here I wanted to describe how I think about a few political ideas, this list doesn't make any claims of being complete. If you're interested, feel free to discuss or correct my description if I understood something wrong, but remember that this is my subjective opinion. You can also tell us your personal opinion.
Okay, let's start:
I learned about this ideology when I read about parties of the USA. It's actually not a bad idea: the people have total freedom, "Everyone leaves everyone alone". That means there won't be a big state which squeezes the money out of me or forces me to do what it wants. No, I can do what I want because I have a lot of personal rights. And everyone else, too. Could there be a better foundation for a free nation? In my opinion: yes, definitely. Well, it all sounds better than it actually is, because this will probably increase the suffering of the most people in a country. The state has not much power, as I said. Will it be powerful enough to enforce the law? Or will the completely free, large companies control the state and take over the markets? Without any economical regulation there will be more cartels than you can think of. Or at least a few, very powerful ones. The people will not longer be free, but slaves of the economy. Probably they will be reduced to their potentional of consume since this is the main thing of importance for the companies. But it could also lead to a total chaotic situation in which everyone stands alone, similar to Anarchy. It was designed fot total freedom, but will most likely lead to the opposite.
Communism and Socialism
I have to say that there are different types of Communism. There is the "utopian" communism, the "real" Communism (meaning the one which was actually practised, the "utopian" form was never used) and more. The basics of the first one are easily explaned: Everyone is equal and free. Everyone can use everything which is produced. There are no classes and no personal property. Factories and machines are also not owned by a single person or a firm, but by everyone, ect. It’s a bit like “reversed” evolution – not the strongest and smartest survive in a struggle of everyone vs. everyone, but all people are working together to unleash the real potential of mankind. Even if you’re not the best, you can still survive and lead a good life. Sounds not too bad, but this has never happened. The "real" form of Communism/Socialism places the workers and soldiers above everyone else (equality) to rule the country. But this is not the only advantage if you're a worker: they are also better off socially and financial. Of course, this almost shuts down any progress because no one will be there to research and develop new technology. Many of the communist states were governed by a single party which ruled dictatorial (freedom). The oppression and mind-controlling propagandy can be so extreme that the difference between Communism and Fascism fade away. The GDR and the Soviet Union are examples of this kind.
I think of today's Capitalism as a moderate form of Libertarianism (both limited in personal and economical rights). Germany is a capitalist country, but due to our history there are also social additions to it, that's why people speak of it as "welfare state". The social security system is helping everyone who get's into financial trouble, both if it was their own fault or not. Capitalism is more pure in the US, I also see the reason in the tradition of the nation. Based on the quarrels about the health care you can see where the problems are. Fortunately, the negative peak of Capitalism, the first industrial revolution, is over. If you take a look at the living conditions of the workers at this time it's no wonder that the working class rised and fought against their employers. They were not more than slaves. But this changed today, so the rebellion of the working class is obsolete. My personal problem is the importance of economical interests in the capitalist societies of today. Even if no one will admit it, the government obeys the needs of the economy. I think the economy should serve the people, not the other way around.
This is my favourite of all ideologies I took a closer look on. It combines social ideals with the freedom of Liberalism. Not like Neo-liberalism, which focuses on the economical freedom rather than personal rights, Social liberalism supports the latter, regulates the economy and limits the power of the large companies. Workers, soldiers and academics all have the same rights. The state is powerful enough to enforce the law and to grant a fair and genuine free market, but won't cut the rights of the individual. A social system helps people who are unemployed, homeless or otherwise not able to sustain themselves. Not everyone will earn the same amount of money, but this won't be necessary at all. This political idea comes from the middle class. It's no revolution by the poorest and no oppression by the few richest people. Of course, a working democratic system would be the foundation of such a system. And last but not least, actually interested people who can handle the responsibility and use the rights the state has given them. Unused rights have the tendency to disappear and be replaced by rules.