Socionics Anthology [russian machine translated articles]
INDEX OF ARTICLES
1) Developments of the Person & Functions (Prokofiev)
2) Brain Localization of Functions (Sandominsky)
3) How to Realize Your Function: Intuitive vs. Sensing (Onufrienko)
4) Psychological Effects of Socialization in Different Age Groups (Trenkaeva & Bogomaz)
5) Socionics & Genetics (Filatova)
6) Inheritance of Socion Attributes: Statistics (Popov)
7) Studying Inheritance: Psycho-Types Differentiated on their Structures of Functional Asymmetry (Bogomaz & Nesterenko)
8) Some Aspects of Occurrence & Preservation in Intertype Relations (Lopatinslcaya)
9) Diagnostics & Treatment of Boundary Psychopathology (Ivanov)
10) Personal Factors: Psychotherapeutic Treatment of Boundary Psychopathology (Ivanov)
11) Typical Depressions (Sharova)
12) Socionics: From the Game to the Theory of Relations Between Psychological Types (Lyrtov)
13) Personal Growth[Career Interests] (Berezhnaya)
14) Administrative Consultations & Analysis (Prokofiev & Knayazev)
15) The Information Metabolism of Poet Sergei Yesenin (Gomel)
I'll get to the ones below later this week
16) Model of an Informatin Metabolism (Augusta)
17) Intro.to an Information Metabolism (Augusta)
18) Two Vertatsii (Augusta)
19) Hypothesis of the Universality of the TIM-CODE
20) Specifications of Model A (Gomel)
21) Theory of Subtypes (Slinko)
22) Model A (Slinko)
23) Diagnosing the Stages of Development (Prokofeva)
24) Diagnosing Psychological Problems (Krylov, Prokofeva)
25) Socionic Functions (Slinko)
26) Information Field & Mental Functions
27) Aspektonika (R.K.)
28) Subordinate Functions (Von Frants)
29) Social Persona & Specific Duality Behaviours (Гуленко)
30) Types and Recommendations (Meged)
31) Appearance of the Person as a Key to their Socionic Definition (Tsypin)
32) Life Scenarios (Gulenko)
[edit: This is mostly aesthetic but I originally pasted all these translations into a ms word file(s), unfortunately the spacing and tables haven't transferred properly into this thread, if you would like the word file(s) pm me with your e-mail address and I'll send them directly to you in an attachment]
Development of the person and sotsionicheskie functions
(From a preparing(going) book: « Algebra and geometry of human attitudes(relations) »)
Each function is shown in information system of the person differently depending on its(his) type of an information metabolism. From the point of view of sotsioniki these features in work of functions differ in two basic directions.
1. Force of function.
2. Sensibleness of function.
Knowing type IT(HIM) to which the person belongs, it is possible to tell, what functions at it(him) strong, and what weak what are better realized and what are worse.
Force of function
What is the strong and weak functions, than they differ from each other? Here, that wrote about it(this) To. YUng: « As shows experience, it is almost impossible, owing to adverse general(common) conditions, that somebody has developed simultaneously all the psychological functions. Already social requirements conduct to that the person first of all and differentiates more (develops) that from the functions to which it(he) or is by nature most presented or which gives it(him) the most obvious real means for achievement of social success. Very often, almost on a regular basis, the person more or less entirely identifies itself with the function which was laid down in optimum conditions and consequently especially developed. So there are psychological types » .
Easier speaking, strong functions define(determine) psychological type. In any sense they show, who we are in this world: that we bear(carry) to the world, we can maintain what our qualities more, than others in what is better we understand where to search for areas of our talents. Is old sotsionichesky the test: recollect, please, that you can do(make) long-long and not get tired thus. It also will be area of the strongest your function. Even if under it(this) "to do"(make") it is meant, as to not do(make) anything, and, say, to dream. It to not eat badly, and simply speaks about strong function of intuition.
Often people address to me with questions of vocational guidance. I start them to ask on their preferences, and when the confidential atmosphere is already created, I hear: « Well, it, certainly, silly, but generally would be desirable me
» Think, thus name any rare trades? The most usual. But why is silly"? « I do not know, it is unusual, somehow, and formation(education) at me such is not present ». People simply hesitate to be themselves, to open even to themselves, therefore so it is often difficult to define(determine) strong functions of the person.
How all the same to understand, what such strong functions, and how to distinguish them from weak? The definition given YUngom, vaguely enough, it(him) it is difficult to interpret correctly. It is connected by that YUng only groped new concepts, made classification of that has not been described by anybody up to it(him). And this work was conducted in the end XIX the beginning of XX centuries. It was difficult then to explain all this. Having continued the work begun YUngom, and having approached(suited) to the concepts entered by it(him) from the point of view of the theory of an information metabolism, A.Augustinavichyute has given has come to the following conclusion.
Force of function is defined(determined) by volume of the information which it(she) can process.
Sotsionicheskie researches show, that the greater volume of the information is typed(collected) on those functions where by nature greater(big) throughput of information channels is given to us. In those areas where we have great volume of the information, we and are strong, we can estimate(appreciate) more full situations, consider more facts, do(make) more correct conclusions. Here we are more difficult for confusing. Here at us the outlook is wider, and we type(collect) the information on areas of strong functions without fear, with pleasure, easily. After a while we become experts(auditeurs) in these areas, we can to criticize others also.
And what with weak functions? YUng wrote: «
one or several functions inevitably lag behind in development. Therefore they can be characterized in the suitable image as « defective », and besides in psychological, instead of in psikhopatalogicheskom sense for these backward functions at all are not painful(unhealthy), but only backward in comparison with the function costing(standing) in favorable conditions » .
On sotsionicheskom language it will look(appear) so: for weak functions to us channels of smaller capacity(power), therefore weak functions less information, than strong are allocated(removed) process. In what their weakness is shown? The incomplete information is usually insufficiently authentic. Making of the decisions connected with areas of processing of weak functions, we do(make) mistakes(errors) is more often and are compelled(forced) to address for the help and advice(council). In it(this) there is nothing terrible or humiliating, in fact we in turn can give advice(council) from the strong functions.
The volume of the information processed by strong functions, suffices the person both for own needs, and for transfer to other people, a society. While weak process concerning small volume of the information. Quality of the product given out by weak functions below. Such product can seldom interest associates, in fact in a society always there will be people with the same functions as strong.
Let's consider(examine), how force of function on an example of logic of attitudes(relations) is shown. If at the person this function strong it(he) easily understands various rules, laws, to it(him) with ease is given studying mathematics and languages, work with documents, editing. And here to the person at whom logic of attitudes(relations) function weak, is better to not choose the listed kinds of activity for work. In this case strong function of the person ethics, and its(his) talents it is necessary to develop in ethical area.
Whether weak functions are necessary to the person? Yes. It(he) can use them for own needs. Information of weak functions quite suffice for a daily life. There is no sense completely to shift work on them on other people, thus feeling dependent, dependent, defective. Such treatment of weak functions often meets among those who is insufficiently familiar with sotsionikoj, but it is incorrect, not necessary to go into extremes. Each person can find necessary skills of self-service and on weak functions, to it(this) is quite real to learn in that volume of which is demanded with usual daily business(affairs).
