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Thread: Model D

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    https://www.frontiersin.org/articles...012.00348/full

    Extraversion and anterior vs. posterior DMN activity during self-referential thoughts

    Recent studies show that fronto-posterior electroencephalogram (EEG) spectral power distribution is associated with personality. Specifically, extraversion is associated with an increase of spectral power in posterior cortical regions that overlap with the posterior default mode network (DMN) hub and a decrease of spectral power in anterior regions that overlap with the anterior DMN hub. Although there is evidence that dopaminergic neurotransmission may be involved, psychological processes that underlie these associations remain unclear. I hypothesize that these processes may have something to do with spontaneous self-referential thoughts. Specifically, I hypothesize that in extraverts self-referential thoughts may be associated with an increase of spectral power in the posterior DMN hub, whereas in introverts they may be associated with an increase of spectral power in the anterior DMN hub. After spontaneous EEG registration, participants were asked to fill in a questionnaire describing their thoughts during the registration. An item describing self-referential positive expectations (SRPE) was used to measure individual differences in the intensity of these processes. Source localization and independent component analyses were applied to EEG data to reveal oscillatory activity associated with the anterior and the posterior DMN hubs. Hierarchical regression analysis showed a significant interaction between extraversion scores and anterior vs. posterior DMN alpha activity in predicting individual differences in SRPE scores. In extraverts, high SRPE scores were associated with an increase of alpha power in the posterior DMN hub, whereas in introverts they were associated with an increase of alpha power in the anterior DMN hub. Results are discussed in terms of differential involvement of the two DMN hubs in self-related reward processes in extraverts and introverts.


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    aDMN (dmPFC) --> "Fi"

    CON1 (anterior cingulate cortex), CON2 (inferior frontal gyrus) --> "Fe"

    ------

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dorsom...frontal_cortex

    The dmPFC is identified to play roles in processing a sense of self, integrating social impressions, theory of mind, morality judgments, empathy, decision making, altruism, fear and anxiety information processing, and top-down motor cortex inhibition.



    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anterior_cingulate_cortex

    Activity in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) has been implicated in processing both the detection and appraisal of social processes, including social exclusion.



    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inferior_frontal_gyrus

    The left opercular part of the inferior frontal gyrus is a part of the articulatory network involved in motor syllable programs. The articulatory network also contains the premotor cortex, and the anterior insula. These areas are interrelated but have specific functions in speech comprehension and production.
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mirror_neuron

    It is not normally possible to study single neurons in the human brain, so most evidence for mirror neurons in humans is indirect. Brain imaging experiments using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have shown that the human inferior frontal cortex and superior parietal lobe are active when the person performs an action and also when the person sees another individual performing an action. It has been suggested that these brain regions contain mirror neurons, and they have been defined as the human mirror neuron system. More recent experiments have shown that even at the level of single participants, scanned using fMRI, large areas containing multiple fMRI voxels increase their activity both during the observation and execution of actions.

    ...

    Stephanie Preston and Frans de Waal, Jean Decety, and Vittorio Gallese and Christian Keysers have independently argued that the mirror neuron system is involved in empathy. A large number of experiments using fMRI, electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) have shown that certain brain regions (in particular the anterior insula, anterior cingulate cortex, and inferior frontal cortex) are active when people experience an emotion (disgust, happiness, pain, etc.) and when they see another person experiencing an emotion.

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    a planner prefers "Fe 1" (dynamic ... "social control")

    not a planner prefers "Fe 2" (static ... mimicry --> social interaction)

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    aDMN (dmPFC) --> "Fi"
    ... and vmPFC

    ------

    a planner prefers "Fi 1" (dynamic) --> theory of mind, Machiavellian thinking

    not a planner prefers "Fi 2" (static) --> theory of mind, empathy

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    extraversion + DMN > CON > FN could be an EIE-like type.
    extraversion + CON > FN > DMN could be an ESE-like type

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    dynamic --> temporal-sequential ordering

    static --> not temporal-sequential ordering

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    Here's another reason why Model A does not work.

