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    Enlightened Hedonist Subteigh's Avatar
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    Pennycook, G., Cheyne, J.A., Barr, N., Koehler, D.J. and Fugelsang, J.A., 2015. On the reception and detection of pseudo-profound bullshit. Judgment and Decision making, 10(6), pp.549-563. (direct link to pdf file)

    Although bullshit is common in everyday life and has attracted attention from
    philosophers, its reception (critical or ingenuous) has not, to our knowledge, been
    subject to empirical investigation. Here we focus on pseudo-profound bullshit, which
    consists of seemingly impressive assertions that are presented as true and meaningful
    but are actually vacuous. We presented participants with bullshit statements consisting
    of buzzwords randomly organized into statements with syntactic structure but no
    discernible meaning (e.g., “Wholeness quiets infinite phenomena”). Across multiple
    studies, the propensity to judge bullshit statements as profound was associated with a
    variety of conceptually relevant variables (e.g., intuitive cognitive style, supernatural
    belief). Parallel associations were less evident among profundity judgments for more
    conventionally profound (e.g., “A wet person does not fear the rain”) or mundane (e.g.,
    “Newborn babies require constant attention”) statements. These results support the
    idea that some people are more receptive to this type of bullshit and that detecting it is
    not merely a matter of indiscriminate skepticism but rather a discernment of deceptive
    vagueness in otherwise impressive sounding claims. Our results also suggest that a bias
    toward accepting statements as true may be an important component of pseudo-
    profound bullshit receptivity.

    Keywords: bullshit, bullshit detection, dual-process theories, analytic thinking,
    supernatural beliefs, religiosity, conspiratorial ideation, complementary and alternative
    medicine.

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    Guo, Q., Li, H. and Sun, W., 2020. Globalization or institution?. Journal of the Asia Pacific Economy, pp.1-25.
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13547860.2020.1837448

    Abstract

    Thanks to globalization, some countries achieve economic growth despite underdeveloped institutions, raising the issue of whether institutions or other factors might contribute more to economic growth. With settler mortality during colonization as an IV for current institutions of former colonies, Acemoglu, Johnson, and Robinson found a tremendous, positive effect of institutions on economic performance. We argue that their study ignored an important factor, i.e. globalization, which may both relate to colonial history and affect current economic development, thus potentially biasing the estimate of the impact of institutions. This is because colonial history by English-speaking countries may affect a country’s English proficiency, which in turn may affect its economic globalization and social globalization and thus its economic development, with the United Kingdom and the United States as the world leader in succession. Correspondingly, we add globalization and examine the concomitant effects of globalization and institution on economic performance. With settler mortality and length of colonization by English-speaking countries as instrument variables, we find that globalization contributes greatly to economic performance and the effect of institutions becomes not statistically significant once globalization is taken into account. Of the sub-indices of globalization, the index of social globalization has the strongest and most stable impact on economic performance. Specifically, a one-point increase in overall globalization of a country or region corresponds to about 9.8% increase in its GDP per capita; and a one-point increase in social globalization corresponds to about 7.3% increase in GDP per capita.

    Keywords: Institution; globalization; economic performance; colonial history; IV estimation

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    Lataster, R., 2013. Bayesian reasoning: Criticising the ‘criteria of authenticity’ and calling for a review of biblical criticism. Journal of Alternative Perspectives in the Social Sciences, 5(2), pp.271-293. (direct link to pdf file)

    Abstract:

    It is my contention that some of the methods used by a significant portion
    of Scholars of Religion – Biblical Scholars – are suspect. The following
    paper criticises Biblical scholars’ use of the ‘Criteria of Authenticity’ in
    studying Biblical texts, such as the Gospels. Objections to the Criteria
    offered by various Biblical scholars, historians and philosophers are
    considered, and it is concluded that methodologies revolving around the
    Criteria should be reviewed and replaced. One alternative is Bayesian
    reasoning, which is revealed to be already in use by historians, and which
    makes the work of historians, Biblical scholars and academics in other
    disciplines more transparent. A review of objections to Bayesian
    methodology reveals them to be largely irrational. It is finally argued that
    Bayesian reasoning could be useful in all academic disciplines, which
    essentially must utilise and build on an existing knowledge base, in order
    to formulate probabilistic hypotheses.