A.Augustinavichyute writes about it(this): « Those aspects which only individual uses, are reflected rather obobshchenno, remembered as images, experience, skills. The same, the information about which is transferred(transmitted) a society, are perceived differentsirovanno, with the big accuracy, allowing to comprehend this information and to transfer(transmit) it(her) in the verbal form » .
Strong functions should be used not only for own needs, but also for transfer of the information to other people: in professional and other joint activity, for transfer of experience, support of relatives. Production of our strong functions is necessary to a society, and we have the right to count on feedback for it(her).
Weak functions to use for itself, not imposing the help to other people from these functions more pertinently: here the probability of mistakes(errors), so, and probability to bring people is great. But to master on them a necessary minimum of knowledge, skills, skills to everyone on force.
It is necessary to remember, that force of function, or « throughput of an information channel », it is necessary to define(determine) only in comparison with its(his) other functions. In sotsionike compare functions in pairs (on dikhotomiyam): that is stronger at the person
logic or ethics;
intuition or sensorika.
Speech is conducted only about relative overweight inside of mentality of the same persons. Thus we do not compare it(him) to other people.
Sometimes it seems to us, that any function at the person strong because it(he) is better than others understands this information. But thus we do not know, it(he) long studied and has developed this function, or it(she) at it(him) strong by nature. For now we shall not understand, we can not correctly define(determine) type. Very often beginning sotsioniki commit such mistake(error).
Here an example. On training on diagnostics in group of the first year of training pupils of our School define(determine) TIM the graduate of MEPhI, now it(he) works as the programmer. In its(his) story databases sound, programming languages
Fascinated by such stream of white logic the group amicably bears(takes out) a verdict: logic strong function. Certainly, in this case the information channel of white logic is filled very well, processes and passes(misses) a plenty of the information, much more, than at the people who are not having such powerful formation(education). But here it is time to tell: « Stop, children(guys), and what at us with ethics? » We recollect all course of interview, and it appears, that during all this time we not only heard, but also saw, how easily and easy our client builds attitudes(relations) with people, to it(him) gives pleasure to find the approach to any person, and in the slightest pause when the group has thought of the next question, it(he) has already started to get acquainted with one of our nice girls. If someone from you, dear(expensive) readers, was necessary to sit on « a hot chair » before group of 15 person which asks to you the most unexpected questions on your life you for certain remember this condition. To the majority here not making advances to girls, for this purpose very strong ethics are necessary well. Strong functions are usually shown simply and naturally, simply it turns out, and all. Them "do not flaunt", them do not stick out, the owner is simply assured(confident) of them. And here on weak, even very well worked, it is possible to see some pressure(voltage), some natuzhnost, often here there are also justifications. Our client, by the way, having flaunted the "MYTHICAL" formation(education), there and then also was justified: « family tradition, all men in family finished MEPhI, could not break(disturb) ». Oh, these our traditions forcing all men is universal(without exception) to be logikami!
Force of function can be defined(determined) only in comparison with other functions of the same person.
Weak functions therefore also weak, that will lag behind our strong functions. As it will seem to someone sad, but this only stipulation of a harmony. It is possible to develop and those, and other functions, increasing total amount of information interchange. And then on absolute size our weak functions can overtake without ceremony someone's strong. But our strong thus will be even stronger.
Those who is familiar with sotsionikoj only superficially, often not so well understand, that the difference between strong and weak functions in norm(rate) is rather small. Speaking about strong and weak functions, sotsionika does not approve(confirm), that it is few weak functions, or that they are much weaker strong. At harmoniously developed person the balance between strong and weak functions is kept approximately at a level 60:40, that reminds a percentage parity(ratio) of parts of gold section (approximately 62:38) and can quite correspond(meet) to it(him).
If at the person weak functions are so weak, that it is evident it is a question already at the best of problems in development of the person, probably, about aktsentuatsiyakh character, and in case of rough infringements about a pathology. From psychology we know, that aktsentuatsii are appreciable, they remind as though "ledge" in character of the person, and this "ledge" it(he) often "clings" to people, for situations, for circumstances. It strongly enough prevents to live to it(him) and to associates prevents to communicate with it(him).
It is not necessary to confuse it to strong and weak functions of harmoniously developed person: the percentage parity(ratio) 60:40 is a difference of all in one and a half time. It(she) is appreciable, first of all, to the person, probably, to its(his) relatives. It(she) is brightly shown in stressful situations, and in a usual life to the nonspecialist practically is not visible.
Often ask, whether limits sotsionika opportunities of people, "forbidding" to them to work on weak functions. No, and once again is not present. Knowing or not knowing sotsioniku, everyone is free to choose for itself(himself) that activity which it(he) wants. Has put here a little in other. Sotsionika to us only helps(assists) to answer following questions. On what to us is easier to lean(base)? What provides us more with a solid data? How to make the life it is easier and thus is more successful? Whether probably such?
Psychologists mark(celebrate), that in various situations the person can lean(base) on one and two basic vital strategy:
Aspiration to achievement of success;
Aspiration to avoiding failures.
What is better for choosing from them for itself?
So has developed, that our people aspire to avoid failures is more often. To aspire to success it is not accepted, « it is inconvenient somehow », « as though that has not left ». Here anything also does not leave.
Usually of what we think, comes true. We think of success we receive success. We think of failures (even how them to avoid) we receive failures. Therefore psychologists consider(count) as more advantageous motivation to achievement of success. If we are adjusted(set up) on success and we go to it(him,them) every day, we remember it(him), we collect on its(his) particles composed, we lay to it(him,them) the paths, persistently we work that success sooner or later will come. We often see it in biographies of the people, managed to reach(achieve) in the life something costing(standing). Thinking of success we approach success. So the person feels realized. And differently, not aspiring to what, or aspiring to be « as all », we also become as everything, i.e. anybody especial, and even it is simple anybody.
So it turns out, what avoiding of failures is absolutely useless strategy? No, it(she) too is necessary to us. It is a question about not volume to become « the person in a case », avoiding unusual, but about care too it is not necessary to forget all, differently the life will turn to recklessness and then not for long to lose all the achievements, and not having received result. Necessary foresight is necessary, it is impossible for it(her) to neglect unpunishedly.
It turns out, that both these strategy are necessary to each person, differently to not see to it(him) in a life of success but only to stay in failures. How to choose the necessary strategy? Psychologists advise to combine both these strategy, thus a greater emphasis doing(making) on aspiration to achievement of success. We can specify: from the point of view of harmonization of a life it is better, that they were combined approximately in a proportion of gold section.
Why I about it(this) write in the book on sotsionike? Because sotsionika can make these recommendations more concrete. Observing of work of strong and weak functions, it is possible to notice, that it is better to aspire to achievement of success on strong functions: it and is easier and more productive. Here the probability to overtake others is great, having flashed the talents. Here we are hardy, we can long work, not getting tired, that is important for achievement of success. Here we put the purposes more precisely and we choose more suitable means for their achievement. Here we are not afraid critics(criticisms) and if we suppose mistakes(errors) it does not reduce our confidence of, we simply search for other approaches to the decision of tasks in view, we correct mistakes(errors) and we find the creative decisions doing(making) our result by even more effective.
