Socionics - A theory that combines Jungian psychology and sociology in categorising types of personality and how those different personalities interact with each other. It is taught in 150 different universities around Eastern Europe.
Carl Jung - A Swiss psychiatrist who wrote on Psychological Types, leading to the formulation of two typology systems, MBTI and Socionics.
Antoni Kępiński – A Polish psychiatrist who came up with a psychological theory of human interactions called Information Metabolism in which we process information into behaviour like an organism metabolises food into energy.
Aušra Augustinavičiūtė – Lithuanian psychologist and sociologist who combined Jung’s Psychological Types with Kępiński’s to create Classical Socionics.
Victor Gulenko – Ukrainian clinical psychologist and sociologist who formulated additional groupings in Socionics.
Jungian Dichotomies - The original four dichotomies that can be found in MBTI and Socionics. These are Extroversion/Introversion, Intuition/Sensation, Logic/Ethics and Rationality/Irrationality.
1. Extroversion and Introversion
- Extroversion - The attitude of breadth, ravenously accumulating more and more information. Motivated towards tackling the objects themselves. An 'Extroverted' person may be more active, doing a large variety of things.
- Introversion - The attitude of depth, refining information down to the most important parts. Focused on understanding one's own relation to the object. An 'Introverted' person may be less active, preferring to specialise in a few things.
2. Rationality and Irrationality
- Rationality - The attitude of 'what ought', processing judgments on things whether sentimental (Ethics) or systematic (Logic). Considers what ought to be done. A 'Rational' person's primary reason for action is to maintain or fulfil standards and ideals.
- Irrationality - The attitude of 'what is', processing perceptions of things whether physical (Sensation) or abstract (Intuition). Considers what is or could be done. An 'Irrational' person's primary reason for action is to pursue or satisfy desires and needs.
3. Intuition and Sensation
- Intuition - Internal perception; the abstract, hypothetical and imagined. Intuitive types are more inclined to perceive with the mind than the body, being more capable with concepts than real things. Intuition deals with the vague and general, allowing consideration of what might happen somewhere in our future. Symbolised by a Triangle.
- Sensation - External perception; the real, concrete and experienced. Sensory types are more inclined to perceive with the body than the mind, being more capable with real things than concepts. Sensation deals with the precise and day to day allowing awareness of what is happening in the here and now. Symbolised by a Circle.
4. Ethics and Logic
- Ethics - Internal judgement; the emotional, personal and felt. Ethical types are more inclined to judge with the heart than the head, being more capable with other people than systems and processes. Ethics deals with how people ought to feel about things, allowing charismatic socialising and persuasion. Symbolised by an L-Block.
- Logic - External judgement; the systematic, factual and reasoned. Logical types are more inclined to judge with the head than the heart, being more capable with systems and processes than other people. Logic deals with how facts and statements ought to work together, allowing apt organisation and problem-solving. Symbolised by a Square.
Temperament – Gulenko combined the Extroversion/Introversion dichotomy with the Rationality/Irrationality dichotomy to create the four temperaments. These are general attitudes that shape how people approach the world around them. This is the first major grouping of the sixteen types in Socionics.
- Linear-Assertive – Extroverted and Rational. Possesses an expansive mind-set over judgements. Proactively takes on the responsibility of making the world conform to how it ought to be. Dynamically makes changes to the world in order to maintain standards. More likely to take charge and instruct others. Dislikes laziness of others preventing responsibility from being fulfilled. Associated with the Choleric temperament. Types: ESE, EIE, LIE & LSE.
- Flexible-Manoeuvring – Extroverted and Irrational. Possesses an expansive mind-set over perceptions. Actively pursues wants and desires in the world around them, satisfying an increasing appetite for more things. Statically fixates on numerous desires and chases them. More likely to chase after something on pure desire or interest. Dislikes the strict pedantry of others preventing desires from being satisfied. Associated with the Sanguine temperament. Types: ILE, SLE, SEE & IEE.
- Balanced-Stable – Introverted and Rational. Possesses a contractive mind-set over judgements. Statically adheres to fixed personal standards and ideals. Rigorously seeks perfectionism in their actions and readily applies self-critique. More likely to act infallibly in the fewer activities that they take on. Dislikes the impulses and whims of others spoiling their hard work. Associated with the Melancholic temperament. Types: LII, LSI, ESI & EII.
- Receptive-Adaptive – Introverted and Irrational. Possesses a contractive mind-set over perceptions. Focuses on refining and satisfying the few needs or desires. Dynamically adapts their methods to the environment. More likely to go with the flow, making subtle changes to satisfy the main desires and abstaining from unneeded action. Dislikes bossiness of others infringing on their internal harmony. Associated with the Phlegmatic temperament. Types: SEI, IEI, ILI, SLI.