    Key words: Criteria of Authenticity, Bayes’ Theorem, Bayesian
    reasoning, Biblical scholars

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    Gongaki, K., Preka-Papadema, P., Kalachanis, K. and Antonopoulos, P., 2021. Astronomical Calculation of the Dating the Historical Battles of Marathon, Thermopylae and Salamis Based on Herodotus’ Description. Scientific Culture, 7(2), pp.81-100. (direct link to pdf file)

    ABSTRACT

    An important event of world history is the Greek-Persian war (5th century BC), as its outcome (with the victory of the Greeks) defined the evolution of culture in Greece and in whole Europe. Three battles that determined the course of this multi-year war was the battles of Marathon (490 BC) and of Thermopylae (480 BC) and the naval battle of Salamis (480 BC). Although the year of the above events is known, there is an uncertainty as to the date of their conduct. The purpose of this study is the presice determination of these dates based on the historical descriptions of Herodotus and the use of astronomical knowledge as Herodotus relates these events to great celebrations (Olympic Games, Carneia and Great Eleusinia) which were determined on the basis of the lunar calendars of Greek cities. Also, Herodotus mentions two solar eclipses that were observed at the beginning and end of Xerxes’ campaign (480 BC) the dates of which help us to determine the period of this campaign.

    KEYWORDS: Greco-Persian wars, Xerxes, astronomy, Herodotus, Artemision, battlefield, eclipse, Olympic games, Lunar

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    Fetterman, A.K., Evans, N.D., Exline, J.J. and Meier, B.P., 2021. What shall we call God? An exploration of metaphors coded from descriptions of God from a large US undergraduate sample. Plos one, 16(7), p.e0254626.

    Abstract

    People use numerous metaphors to describe God. God is seen as a bearded man, light, and love. Based on metaphor theories, the metaphors people use to refer to God reflect how people think about God and could, in turn, reflect their worldview. However, little work has explored the common metaphors for God. This was the purpose of the current investigation. Four trained raters coded open-ended responses from predominantly Christian U.S. undergraduates (N = 2,923) describing God for the presence or absence of numerous metaphoric categories. We then assessed the frequency of each of the metaphor categories. We identified 16 metaphor categories that were present in more than 1% of the responses. The top categories were “GOD IS POWER,” “GOD IS HUMAN,” and “GOD IS MALE.” These findings were similar across religious affiliations. We attempted to support our coding analysis using top-down and bottom-up automated language analysis. Results from these analyses provided added confidence to our conclusions. We discuss the implications of our findings and the potential for future studies investigating important psychological and behavioral outcomes of using different metaphors for God.



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    Ксеркс, царь царей xerx's Avatar
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    Ni explained as a strategy for energy efficiency.

    https://www.quantamagazine.org/to-be...=pocket-newtab

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    What's the purpose of SEI? Tallmo's Avatar
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    The decisive thing is not the reality of the object, but the reality of the subjective factor, i.e. the primordial images, which in their totality represent a psychic mirror-world. It is a mirror, however, with the peculiar capacity of representing the present contents of consciousness not in their known and customary form but in a certain sense sub specie aeternitatis, somewhat as a million-year old consciousness might see them.

    (Jung on Si)

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    Psychic/Ghost Type Nunki's Avatar
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    The most interesting article I have ever read, "The Self-Simulation Hypothesis Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics:"

    https://www.mdpi.com/1099-4300/22/2/247/htm

    We modify the simulation hypothesis to a self-simulation hypothesis, where the physical universe, as a strange loop, is a mental self-simulation that might exist as one of a broad class of possible code theoretic quantum gravity models of reality obeying the principle of efficient language axiom. This leads to ontological interpretations about quantum mechanics. We also discuss some implications of the self-simulation hypothesis such as an informational arrow of time.

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