    1. If Fe is a function then EIE and ESE are identical types most of the time. This is obviously not true.

    2. If [FeNi] is a function then EIE does not have [TiNe], so he or she cannot process mathematics.

    3. If Fe+ is a function then EIE does not have Fe-. This does not make any sense since all people can process all kinds of information.

    4. If Fe+ means 80% theory of mind and 20% "social control" then the latter is not a leading process.

    5. And socionists cannot have it both ways: a type cannot have Fe and Fe+.

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    Here's another reason why Model A does not work.

    1. If Fe is a function then EIE and ESE are identical types most of the time. This is obviously not true.

    2. If [FeNi] is a function then EIE does not have [TiNe], so he or she cannot process mathematics.

    3. If Fe+ is a function then EIE does not have Fe-. This does not make any sense since all people can process all kinds of information.

    4. If Fe+ means 80% theory of mind and 20% "social control" then the latter is not a leading process.

    5. And socionists cannot have it both ways: a type cannot have Fe and Fe+.
    "Особенностью модели Б является то, что информацию получают все функции информационного метаболизма."

    "A feature of model B is that all information is obtained as an information metabolism." (?)

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    SSS:

    If a function is denoted by the "plus" sign, it means that the function has only a limited ("plus") area of competence and it cannot process the respective "minus" area adequately, in accordance with the function's dimension. Responses of a "plus" function (of any dimension) in the "minus" area are similar to responses of one-dimensional functions. A "plus" function tries to stay away from its incompetence area (the "minus" area), avoiding it in all ways.

    ------

    "avoiding it in all ways" (i.e. inactive) => not a leading process

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    I think a dynamic type has "unconscious" static functions.

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    https://www.researchgate.net/figure/...fig3_327793915

    "The five large-scale brain networks sustain processes important for social behavior."

    large-scale brain networks 5.png

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    The dorsal and ventral attention networks are involved in goal-directed executive control processes and salience evaluations respectively, which are necessary operations for the control of spatial attention and the orientation of attention to a specific area of interest. The ventral attention network (VAN) includes the temporoparietal junction, the supramarginal gyrus, the frontal operculum, and the anterior insula. The focus of the VAN is primarily upon allocentric space, or knowing about objects that lie beyond immediate reach, including information about what those objects are used for. The dorsal attention network (DAN) is anchored in the intraparietal sulcus and the frontal eye fields. The DAN includes a focus upon egocentric space to generate sensory-motor information about functions such as reaching, grasping, the “data” that are important for knowing about how to use objects.
    DAN --> "Se"

    VAN --> "Si"

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    I think a dynamic type has "unconscious" static functions.
    Why? Because FN monitors the other networks/functions, so when it switches mode the whole system is changed.

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    SSS:

    If a function is denoted by the "plus" sign, it means that the function has only a limited ("plus") area of competence and it cannot process the respective "minus" area adequately, in accordance with the function's dimension. Responses of a "plus" function (of any dimension) in the "minus" area are similar to responses of one-dimensional functions. A "plus" function tries to stay away from its incompetence area (the "minus" area), avoiding it in all ways.

    ------

    "avoiding it in all ways" (i.e. inactive) => not a leading process
    the leading process = the most conscious process (or function)

    inactive = less conscious or unconscious

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  16. #496

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    https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33891043/

    Default Mode Network Functional Connectivity Negatively Associated with Trait Openness to Experience

    Evaluating associations between the five-factor personality domains and resting-state functional connectivity networks (e.g., default mode network, DMN) highlights distributed neurobiological systems linked to behaviorally relevant phenotypes. Establishing these associations can highlight a potential underlying role for these neural pathways in related clinical illness and treatment response. Here we examined associations between within- and between-network resting-state functional connectivity with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and the five-factor personality domains: Openness to experience (Openness), Extraversion, Neuroticism, Agreeableness and Conscientiousness. We included data from 470 resting-state scan sessions and personality assessments in 295 healthy participants. Within- and between-network functional connectivity from 32 a priori defined regions was computed across seven resting-state networks. The association between functional connectivity and personality traits was assessed using generalized least squares. Within-network DMN functional connectivity was significantly negatively associated with trait Openness (regression coefficient= -0.0010; [95% CI] = [-0.0017, -0.0003]; pFWER = 0.033), seemingly driven by association with the Fantasy subfacet. Trait Extraversion was significantly negatively associated with functional connectivity between the visual and dorsal attention networks and positively associated with functional connectivity between the frontoparietal and language networks. Our findings provide evidence that resting-state DMN is associated with trait Openness and gives insight into personality neuroscience.