Club – We can combine the Intuition/Sensation dichotomy with the Logic/Ethics dichotomy to create the four Clubs. These are classifications of our Strengths and Weaknesses, showing what activities and areas of interest we are likely to find ourselves operating in.
- Researcher – Intuitive and Logical. Most equipped to deal with abstract problem-solving, either creating strategies and methods for long term developments (e.g. economics and business management) or working with theoretical structures to classify and understand the world (e.g. theoretical science and mathematics). Types: ILE, LII, ILI & LIE.
- Humanitarian – Intuitive and Ethical. Most equipped to deal with creative output on the human condition, either passionately making others aware of a long-term purpose (public speaking and drama) or creating new opportunities for moral improvement in the world (e.g. charity and psychotherapy). Types: EIE, IEI, EII & IEE.
- Pragmatist – Sensory and Logical. Most equipped to deal with real solutions to physical problems, either assertively enforcing structures and hierarchy (e.g. martial warfare and policing) or refining methodologies to make daily processes run comfortably and efficiently (e.g. medicine and engineering). Types: LSI, SLE, LSE & SLI.
- Socialite – Sensory and Ethical. Most equipped to socialise with and persuade people, either catering to the emotional and physical wellbeing of others (e.g. cooking and entertainment) or making strong connections with people to achieve ends (e.g. diplomacy and etiquette). Types: SEI, ESE, SEE & ESI.
Information Metabolism (IM) Element – We can combine the Extroversion/Introversion dichotomy with both the Intuition/Sensation and Logic/Ethics dichotomies to form the eight IM Elements. These are theoretical constructs that convert (metabolise) certain kinds of information into behaviour. Each is geared towards a certain kind of information which is then acted upon via the process of Information Metabolism.
- Extroverted Intuition – Intuition of Potential. Considers the essence of objects and the multiple possibilities contained within. This instils an attitude of opportunity-seeking, pursuing freedom of choice and maximising the possibilities as well as tolerance of multiple, alternative viewpoints. Symbolised by a Black Triangle, . Leading Types: ILE & IEE. Creative Types: LII & EII.
- Introverted Intuition – Intuition of Time. Focuses on the likely flow of causes and effects from the past through to the future. This instils an attitude of foresight and prediction, attempting to conceive of how events will develop over the long term and adapting oneself to benefit from these predictions. Symbolised by a White Triangle, . Leading Types: IEI & ILI. Creative Types: EIE & LIE.
- Extroverted Sensation – Sensation of Force. Scans the environment for items of desire and motivates assertive action towards claiming those items. This instils an attitude of lust and combat, pursuing one’s ambitions in the real world and conquering threats to gain more territory. Symbolised by a Black Circle, . Leading Types: SLE & SEE. Creative Types: LSI & ESI.
- Introverted Sensation – Sensation of Perception. Refines sensory experiences down to those that are most enjoyable, seeking to increase pleasure in the moment. This instils an attitude of aesthetic and comfort, adjusting oneself to the environment and making small changes to the environment so that it is most pleasing to the senses. Symbolised by a White Circle, . Leading Types: SEI & SLI. Creative Types: ESE & LSE.
- Extroverted Logic – Logic of Practicality. Actively develops methods by which processes work more productively. This instils an attitude of efficiency, readily absorbing relevant information and using that information to make the environment work better and instructing others on how to do things that lead to profitable effects. Symbolised by a Black Square, . Leading Types: LIE & LSE. Creative Types: ILI & SLI.
- Introverted Logic – Logic of Structure. Orders and structures the environment according to rules and principles, creating classificatory systems wherein objects are granted logical meaning. This instils an attitude of consistency and principle, adhering to one’s principles and avoiding situations where these rules might be compromised. Symbolised by a White Square, . Leading Types: LII & LSI. Creative Types: ILE & SLE.
- Extroverted Ethics – Ethics of Emotions. Actively expresses emotions in order to affect the mood of the people in the area, instilling enthusiasm to create group cohesion. This instils an attitude of dramatic expression and group motivation, readily making people feel the way they should be feeling. Symbolised by a Black L-Block, . Leading Types: ESE & EIE. Creative Types: SEI & IEI.
- Introverted Ethics – Ethics of Relations. Consults one’s personal sentiments in relation to external stimuli, ascertaining whether the thing is ‘good’ or ‘bad’ and being able to pick up on similar sentiments in others to form meaningful relationships. This instils an attitude of sincerity, requiring one to act true to one’s personal feelings on matters. Symbolised by a White L-Block, . Leading Types: ESI & EII. Creative Types: SEE & IEE.