And weak functions prompt us, where we can be mistaken. Foresight in any business will not prevent, therefore it is better to think over in advance where failure can trap us. It is the most probable, that it is area of weak functions. Here also it is necessary to make secure in advance. On weak functions fears, doubts, complexes of fault and inferiority, excessive trustfulness to another's opinions or, on the contrary, closeness from the information is more often concentrate.
The proverb speaks: « would Know where to fall, solomki would spread ». We can know in advance: the probability "to fall" is more on weak functions. Hence, there also it is necessary « to spread solomku ». In fact any our activity inevitably includes all functions, only in a different measure. uvlekshis work, we can not notice "puncture" on weak function. But "a chain is only as strong as its weakest link", therefore it is better to take care in advance of avoiding failures, not ignoring the doubts going from weak functions. In fact if strong functions are self-confident, weak are cautious. They provide to us the original insurance.
How it is better to make secure on weak functions? It is possible to invite the reliable partner, at which these functions strong. It is possible to expand not too activity aside weak functions. It is possible, if it is necessary to work any part of time on weak functions as it is necessary to study(investigate) a subject and to train the necessary skills, having received thus necessary experience but to not forget about their weakness, so, and about secure. It will give less pleasure from work, but basically is possible(probable). It is possible to pass(take place), at last, corresponding(meeting) psychological trainings that impacts on vanity, inevitable at work with weak functions, not too injured mentality.
At the competent approach it is possible even to turn weak functions to itself on advantage(benefit). How it to make?
First of all to not forget, that it is weakness only in comparison with our strong functions, it(she) at all does not force us to be weaker than other people.
To understand, in what their weakness consists, what information to us is usually given more difficultly. It should be considered simply in a life to not get in trouble because of rashness.
To listen, that to us prompt these functions. Perhaps, in us speak habitual fears. Then them it is necessary to work, solve problems. And can be, on the contrary, we too valiantly adjust ourselves. Then other strategy: it is time to look round, estimate(appreciate) the resources. Otherwise we will not have not enough energy on really important achievements.
And at last, not less important. Owing to our weak functions we can understand other people, feel their weaknesses, in fact it(him) too happens terribly, and too on something there are no forces. Such approach conducts to the best mutual understanding and removes many problems.
The competent attitude(relation) to the weak functions consists in not were frightened and not kompleksovat, but also not « to hide a head in sand », being closed from problems and from a recognition of the weaknesses. We simply alive people, also is better to know well myself, to accept such as we are, than to compose in the imagination about myself legends and to try to force to believe in them and, and associates.
not having managed to accept itself, we cannot accept other people such as they are, and, means, we shall be eternally doomed on moralizatorstvo, the control, cavils and other troubles in dialogue. It is necessary to us?
If the person for itself chooses work on weak functions, it(him), certainly, anybody cannot forbid. Here simply pertinently to take an interest, for that it(he) waits from such work. More often in such cases it is a question not of self-development, and about unwillingness to make independent decisions: such person simply aspires « to work, as everything because so it is got(started) ». It(he) already plainly also does not wait for worthy payment and-or social recognition. Here social stereotypes already operate(work): « Where as a criterion of work consider(count) weariness ». But such person hardly will become interested sotsionikoj. We write not for it(him). There are on light other people who have creative interests, but they hesitate of them to embody in a trade: « for such pleasure also money to receive? » - and why also is not present?
Let's formulate conclusions from told.
the Basic vital strategy are better for building, leaning(basing) on the strong functions, choosing, being conformed to them, the purposes and means. It concerns(touches) both professional work, and partner attitudes(relations) where we wish to be appreciated.
Foresight should be shown first of all in zones of weak functions, having thought over in advance, where at us "bottlenecks", competently having constructed strategy of their protection.
the Parity(Ratio) of aspiration to success and is better for choosing avoiding of failures at a level of gold section: approximately 60 % of attention to give aspiration to achievement of success, and approximately 40 % - to avoiding of failures.
Often ask a question on development of functions. We shall speak about it(this) in the following book but as a question this very important, we shall briefly tell about it(this) here again. Everyone, certainly, itself solves, what functions to it(him) are better for developing, strong or weak. Here pertinently to give some advice(councils).
First of all it would be desirable to warn against extreme measures: it is not necessary to give all attention only to development of strong functions, but also « to struggle with itself », aspiring to develop mainly weak too to what. To develop all is necessary for function, thus it is desirable to not forget about balance of gold section: 60 % of attention, time and forces should be given development of strong functions and 40 % to development weak. So we reach(achieve) harmony in development of the person.
Why not on the contrary? Sometimes people aspire to tighten the weak functions up to a level strong. Or even wish to make them more strongly strong, trying already to change the type. For such work huge efforts are required, the person overcomes fears and difficulties, thus « attacking a throat to own song ». And all to become "fifty-fifty", « 50 on 50 », " neither fish nor fowl". Whether Costs(stands)?
The aspiration to develop function in a proportion 50:50 is often caused by fear to appear in something more poorly others, to show thus the problems so, that they become appreciable to associates. Certainly, fears and weaknesses to overcome it is necessary. But when we try to study them, we "punch" a situation the success, clearly, comes not at once. It is necessary to create to itself some " safety factor" which will support(maintain) us on a way to achievement of success. We with ourselves in road take a stock of products. And here.
It is important to remember and to know about itself good namely about the strong qualities. If our strong functions are well developed, we in case of any failure can translate(transfer) the attention to them to not feel the full loser. And the self-estimation will not strongly suffer.
Important and another: not always the best decision will be the decision « in a forehead ». To solve a problem(task) oposredovanno, having transferred(carried) weight from weak function on strong sometimes much more effectively. There are the concrete methods showing as it to do(make). We shall speak about it(this) at analysis of functions of model And.
And if the balance between strong and weak functions in any party(side) is broken(disturbed), what often enough happens? Then it is necessary to develop those functions which at present break balance: "nedotyagivayut" strong, almost coming nearer on development to weak means, we develop strong; are too weak weak so, that it is evident it is tightened weak. But thus it is tried to be as it is possible more close to a proportion of gold section, in fact to harmonious people is is easier. And with them it is easier.
And despite of all told, there are the people speaking, that here supposedly there are the technics(technical equipment), developing weak functions up to a level strong, and sotsionika it forbids. Technics(technical equipment) is, it is the truth. And sotsionika cannot forbid them. But why these people till now have not developed the left hand up to a level right? Here the known joke is recollected the person, loved to cut a green hedge manikyurnymi with scissors. It(he) consisted in a society on search of the maximal difficulties in a life and much that same liked to do(make). Who will forbid to it(him)?