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    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7249003/

    Associations between personality and whole‐brain functional connectivity at rest: Evidence across the adult lifespan

    We found that openness was positively associated with connectivity in the default‐mode network, neuroticism was negatively associated with both the ventral and dorsal attention networks, and agreeableness was negatively associated with the dorsal attention network. In addition, age moderated the association between conscientiousness and the frontoparietal network, indicating that this association become stronger in older age.

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    https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-018-32248-x

    Personality Profiles Are Associated with Functional Brain Networks Related to Cognition and Emotion

    Personality factors as defined by the “five-factor model” are some of the most investigated characteristics that underlie various types of complex behavior. These are, however, often investigated as isolated traits that are conceptually independent, yet empirically are typically strongly related to each other. We apply Independent Component Analysis to these personality factors as measured by the NEO-FFI in 471 healthy subjects from the Human Connectome Project to investigate independent personality profiles that incorporate all five original factors. Subsequently we examine how these profiles are related to patterns of resting-state brain activity in specific networks-of-interest related to cognition and emotion. We find that a personality profile of contrasting openness and agreeableness is associated with engagement of a subcortical-medial prefrontal network and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Likewise, a profile of contrasting extraversion and conscientiousness is associated with activity in the precuneus. This study shows a novel approach to investigating personality and how it is related to patterns of activity in the resting brain.

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    https://www.nature.com/articles/s415...df?origin=ppub

    Time-resolved connectome of the fve-factor model of personality

    The human brain is characterized by highly dynamic patterns of functional connectivity. However, it is unknown whether this time-variant ‘connectome’ is related to the individual differences in the behavioural and cognitive traits described in the fve-factor model of personality. To answer this question, inter-network time-variant connectivity was computed in n=818 healthy people via a dynamical conditional correlation model. Next, network dynamicity was quantifed throughout an ad-hoc measure (T-index) and the generalizability of the multi-variate associations between personality traits and network dynamicity was assessed using a train/test split approach. Conscientiousness, refecting enhanced cognitive and emotional control, was the sole trait linked to stationary connectivity across several circuits such as the default mode and prefronto-parietal network. The stationarity in the ‘communication’ across large-scale networks offers a mechanistic description of the capacity of conscientious people to ‘protect’ non-immediate goals against interference over-time. This study informs future research aiming at developing more realistic models of the brain dynamics mediating personality differences.

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    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/16PF_Questionnaire

    16pf.png

    a planner <--> Perfectionism (Q3)

    ? <--> Conscientiousness/Conformity (G)

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    external vs. internal (pDMN vs. aDMN ?) <--> Liveliness (F)

    socially uninhibited vs. shy <--> Social Boldness (H) ......... I think it is strongly related to Emotional Stability (C)

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    ? <--> Conscientiousness/Conformity (G)
    SJ (mbti) ESTJ, ISTJ, ESFJ, ISFJ: Si (Myers-Briggs)

    Guardians: cooperative and concrete (Keirsey)

    ------

    "The stationarity in the ‘communication’ across large-scale networks offers a mechanistic description of the capacity of conscientious people to ‘protect’ non-immediate goals against interference over-time." (see post #500)
    Last edited by Petter; 06-23-2021 at 08:50 AM.

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    "Keirsey uses the words cooperative (complying) and pragmatic (adaptive) when comparing the differing temperaments. People who are cooperative pay more attention to other people's opinions and are more concerned with doing the right thing. People who are pragmatic (utilitarian) pay more attention to their own thoughts or feelings and are more concerned with doing what works. There is no comparable idea of Myers or Jung that corresponds to this dichotomy, so this is a significant difference between Keirsey's work and that of Myers and Jung.

    This ring, in combination with the inner ring, determines a person's temperament. The pragmatic temperaments are Rationals (pragmatic and abstract) and Artisans (pragmatic and concrete). The cooperative temperaments are Idealists (cooperative and abstract), and Guardians (cooperative and concrete). Neither Myers nor Jung included the concept of temperament in their work."

