Duality and Quadras
The Quadra is the group of 4 types linked with the relationships of duality, mirror and activation. It is simple: let us take, for example, the type intuitive-logical extravert. His strongest functions are extraverted intuition and introverted logic. If we take the same functions in the reverse order, it will be the logical-intuitive introvert. And then, we will add the duals of these types, i.e., sensory-ethical introvert and ethical-sensory extravert.
What is the Quadra? This is a group of COMMON VITAL VALUES. The Quadra is something more than just a sum of 4 types: in communication within a Quadra, they obtain some new characteristics in addition to what we learned from the descriptions of these 4 types. It is like NaCl in chemistry, which is not a mixture of Na and Cl but something different.
There are 4 quadras. In socionics, they are referred to by Greek letters (Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta) or by numbers (1, 2, 3 and 4).
It is interesting to watch the role of Quadras in history. The first Quadra (the types Seeker, Mediator, Bonvivant and Analyst) usually begins reforms but never succeeds in their completion – for this it is not enough decisive. The intuitive types of this Quadra are often known as dreamers-idealists, such as Einstein or Sakharov, while sensory types are known as leaders of amorphous regimes, not democratic, but also too mild to be called dictatorships – such as Dimitrov, Arafat, Nikita Khrushchev.
The second Quadra very rarely invents its own ideas – it rather implements already invented ideas, often with “decisiveness” that sometimes turns into cruelty. This quadra, on the one hand, is full of romantic writers and religious authorities (intuitive types) and successful military commanders and managers (sensory types), but it is also known for many dictators – in fact, most of dictators whose biographies have been studied by socionists had belonged to the types of the 2nd Quadra: ******, Ceausescu, Hussein, Lenin, Pinochet etc.
The third Quadra is similar to the 2nd quadra for its voluntarism and belief that “competition decides everything!”, but it is much milder by its methods than the 2nd Quadra. The intuitive types of this quadra are practice-focused intellectuals who develop methods instead of hypotheses – such as Newton (he often said “I never invent hypotheses!”), Bill Gates, etc. And sensory types of this quadra are often successful politicians – such as Silvio Berlusconi, Jacques Chirac, Richard Nixon etc.
The fourth Quadra can be called Perfectionists. Intuitive types of this Quadra are very attentive to all manifestation of people's talents, examples –Fyodor Dostoyevsky, Mark Twain; and sensory types of this quadra are perfect in “getting big results without making much movements and noise”, examples – Margaret Thatcher, Helmuth Kohl, etc. Politicians of the 4th quadra are successful in stable societies.