Often ask about an opportunity of change of psychological type with the purpose to replace the weak functions on strong. Someone even spoke, that spent such experiments. I shall explain an essence: even if would be possible(probable) to change type that it would mean to not make all the functions strong, and to change one weak for others. That is, strong to make weak (well, and weak strong if it will turn out). Personally I do not see sense in such experiments: risk to lose mind big, and result doubtful. In my opinion, the risk is not justified, and hardly it is possible assotsiirovat with development of the person.
All told once again proves, that people should not condemn each other for lacks, and appreciate the help, psychological addition, in fact at one person there can not be at once all valuable qualities. Probably, it(this) also defines(determines) the person, as a collective essence.
Sensibleness of function
Depending on the place in model of type function can be shown by IT(HIM) as realized or subconscious. For the first time about it(this) has started talking To. YUng. It(he) named the most realized function at type differentiated and approved(confirmed), that it(she) can realize the area in the pure state, without the help of other functions. Whereas not differentiated functions require such help, understand the material not in the pure state, and with an impurity of other functions.
YUng wrote: « More valuable function is always expression of the conscious person, its(her) intention, its(her) will, its(her) achievement whereas less differentiated functions belong to number of those events which happen with us. These accidents are not always shown at all in the form of a language lapse or other omissions; they can be half or on three quarters measured(going) because less differentiated functions possess, though also smaller, consciousness » .
The person thinks of the realized functions is more often, speaks about them, can offer something the, comprehend(conceive) another's offers or criticize incorrect opinions. Subconscious functions work as though by itself, « without feedback of the report », not reflecting, and giving out ready result in the form of actions, desires, moods.
YUng specified: « At all it is not necessary to imagine, as if unconscious it is long pogrebeno under a lot of stratifications and it can be open only by means of laborious drilling. On the contrary, unconscious constantly joins psychological events, besides in so high degree, that to the observer happens difficultly to solve, what properties of character it is necessary to charge to the conscious person and what due to unconscious » .
YUng connected subconscious functions with instincts. About it(this) now practically do not speak, but it is similar, that it is valid so. The person sometimes name « a public animal », i.e. in it(him) is both social, and biological. Social turned to people, to society, to public contacts it is natural to connect with conscious. Here speech, reflections, feedback is necessary to of the report in acts. Biological is a functioning at a level of an organism, instincts, it(him) to connect with subconscious since instinctive actions do not assume reflections and reasonings more correctly.
In work "Sotsion" A.Augustinavichyute wrote about it(this) in terms of the first and second alarm systems . From biology it is known, that the first alarm system is both at animals, and at the person, it(she) is connected with instincts, and A.Augustinavichyute has connected it(her) with unconscious (or, in terms sotsioniki, vitalnym, vital). The second alarm system is inherent only in the person, it(she) is connected with speech. A.Augustinavichyute has connected it(her) with consciousness (in sotsionike it refers to mental).
Sometimes in a life people represent not realized as weak. And itself YUng yet did not allocate strong subconscious functions. However sotsionicheskie researches have shown, what not all subconscious functions are weak. There are strong realized functions and strong subconscious, and also weak realized and weak subconscious. We shall show, how sensibleness and podsoznatelnost functions on an example of function logic of attitudes(relations) is shown.
At one types IT(HIM) the logic of attitudes(relations) is in the field of conscious strong functions. In that case work after it(her) gives pleasure, can be connected with creativity: the person loves and able to think up new classification, to spread out all on polochkam, to explain the complex(difficult) phenomena, to find new ways of explanations if old approach(suit) insufficiently.
At other types the logic of attitudes(relations) gets in area of strong subconscious functions. At such person work after it(her) passes(takes place) as though by itself, not delivering neither special efforts, nor special pleasure. It(he) easily understands rules and laws, but to explain, most likely, will not want: « that here to explain? And so all is clear ». Such person will adhere to laws, to feel their spirit, but to not think out new. Will easily and correctly master foreign language, but will "not dig" in subtleties of grammar to it(him) it not interestingly.
In such cases sometimes there are difficulties at diagnostics TIM: « What it(he) logik if the mathematics is not interesting to it(him), does not like to explain? » We shall not confuse. Subconscious functions are uninteresting, but operate(work) quickly and reliably. And in area of consciousness at such types the strong logic of actions gets, to it(her) the person shows interest, with pleasure will think up and will tell as how to do(make), will invent new technology or will think up, as it is favourable to invest to force them to work. It too logic.
Weak functions too differently conduct themselves depending on sensibleness. On weak realized we realize the weakness, and it is unpleasant to us. It would be desirable or develop these functions, or somehow to hide this weakness, and is better, that these(it) nobody concerned(touched) those, did not deliver superfluous troubles. The weak realized logic of attitudes(relations) cannot suffer(bear) indistinct explanations, an abundance of not clear instructions, reproaches for the disorder or for misunderstanding. Requirements logically to explain the acts throw into its(her) carriers(bearers) confusion or in indignation.
On weak subconscious functions people concern to the weakness much more easy. They with pleasure accept the help and support, easily transfer(carry) the mild criticism and are pleased to a praise, are ready to study better to apply these functions, but such learned actions will be not creative, podrazhatelnymi or they will be well applied at support of corresponding(meeting) strong functions (for example, understanding of rules and laws through feelings of people which these laws concern(touch)). The people having logic of attitudes(relations) as weak subconscious, are ready to adhere to rules with pleasure, love, when to them something explain or tell from positions of scientific laws. Even apply knowledge of mathematics, programming, jurisprudence, etc. in the work, but not with it(this) connect the creativity.
Recently sotsionicheskie the researches spent in different cities and different researchers independently from each other, show, that among programmers type IEI at which the logic of attitudes(relations) necessary for programming, is in the field of weak subconscious functions is widespread enough. I have taken an interest at one of such programmers, whether work and as it(he) works is pleasant to it(him). Know, what it(he) has answered? « I write the program, as a poem »
K.G.Yung. Psychological types. SPb.: "YUventa" M.: « Progress Univers », 1995.
A.Augustinavichyute. About dual human nature. In kn.: A.Augustinavichyute. Sotsionika: kn. 1. Introduction. M.: "nuclear heating plant", SPb.: « Terra Fantastica », 1998.
A.Augustinavichyute. Sotsion. // Sotsionika, mentologiya and psychology of the person, № 5, 1996.
Brain localization sotsionicheskikh functions:
For the first time it is published: " Sotsionicheskie readings ", 2001, № 9, with. 1 - 4.
Subject of our discussion search of objective, physiological bases for allocation of various psychological types, both in the theoretical plan, and for the purposes of practical typological diagnostics. We consider(count), that this problem should be a subject of separate consideration on a joint sotsioniki and the neurophysiology, named by us nejrosotsionikoj.
As specified K.G.Yung in the book " Psychological types ", " contrast of types as the general(common) psychological phenomenon, should have somehow the biological precondition " . In our opinion, this precondition are specific features-typological of the organization of a brain, namely functional asymmetry of its(his) hemispheres. Thus it is necessary to consider(examine) two kinds of asymmetry: as mezhpolusharnuyu (distinctions of activity of the left and right hemispheres), and vnutripolusharnuyu (distinctions pretsentralnykh and the postcentral areas of hemispheres).