    ------

    The problem here is that there are two different kinds of "cooperative", so Conscientiousness/Conformity does not fit (all) Idealists.

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    external vs. internal (pDMN vs. aDMN ?) <--> Liveliness (F)

    socially uninhibited vs. shy <--> Social Boldness (H) ......... I think it is strongly related to Emotional Stability (C)
    very active CON vs. fairly inactive CON <--> Warmth (A)

    Privateness (N) is strongly related to Liveliness (F). It is also dependent on his or her specific life situation.

    Self-Reliance (Q2) is a combination of Warmth (A) and Liveliness (F).

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    a planner (FN) vs. not a planner (FN) <--> Dominance (E). It is strongly related to Perfectionism (Q3).

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    primary dlPFC/vlPFC vs. secondary dlPFC/vlPFC <--> Skepticism/Vigilance (L). It is strongly related to Abstractedness (M) and Reasoning (B).

    very active DMN vs. fairly inactive DMN <--> Openness to Change (Q1)

    social DMN vs. not social DMN <--> Sensitivity (I)

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    Tension (Q4) and Apprehension (O) are essentially the same thing as Emotional Stability (C).

    Social Boldness (H) is a combination of Warmth (A) and Emotional Stability (C).

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    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shyness

    Behavioral inhibition is a temperament or personality style that predisposes a person to become fearful, distressed and withdrawn in novel situations. This personality style is associated with the development of anxiety disorders in adulthood, particularly social anxiety disorder.



    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_anxiety_disorder

    A 2006 study found that the area of the brain called the amygdala, part of the limbic system, is hyperactive when patients are shown threatening faces or confronted with frightening situations. They found that patients with more severe social phobia showed a correlation with the increased response in the amygdala.

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    https://www.frontiersin.org/articles...012.00348/full

    Extraversion and anterior vs. posterior DMN activity during self-referential thoughts

    Recent studies show that fronto-posterior electroencephalogram (EEG) spectral power distribution is associated with personality. Specifically, extraversion is associated with an increase of spectral power in posterior cortical regions that overlap with the posterior default mode network (DMN) hub and a decrease of spectral power in anterior regions that overlap with the anterior DMN hub. Although there is evidence that dopaminergic neurotransmission may be involved, psychological processes that underlie these associations remain unclear. I hypothesize that these processes may have something to do with spontaneous self-referential thoughts. Specifically, I hypothesize that in extraverts self-referential thoughts may be associated with an increase of spectral power in the posterior DMN hub, whereas in introverts they may be associated with an increase of spectral power in the anterior DMN hub. After spontaneous EEG registration, participants were asked to fill in a questionnaire describing their thoughts during the registration. An item describing self-referential positive expectations (SRPE) was used to measure individual differences in the intensity of these processes. Source localization and independent component analyses were applied to EEG data to reveal oscillatory activity associated with the anterior and the posterior DMN hubs. Hierarchical regression analysis showed a significant interaction between extraversion scores and anterior vs. posterior DMN alpha activity in predicting individual differences in SRPE scores. In extraverts, high SRPE scores were associated with an increase of alpha power in the posterior DMN hub, whereas in introverts they were associated with an increase of alpha power in the anterior DMN hub. Results are discussed in terms of differential involvement of the two DMN hubs in self-related reward processes in extraverts and introverts.
    https://introvertdear.com/news/intro...ng-to-science/

    Liveliness (F)

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    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Extrav...ogical_factors

    Eysenck proposed that extraversion was caused by variability in cortical arousal. He hypothesized that introverts are characterized by higher levels of activity than extraverts and so are chronically more cortically aroused than extraverts. That extraverts require more external stimulation than introverts has been interpreted as evidence for this hypothesis. Other evidence of the "stimulation" hypothesis is that introverts salivate more than extraverts in response to a drop of lemon juice. This is due to increased activity in their ARAS, which responds to stimuli like food or social contact.

