How do intuition/sensation and feeling/thinking exclude each other?
The idea is that they more look past each other than exactly oppose each other. Intuition doesn't will a sensation out of existence, merely it looks around it to the implicit. Sometimes the associations it forms are quite evident in the sensation, but other times not.
Of course nothing is ever pure - an intuitive vision tends to have sensory contents fused with it. However, the difference is the associations/relatedness of existing sensory contents in a vision of a sensation-leading type are themselves sensory in nature, that is, evoked directly by the formation of the sensory image to which the given content belongs.
With feeling/thinking, the point is that both of these occur when certain definite contents are in play (one cannot rationalize without having a basis, as even the vague outlines of a concept or feeling form through repeated experience). The question is what one wishes to elaborate regarding these contents.
One may often find that one can feel and think about the same exact thing, and this is often true. In fact, one of the great functions of thinking which does not antagonize and may indirectly help feeling is by rendering the nature of a content clearer, prior to feeling-into it. That is, establishing a logical context for it changes the feeling type's perception of what the feeling type is judging. New associations form, even if experienced irrationally, elaborating the context of the content they are perceiving with a readiness to judge. They then elaborate the system of feelings evoked by the content in relation to other feelings, potentially ones evoked by other contents they've seen to establish the relative significance with clarity of the feelings, much as a logic type makes logical comparisons to render the relative significance of a definition clear.
The important point here though is logic decidedly could help establish the proper context for the feeling. Normally the feeling type must seek out the proper context under the principle of feeling's operation itself, for the successful elaboration of the relevant feeling content. But a one-sided emphasis on feeling loses the rational clarification of the exact nature of a content itself, since feeling's purpose is not to clarify the content itself so much as clarify the feelingful truths and valuations evoked by them.
The way this occurs in reverse is that where logic seeks to clarify a content, feeling intervenes to give motivation as to the significance of the content through arranging it next to others in accordance with certain valuations.
I think the point of this is basically that while the judgment processes are distinct in what they are rationalizing, there comes a point when each becomes directionless and lacklustre without the healthy intervention of the other, healthy meaning cooperating quite well with the dominant principle of operation.
For instance, if there is no healthy conceptual logic to the relatedness between contents, the feelingful elaboration of one in terms of the other might essentially lead nowhere. In other words, while the processes of rationalization cannot go on simultaneously, the one serves in various ways as a necessary precursor to a foundation for the other.
The italics and many of the musings here explain to me some of why it is theorized that, while among the valued functions, the lowest in strength is the Jungian dichotomous opposite of the lead, yet the superego is dominated by the opposite orientation (in introverted/extravertedness) of this lowest.