What arguments in favour of this assumption? First of all, it is necessary to emphasize, that by consideration of the given question, being a special case of a problem of a parity(ratio) "brain-mentality", we lean(base) on a modern paradigm nejropsikhologii, considering(examining) as a material basis of the maximum(supreme) mental functions, consciousness, personal characteristics a bark of greater(big) hemispheres: " Greater(Big) hemispheres of a brain and mezhpolusharnye communications(connections) here that forms a nervous substratum of consciousness " (Dobrokhotova T.A., Bragina N.N., Zajtsev O.S., Уpaкoв S.V., 1998). Secondly, the base mechanism vzaimodejstvi hemispheres in this paradigm is their functional asymmetry. Nobel prize winner R.Sperry (1982) has generalized results of researches of functional asymmetry of the hemispheres, received at supervision of patients with " the split brain ", as follows: " In each hemisphere the functions are presented: in left speech, the letter, the account(invoice), in right perception(recognition) of spatial attitudes(relations) and an identification not identified by words: each of the disconnected hemispheres has, apparently, separate "consciousness".
How representations about asymmetry of hemispheres are combined with localization sotsionicheskikh functions? We shall remind, that yungovskaya the model of psychological type includes four functions (thinking, chuvstvovanie, sensation, intuition) from which first two are rational, remained irrational, and also two personal installations ekstraversiya and introversiya. In the further, as is known, the typological nomenclature has undergone some additions, with allocation of rationality (regularity) and irrationality (spontaneity) as separate functions. Thus their descriptions as a whole coincide with characteristics accordingly the left and right hemisphere, described in managements(manuals) on neurophysiology (Springer, Deitch, 1983) and resulted(brought) in the below-mentioned table:
The left hemisphere The right hemisphere
Logic Analytical Speech Systematic Discrete Consecutive Realistic Intuitive Synthetic Figurative Spontaneous Continuous simultannoe Impulsive
In the given description the structure of functional asymmetry of hemispheres, khaarkternyj for right-handed persons when the left hemisphere is prepotent is meant. At lefthanders the structure of asymmetry is inverted.
Thus, mezhpolusharnaya asymmetry is a basis first of all for such typological attributes, as ratsionalnost/irrationality. Persons(faces) at whom the leading part during reflection by a brain of a reality plays the left hemisphere, concern that to rational psychological types, the right hemisphere to irrational. As if to ekstraversii and introversii they also are connected with mezhpolusharnoj asymmetry and are defined(determined) by intensity of an information exchange between hemispheres (Sandomirskij M.E., 1995): intensity is high is peculiar for extroverts, low for introverts. Owing to the described distinction of ways of processing of the information the left and right hemisphere, it is considered to be, that these ways mutually supplement each other. Accordingly during functioning consciousness of a hemisphere partially duplicate each other, processing the same portions of the information in the different ways. Thus mezhpolusharnyj information interchange, is more exact an exchange of results of work of hemispheres and their association, or superposition, gives consciousness a complete, adequate and full picture of a reality. If the information exchange between hemispheres proceeds often and small portions, at a level of intermediate results of processing of the information, it corresponds(meets) obrashchennosti soznani outside (ekstraversiya). In the same case when this exchange occurs(happens) seldom and greater(big) portions, at a level of ready results of information processing, it corresponds(meets) obrashchennosti consciousnesses inside (introversiya).
That in described model of localization sotsionicheskikh functions such functions as ekstraversiya/¿¡ÔÓ«óÑÓß¿n, the rationality/irrationality, the organizations connected with specificity mezhpolusharnogo interactions, are considered(examined) as mezhpolusharnye functions.
Speaking about vnutripolusharnoj asymmetries, it is necessary to emphasize distinguish lobbies, so-called pretsentralnykh areas of the hemispheres including a frontal bark, and back (postcentral) areas. If the back departments concerning more ancient structures of a brain, are borrowed(occupied) by perception(recognition) and primary, rough processing of the information (projective zones of a bark) forward, frontal departments provide its(her) more thin analysis (associative zones). In nejropsikhologicheskoj typology distinction of functions perdnikh and back departments of hemispheres is spent in a context of division of the general(common) typological properties, in B.M.Teplova's terminology (1961) and private(individual) typological properties describing work of separate areas of a bark of a brain. According to(agree) nejroanatomicheskomu to a principle of division of the general(common) and private(individual) properties of nervous system on V.D.Nebylitsynu (1968), the general(common) properties are based on features of the organization of activity pretsentralnoj parts of a brain (a frontal bark), private(individual) properties the postcentral part. The important addition vnutripolusharnoj asymmetries is brought in this scheme(plan) N.Herrmann (1988), emphasizing, that back departments of hemispheres also differ from forward departments the close communication(connection) with subcrustal formations(educations), first of all limbicheskoj system the generator of emotions. Therefore in scheme(plan) N.Herrmann forward departments are called actually korkovymi, and back korkovo-лимбическими. As a result the following division of departments of a brain is created:
The left hemisphere The right hemisphere
Korkovyj left Korkovyj right
Korkovo-лимбический left Korkovo-лимбический right
Though during functioning a brain the listed areas are involved in an equal measure all, but at the same time they can be differently connected with so-called " focus of consciousness ", with physiological mechanisms of understanding "I". Domination during realized processing the information of those or other zones of a bark, in view of them polusharnoj accessories(belongings), leaves traces on личностно-typological characteristics of the person. With reference to communication(connection) sotsionicheskikh functions with asymmetry of hemispheres, it creates the following scheme(plan) of their localization (Sandomirskij M.E., 1995):
Departments of a bark of hemispheres of a brain Hemispheres of a brain
The left hemisphere (Rational) The right hemisphere (Irrational)
Lobbies (pretsentralnye) Logic (T) Intuition (N)
Back (postcentral) Ethics (F) Sensorika (S)
In the resulted(brought) scheme(plan) of function which K.G.Yung described as rational thinking (logic) and chuvstvovanie (ethics) concern to a rational (dominating) hemisphere, and irrational intuition and sensation (sensorika) accordingly to an irrational hemisphere (subdominant). With reference to a physiological role separate korkovykh zones of most "transparent" their communication(connection) with sotsionicheskimi functions for pretsentralnykh departments of a bark is represented. Really, forward departments of the left hemisphere (at right-handed persons) directly are connected with verbally-logic thinking, and symmetric departments of the right hemisphere with abstract nonverbal (intuitive) thinking. With reference to back departments of a bark, it is necessary to consider first of all the closest communication(connection) of corresponding(meeting) area of the right hemisphere with the sensations coming from internal bodies, and also neverbalizuemymi emotional reactions and is evident-subject mechanisms of thinking (yungovskaya "feeling" function in the pure state). Back departments of a bark of the left hemisphere also are connected with external afferentatsiej and emotional reactions, but more accessible dl verbalizations in view of anatomic affinity of speech zones. The corresponding(meeting) verbal description and the verbally-mediated understanding of emotions puts them in close communication(connection) with ethical and moral categories. In a combination to modelling cogitative functions of a frontal bark activity of the postcentral area of the left hemisphere can be the catalyst of processes of the interpersonal communications, providing mechanisms of empathy laying in their basis (understood as an opportunity to present and experience behaviour of other person).