    Extraversion has been linked to higher sensitivity of the mesolimbic dopamine system to potentially rewarding stimuli. This in part explains the high levels of positive affect found in extraverts, since they will more intensely feel the excitement of a potential reward. One consequence of this is that extraverts can more easily learn the contingencies for positive reinforcement, since the reward itself is experienced as greater.

    One study found that introverts have more blood flow in the frontal lobes of their brain and the anterior or frontal thalamus, which are areas dealing with internal processing, such as planning and problem solving. Extraverts have more blood flow in the anterior cingulate gyrus, temporal lobes, and posterior thalamus, which are involved in sensory and emotional experience. This study and other research indicate that introversion-extraversion is related to individual differences in brain function. A study on regional brain volume found a positive correlation between introversion and grey matter volume in the right prefrontal cortex and right temporoparietal junction, as well as a positive correlation between introversion and total white matter volume. Task-related functional neuroimaging has shown that extraversion is associated with increased activity in the anterior cingulate gyrus, prefrontal cortex, middle temporal gyrus, and the amygdala.

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    Social Boldness (H) is a combination of Warmth (A) and Emotional Stability (C).
    ... and Liveliness (F)

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    primary dlPFC/vlPFC vs. secondary dlPFC/vlPFC <--> Skepticism/Vigilance (L). It is strongly related to Abstractedness (M) and Reasoning (B).
    Another interpretation is that Skepticism/Vigilance (L) is a combination of Emotional Stability (C) and Perfectionism (Q3). Then it is not related to Abstractedness (M) and Reasoning (B).

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    MBTI (i.e. the dichotomies) is problematic because Sensing contains DAN and VAN, so E-S-T-J refers to two different groups of people: military personnel, policemen, pilots etc and office managers, dentists, attorneys etc.

    There are obviously more than 16 types since there are personality factors that are not included in MBTI.

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    Another way of looking at it is that E-S-T-J and E-S-T-P have identical E, S and T.

    "In dealing with the outside world, do you prefer to get things decided or do you prefer to stay open to new information and options?"

    This is the only aspect that differentiates E-S-T-J from E-S-T-P. So MBTI cannot explain why E-S-T-P is "the athlete" or "the dynamo".

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    Another way of looking at it is that E-S-T-J and E-S-T-P have identical E, S and T.

    "In dealing with the outside world, do you prefer to get things decided or do you prefer to stay open to new information and options?"

    This is the only aspect that differentiates E-S-T-J from E-S-T-P. So MBTI cannot explain why E-S-T-P is "the athlete" or "the dynamo".
    https://uspa.org/p/Article/wingsuit-...complete-guide

    "All skydives require planning and careful execution, but wingsuit skydives require just a little extra."

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    https://www.myersbriggs.org/my-mbti-...-attitudes.htm

    Extraverted Thinking: Seeks logic and consistency in the outside world. Concern for external laws and rules.

    Introverted Thinking: Seeks internal consistency and logic of ideas. Trusts his or her internal framework, which may be difficult to explain to others.

    ------

    dlPFC/vlPFC (or FPN) <--> logical reasoning

    BA10 (or FN) <--> planning, organizing, sequencing

    An "Se" dominant type can have a very active BA10 (lateral). This is why the Myers-Briggs model is incorrect.

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    ... or "Te" = FN and "Ti" = FPN. The problem here is that FN interacts with FPN, so both "Te" and "Ti" are conscious functions.

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    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amygdala

    "In complex vertebrates, including humans, the amygdalae perform primary roles in the formation and storage of memories associated with emotional events."

    "Amygdala volume correlates positively with both the size (the number of contacts a person has) and the complexity (the number of different groups to which a person belongs) of social networks. Individuals with larger amygdalae had larger and more complex social networks. The amygdala is responsible for facial recognition and allows others to respond appropriately to different emotional expressions. They were also better able to make accurate social judgments about other persons' faces. The amygdala's role in the analysis of social situations stems specifically from its ability to identify and process changes in facial features. It does not, however, process the direction of the gaze of the person being perceived.

    The amygdala is also thought to be a determinant of the level of a person's emotional intelligence. It is particularly hypothesized that larger amygdalae allow for greater emotional intelligence, enabling greater societal integration and cooperation with others."

    ------

    larger amygdala => more social memories (self and others) ... and more active CON and social DMN

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