medial aspect of Brodmann area (BA) 11, BA 12, BA 14, and BA 25], (2) dmPFC [BA 9, BA 24 (the pregenual anterior cingulate cortex), and BA 32 (the anterior midcingulate cortex)], and (3) rmPFC [BA 10, BA 24 (the pregenual anterior cingulate cortex), and BA 32 (the pregenual anterior cingulate cortex)]."

    "The rmPFC, which lies between the vmPFC and the dmPFC, has unique and privileged anatomical features because of its widespread anatomical connections with many cortical and subcortical structures including the brainstem, the insula, and most of the other mPFC subregions (Dixon et al., 2017). This region has been implicated in various functions such as default-mode processing (Uddin et al., 2009; Andrews-Hanna et al., 2010), far-sighted decisions, where one needs to choose between immediate smaller and delayed more substantial reward (Kable and Glimcher, 2007), and, most notably, cognitive branching, that is, pursuing a long-term mental plan by tracking the values of ongoing and alternative behavioral strategies and switching to the better option (Koechlin and Hyafil, 2007; Mansouri et al., 2017).

    In social neuroscience, the rmPFC has been best known for its prioritized role in self-referential processing (Kelley et al., 2002; Moran et al., 2006; Northoff et al., 2006), although it also has been shown to encode decision values for both self and others (Hutcherson et al., 2015; Sul et al., 2015). For example, in a typical self-referential task where participants view a list of trait-related words and report whether they are self- or other-descriptive, increased activity is found in the rmPFC during conditions of self vs. other (Kelley et al., 2002). Different groups of researchers have interpreted such a self-referential activity in the rmPFC as perceived similarity (Mitchell et al., 2006), personal significance (Krienen et al., 2010; Kim and Johnson, 2015), and social valuation (D’Argembeau, 2013). An alternate, possibly more plausible, reason for the rmPFC activity during a self-referential task might be that it reflects heightened motivation for seeking self-enhancement, including both self-promotion (approach) and self-protection (avoidance), which is similar to its suggested role in reputation management (Amodio and Frith, 2006; Izuma, 2012). According to this account, the rmPFC activity increases during self- vs. other-referential task because one feels a greater need to engage motivation for self-enhancement. This alternative view can be supported by several recent findings listed below."

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    Creativity and the Brain’s Default Mode Network

    Marcus E. Raichle

    The relationship between the DMN and memory-related structures such as the hippocampus has the hallmark of how an internal model of the environment is built and maintained, which is critical for prediction, imagination, and creativity. More generally the DMN is concerned with our internal mental state (i.e., an egocentric perspective) whereas the networks with which it interacts offer an allocentric perspective. It is at this interface between the egocentric and allocentric perspective that the comfort one has with risk-taking, a necessary component of the creative process, is adjudicated. Exploring the many facets of the DMN’s role in the intrinsic activities of the brain will likely yield new insights into the creative process.

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    DMN/dmPFC: egocentric interaction with objects

    DMN/vmPFC: egocentric recognition/identification of objects

    (?)

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    https://www.frontiersin.org/articles...020.00281/full

    Similarly, in the specific context of prosociality, the vmPFC seems to encode decision values for highly internalized forms of altruistic behaviors (i.e., internalized prosocial valuation) as in harm-aversion in social dilemma and moral emotions (Moll et al., 2006; Hare et al., 2010; Shenhav and Greene, 2010; Tricomi et al., 2010; Zaki and Mitchell, 2011; Buckholtz and Marois, 2012; Crockett, 2013; Sul et al., 2015). For example, a more recent study showed that selfish people used the vmPFC only when calculating the value of the choices for themselves but not those for strangers, unlike altruistic people who used the vmPFC for both self and other (Sul et al., 2015). Besides, more prosocial people showed higher vmPFC activity during prosocial choice, whether they are observed by others or not, and higher vmPFC activity was associated with faster response time for prosocial choices (Jung et al., 2018). Taken together, these findings suggest that prosocial valuation encoded by vmPFC may be intuitively engaged and immune to social context.

    According to recent theories on morality and altruism (Haidt, 2007), the ultimate desire for survival and reproduction can be extended to creating an altruistic instrumental desire to sacrifice oneself for others. That is, people can learn the belief that the act of helping others is an effective way to draw a favorable impression from others, and such a belief can be internalized to create a new instrumental desire. Such an instrumental desire for altruism may be internalized in the vmPFC, which may then facilitate prosocial behavior automatically and intuitively, more or less independently of social context (Rand et al., 2012; Sul et al., 2015; Jung et al., 2018). This idea is also consistent with the findings that the vmPFC is associated with seeking social status (Milad et al., 2009; Hughes and Beer, 2012, 2013). For example, an altruistic decision may result from the motivation to avoid the possibility of losing reputation due to selfish behavior. In this sense, the vmPFC activity associated with prosocial behavior may indicate the degree to which one’s valuation for social reward is internalized, and, therefore, is resistant to contextual changes.

    "T" vs. "F"

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    https://www.pnas.org/content/112/25/7851

    How do selfish and prosocial brains function differently with regard to valuing the welfare of others? The present study addresses this question by combining neuroimaging, computational modeling, and an instrumental conditioning paradigm. Contrary to the conventional notion of the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) implicated in mentalization, we found that it was selfish individuals who showed greater spatial segregation between ventral and dorsal MPFC, which encoded self- and other-regarding values, respectively. Prosocial individuals, on the other hand, were characterized by overlapping self–other representation in the ventral MPFC and by stronger functional coupling between MPFC and striatum while representing and updating the value of other-regarding choices. These findings provide rigorous scientific evidence of neural markers reflecting individual differences in human prosociality.

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