Accordingly in described model such sotsionicheskie functions as logic/ethics, the intuition/ßÑ¡ß«Ó¿á connected with specificity of the organization mezhpolusharnogo of interaction, are considered(examined) as vnutripolusharnye functions. Alternative schemes(plans) polusharnoj "bindings" vnutripolusharnykh sotsionicheskikh functions are described also:
N and T levopolusharnye functions; S and F pravopolusharnye functions (Vasilev V.N., Ramazanova A.P., Bogomaz S.A., 1996);
T and S functions of the left hemisphere, and N and F right (V.V.Gulenko, V.P.Tyshchenko, 1997).
In our opinion, the model described above is more physiologically proved. The similar scheme(plan) is considered(examined) recently by V.I.Okladnikovym (2000). Earlier we had been considered(examined) practical appendices of the given scheme(plan) (the detailed information is accessible on the Internet to the address of marks.on.ufanet.ru/mainsoc.htm) in psychotherapy (Sandomirskij M.E., Gulenko V.V., 1995), including mechanisms of formation of therapeutic trances, or the changed conditions of consciousness (Sandomirskij M.E., Belogorodsky H.p., 1997), and also pedagogics (Sandomirskij M.E., Enikeev D.A., Belogorodsky h.p., 1997а) and age psychology (Sandomirskij M.E., Enikeev D.A., Belogorodsky h.p., 1997б).
1. Vasilev V.N., Ramazanova A.P., Bogomaz S.A.poznaj of others find itself. Tomsk, 1996.
2. Gulenko V.V., Tyshchenko V.P.Yung at school. Sotsionika interage pedagogics. Nsb.: Izd. Novosib. ô¡-that; M.: Perfection, 1997. 270 with.
3. Dobrokhotova T.A., Bragina N.N., Zajtsev O.S., Уpaкoв S.V.value of neurosurgery in studying parities(ratio) "brain-mentality" // Magazine of neurology and psychiatry. 1998.№5. C. 4.
4. nebylitsyn V.D. To a question on the general(common) and private(individual) properties of nervous system. // Vopr. Psychologies, 1968, № 4, with. 29-43.
5. Okladnikov V.I.typology and adaptable conditions of the person. Irkutsk: Type. vost.-ß¿í.áÝÓ«úÑ«ñ.»ÓÑñ»Ó., 2000. 172 with.
6. Sandomirsky M.E.mental of strategy, psychological types and the changed conditions of consciousness. // From Chaos in Space. M.: 1995. With. 50-65.
7. Sandomirskij M.E., Gulenko V.V.Sotsionicheskaya model of the person in psychotherapy // Etudes about new psychotherapy. Minsk: MAPN, 1995.192 with. With. 95-105.
8. Sandomirskij M.E., Enikeev D.A., Belogorodsky h.p. Increase of a learning efficiency on the basis of formation of the artificial sensitive periods. // Ways of improvement of quality of preparation of experts to the higher school. Ufa: Bashkir gos. Honey. University, 1997а. 210 with. With. 208-209.
9. Sandomirskij M.E., Enikeev D.A., Belogorodsky h.p. the Periodization of mental development from the point of view of ontogeneza funktsinalnoj asymmetries of hemispheres. // Modern problems of physiology and medicine. Ufa: Bash.gos.med.universitet, 1997б.-With. 44-63.
10. Sandomirskij M.E., Belogorodsky H.p. Changed conditions of consciousness and physiological age regress // Psychotherapy: from the theory to practice. Mater. The second vseros.uchebno-практич. konf. On psychotherapy on June, 16-21th 1997 g.-M.: Publishing house of Institute of psychotherapy, 1997.261 with. With. 100-104.
11. Springer, Deitch the Left brain, the right brain. M.: the World, 1983. 256 with.
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14. Herrmann N. The creative brain.-Lake Lure , N.C.: Brain Books, 1988.
15. Sperry R. Some effects of disconnecting the cerebral hemispheres. Nobel Lecture. // Biosci Rep. 1982 May; 2 (5): rr. 265-276.
How to realize your strongest mental functions
It is published: "Sotsionika" (newsletter), Kiev - Novosibirsk, 1990, № 1, with. 35 - 42.
Often people squander the energy, getting on masks of another's, more "profitable" types in the given conditions. There is nothing porochnee such tactics. samorealizovatsya it is possible, only having been oneself. It is impossible to realize a mask. Experience a condition when on the present it is interesting to you to be engaged in in what you are engaged. It also will be your "native" condition you learn(find out) it(him) to that in it(him) you will not get tired, will feel easily and freely, having dumped(reset) all ' muscular clips ". Will be easy and to speak and do(make) unshakably that to you will come in a head, and about you will speak how Dizraeli, the first minister of queen of Victoria, has told about Bismarck. " Be protected it(him)! It(he) speaks that thinks ".
Let's consider(examine), how eight mental functions are shown on a place of 1-st function in model And the strongest, valuable function of type
The term "intuition" is accepted in sotsionike for want of something better designations in our language for this device of processing of the information on the real world. It(he) has no anything the general(common) with vision on three meters under the ground or guessing of forthcoming accidents. However intuitive it is really inclined to hide deliberately dymkoj uncertainty a precise side between conscious and unconscious. The part of work of its(his) brain passes(takes place) in the field of unconscious.
" If I shall sometimes not be silent, whence I learn(find out), that wants and the life waits from me? ". The main art of the person of intuitive type to be able to load and protect then the subconsciousness. Loading of subconsciousness demands unbearable work. Imagine, that you nakidali a shovel in a blast furnace three hundred tons of ore. To borrow(occupy) after that burdens in serious and emotionally significant problem(task) is all the same what to throw out these(it) three hundred tons, not waiting pereplavki and to start to load new. So it is possible to lead all life in heavy work and to not receive gram of metal.
Intuitive some intellectual arrogance, contempt for authorities is peculiar. This(thus) not only normal, but also necessary quality for that role which it(he) plays a society: to lose self-esteem for it(him) all the same, that for a sentry dog to lose a scent. Zamyliv eyes authorities, you proshlepaete the major things.
Contrary to the widespread prejudice, the intuitive thinking demands rather big time. The lincoln (ILE) did not concern to number of those who possesses ability hurriedly to seize heard or read through. In its(his) all shape, in behaviour, a manner to speak and think there was any calmness and wise validity. The lincoln very long could delay decision-making, but having accepted it(him), already did not change any more both carried out resolutely and A.F.Ioffe (SEI) is fast so described the meeting with Einstein (ILE) to which it(he) has brought the new results:
" Hour per 3 days has come to it(him,them). Two hours I told to it(him) all essential and then has begun exclusive on depth and persistence process of development of a material new to Einstein / can be characterized this Process as organic introduction of the new facts in the uniform picture which has developed earlier of the nature. At supper the spiritual food continued to be acquired, and mastering of material food occured(happened) under the instruction(indication) of the wife what to take on a plug and when to direct to a mouth. Midnight came nearer. I have suggested to continue conversation tomorrow or in any other day, but have seen, that the sense of my words did not reach Einstein and did not begin to insist. At last, in 2 one o'clock in the morning process has ended all became on the places, doubts are found out; one more site in the picture of world around deprived internal contradictions which was created to itself by Einstein " has increased.
1.1. Intuition of opportunities (I).
Having threshed huge quantity(amount) of the information to find grandiose on the perspectivity, but still very weak, defenceless undertaking and with all enthusiasm to rush on it(him). " Yes, but I often throw begun, uvlekshis .чем-нибудь another ", you will tell. Certainly, and you that, were going to find the main business of the life from the cradle? And if even have encountered it(him) casually you would fill up it(him), have compromised. It in fact too art to bring to people something new. At the person of your type of a half-life leaves on generating itself. The maturity assumes humility. And unless the world around of you is good? Each new hobby, at all visible uselessness has the important consequences it forms you. Your strong feature: skill to understand an essence of things to put forward or support(maintain) perspective idea. Not suetites is to you does not go. Do not try to plan all is at you it will not turn out. Think and operate(work) slowly, confidently.
To Einstein there were 5 years when to it(him) have presented a compass. The toy has bewitched it(him). It(he) has made the first discovery: " Behind things there should be something(something else) deeply hidden "." To be radical is means to understand a thing in its(her) root " Charles Marx spoke. The problem(task) facing to this function to construct let simplified (" all ingenious is simple "), but reflecting the most essential, deep, steady and not casual features of object. The mathematics frightened off Einstein that had set of special areas, each of which is capable to incur all short life released(let off) to us. In the physicist(physics) it(he) " has soon learned to try to discover that can lead in depth and reject all rest all that, overloads mind(wit) and distracts from essential ". The maximum(supreme) achievements of considered(examined) function the ideas which are not losing of the value in due course. " V.Vernadsky an outstanding scientist. The more passes(takes place) time, the value, importance and depth of its(his) ideas, besides not in historical only aspect, but also search of ways of the decision of new problems " (RSHikulsky) more brightly reveals.
When I is the first function, the main thing in human life of such warehouse in that it(he) thinks and as it(he) thinks instead of that it(he) does(makes) or tests. Einstein has amazed(struck) Maksa Planck when has declared that does not remember to that speed of a sound is equal air. It(he) spoke: " Original value is only the intuition. I trust in intuition and inspiration ". Among objects, intuitive extroverts are able to define(determine) deep, which potential opportunities, it is possible to name and people. So, if there was no suitable expert, Kurchatov instructed(entrusted) to understand a problem, apparently, to the extraneous person, but, as a rule, was not mistaken.
However especially well understands abilities and talents of people IEE. Contemporaries recollect, what atmosphere of goodwill and fidelity was created around of itself by Roosevelt (IEE). But it at all was not for it(him) end in itself. Being four times the selected works on the highest post of the country, it(he) superb understood the most complicated political situations, in artful designs of the big business, correctly counted " a parallelogram of forces " both in the country, and on international scene. Undoubtedly, that Roosevelt has deduced(removed) the USA from abyss of the hardest crisis of 30th years to position unprecedented until then power of the richest and prospering country of the world of that time. As well as Peter the Great, it(he) has lead the transformations concerning(touching) not external, but the most deep essence, the party(side) of structure of a life of a society
The habit to address to an essence of business(affairs) defines(determines) the original attitude(relation) of intuitive extroverts ILE and IEE to authorities. " The one who tries to pass for firm authority on sphere of true and knowledge ", Einstein spoke, " is wrecked under a laughter of gods ". Churchill (ILE) long could not get in the government from for extremely self-confident manner to teach everything, including the prime minister. It(he) possessed magnificent memory, but acquired very easily and quickly only that it(him) interested. Teachers and did not manage to force to acquire it(him) even modest knowledge in the field of mathematics and classic languages. IEE, being etikom, is more tactful, but finally, it is so intellectually self-confident and obstinate.
1.2. Intuition of time (T) .
Strong feature of intuitive introverts (OR, IEI): skill to feel in a stream of time to expect and really to estimate(appreciate) spirit of events.
Introvertnye functions are a reflection reflection ekstravertnykh. But they are focused on the subject. For example, ideas represent the main value for the intuitive extrovert. For the intuitive introvert too. But if for the first it is the most important the idea is how much true, how much(as far as) it(she) allows to understand correctly and full an essence of studied(investigated) object whether it be the nature of physical fields or essence of this or that social order for the second how much(as far as) this idea is significant for consciousness of the subject. And in fact the subject is not only and not so much "I" ' (introverts by the nature collectivists), how many any "WE". To the majority of people effectively to operate(work), it is necessary to trust in something. Especially it is peculiar strong, strong-willed SLE and LSI. Therefore IEI and EIE try to not admit(allow) the period of unbelief. From this point of view extremely interestingly our time, time of wreck of ideology. V.Konetsky (IEI) writes, that it(he) any more does not wish to trust in marxist class dogmas And does(makes) an amazing conclusion main there was" a national idea. There should be any "WE": we are workers, we Russian, we are Christians. By the way, in interview of representatives of type IEI indignation of that is made for last 70 years with religion is frequent.
Motto Sokrata is close to the intuitive introvert: " poznaj itself ". Not the attitude(relation) of the person to other people, namely the attitude(relation) to becomes more often a theme of its(his) reflections. Considers(counts), that the person does not reach(achieve) happiness not because it(he) does not want it(him), that is why, that does not know, in what it consists.
Onore de Balzac (OR) has described in " the Human comedy " ' 2000 person, represented more alive, than the presents. " It(he) can be compared unless with city upravoj ", wrote about it(him) Mauro. Amazes with accuracy of details and Gabriel's phantasmagoric world Marquez.
OR the opponent of all concepts, the theories explaining an objective life. The life is complex(difficult), in it(her) all time there are unforeseen situations. The person should be ready to all. In a life as on war there can be everything. In what it is impossible to be assured(confident). Except for itself.
The strongest nevertheless property of type OR skill to expect the future, especially dangers and troubles which it prepares. Externally it(he) all time brakes the partner, especially taking a great interest duala SEE, the croak. But also really, it(he) as though all time answers a question that will occur(happen), if to do(make) nothing. That is gives the justification of activity of the partner.
It is represented, to what exactly penetration of representatives of this type into the maximum(supreme) circles of the state has led to reorganization. Otherwise, nothing would vary till the moment of terrible crash, in comparison with which horrors of Civil war in Russia would drive a children's entertainment.
Sensoriku the philosophy stoikov is close: noble simplicity of a life and its(her) quiet acceptance, a duty(debt) to relatives, generosity to compatriots, constant courage and unshakable honesty. Stoik does not run from a life, and meets it(her) face to face. It(he) does not avoid the responsibility, and takes it(her) on itself. The maximum(supreme) duty(debt) noble affairs to be reputable for compatriots. There is a certain charm in an image of the humanist, the intellectual, the thinker. But there are times when on the foreground the figure of the figure acts, the fighter. Actually, such times never pass(take place). A life visible enough and real piece. It(she) demands realism and patience, persistence and will power, attention and force.
2.1. Strong-willed sensorika (F) .
When at the person well known Zhukov (SLE), have asked, it(he) considers(counts) what its(his) character traits the main things, it(he) has answered: " Hardness, iron will, purposefulness ". Truly having defined(determined) the purpose, Zhukov always reached(achieved) it(her). This person did not know feeling of confusion. SLE it is convinced, that it is not necessary to avoid difficulties. It is necessary to be able to overcome them. It(he) is aimed at an end result. It is ready to use all means for achievement of this end result. Knows, that it(he) wants and able to overcome obstacles in a way to the purposes. It(him), usually, one moves ", but ardent passion ". Everything, that such person does(makes), it(he) does(makes) with enthusiasm, passionately. Accordingly, weakness of development F is shown in indecision.
" Who does not float anywhere, for those there is no fair wind " (Montaigne). Strong-willed properties of character is a resoluteness and persistence. The person should know, that it(he) wants. " All over again to select(elect) a direction and to plan to itself a ultimate goal, and then everything, down to trifles, to subordinate to this direction here in what character of the reasonable person " ' (Likhtenberg) consists To choose the purpose often not less difficultly, than to reach(achieve) it(her). The choice is done(made) continually, even abstention from a choice too a choice; and the man that differs from the boy, that it(he) solves all itself, and the boy gives the decision to circumstances. If the person has made a decision, further it(he) should operate(work) only, " I had to make bad decisions, but good here: if wish to catch a flying bullet teeth so it(her) suffice very much. Play in a large way " Richard Nixon (ESI) spoke.
Function F defines(determines) aspiration to authority, glory. But an extreme measure, it there were main aspirations of Napoleon, and authority even it is more, than Glory. Objectively, its(his) role in history consist that " hurricane in which center there was Napoleon, has destroyed and has taken down(has demolished) many these rotten constructions the feudal states which would fall and so, but much later ".
The military genius of Napoleon consist in skill to use, mobilize all means at realization of the purpose. Because the success always promotes the further success, wreck conducts to the further failures.
Emperor wrote, that on light many good commanders, but they try to look on much prophetic at once. It(he), Napoleon, always looks at one on weight of the enemy and aspires to destroy this weight. Force, weight, energy here that first of all interests the touch extrovert (SLE and SEE) in any object . Namely objects make a basis of their orientation in this world (as well as at any extroverts) . F defines(determines) tactical thinking, distribution of forces, influences, interests, real opportunities. The M. Ulyanov (SLE), answering a question on what qualities were most essential to it(him) at creation of an image of Lenin has told. " Lenin was the antidogmatic person. It(he) was extremely realistic politician. It(he) always went from a life, instead of from dogmas, from realities and circumstances, instead of from concepts and instructions. If you will not manage to change, seize(change, take possession) a new situation if you are not located to go if necessary on all fours on a belly, to row, that vystoyat and again to rise, then you not the revolutionary. Here its(his) installation ". We shall not speak here about an essence, prospects of that has made Lenin (is other function) but as sensorik, it(he) was magnificent. SLE and SEE instantly estimate(appreciate) a situation, it is good in it(her) understand. LSI is able to find a way out from it would seem desperate position, that is concerns to a situation creatively.
Native elements of the touch extrovert struggle. For example, a chess - favourite game for SLE it(she) is better corresponds(meets) to its(his) character of the unruly fighter.
Sensorika investigates(researches) also appearance, the form, beauty of subjects, people, objects. " Bright dresses, beautiful suits, harmonous figures. Feeling of proportions of an alive sound body Pleasure from supervision over movements of the person, a dog, a horse. Lines, forms, paints, bends of alive harmonous bodies, game of muscles " (On L.Pimenovoj).
Anna Sergeevna, " Lady with sobachkoj " at Chekhov (LII) during the first secret appointment to the temper says, not hiding tears: " Let the god will forgive me. It is awful. Simple people speak " Dirty poputal " ". In a similar situation lyrical heroine Akhmatovoj (SLE) hears through singing skripok: " Bless heavens you the first time one with favourite ". Infringement of the Christian law so frank and admiring by self joins her(it) then without hesitation and doubts in system of coordinates of an orthodox life and an image of behaviour. Here typical distinction between " strong-willed sensorikoj " in a place of the least resistance (4-th function of Model at Chekhov and the strongest, self-assured 1-st function at Akhmatovoj. In full conformity with the attitude(relation) of the control connecting them, Akhmatova did not love Chekhov. Similarly it(she) concerned to Dostoevsky (EII sensorika too on 4 place). With the latent celebration it(she) as has caught it(him) on a mistake(an error) when the teenager speaks Lambertu told: " If it(she) has left for it(him), it(he) for the morning, after the first night would expel its(her) kicks. Because the such violent, wild love operates(works) as an attack, hardly has reached(achieved) satisfaction? The veil immediately will fall and there will be an opposite feeling-disgust and hatred. You know history Avisagi? (Akhmatova considered(counted), that Dostoevsky meant absolutely other history from the bible Amnona and Famari) it is obvious, such difference in approaches can serve as the reason of the conflict between SLE and EII.
2.2. Sensorika sensations (S).
Among great touch introverts especially it is a lot of artists and politicians / That allows them to achieve success in so not similar trades? Very thin shrill, sober fair before by itself, and at the same time emotional understanding of a life the modesty, patience Still(even) help(assist). Skill to understand people
Excellent(Different) figurative memory and skill to reproduce vidennoe (Ayvazovsky wrote the sea landscapes in a room with the naked dark red walls, leaving windows on the opposite party(side) from the sea) start with thin skill to catch sensation, environment(Wednesday), its(her) comfort, influence on the person.
From here that greater(big) role which they give to concept of human interests the Leader of a party(set) of "cadets" (the constitutional democrats) Milyukov (SEI) one of the most reasonable politicians of Russia of that time has become history as the master of the compromise. It(he) aspired to reach(achieve) the compromise in aspirations of all estates of that time, perfectly understanding interests of each of them.
The touch introvert, as a rule, does not aspire to become the leader. A competition for capture of that or from leadership up to the best place under the sun does not enter. Absolutely an another matter when the territory / Easy feels on the enters fight, not conceding spans. Likes also "to outdo". It(he) observes interests the and the relatives.
Interests for the touch introvert not area of hobbies, not subjective desires and the purposes which are put before itself by the person, and objectively existing reality. " I do not know, whether we in general have intentions and the conscious purposes of our policy(politics); but that we have interests, to us will remind others " (Bismarck). SEI even overestimates a role of interests a little. So, Bismarck spoke, that all serious historical problems are solved only iron and blood / it is easy(light) to present itself, in what the modern political thinking if it adhered to this principle would turn.
Other example Nikita Sergeevich Khruschev. Arrest Beriya demanded desperate courage It(He) has gone on this risk because cruelty and lie stalinizma is too opposite to nature SEI, with its(his) primate of a human life, prosperity, happiness. The voluntarism, a series concern To negative consequences of this installation illogical, it is possible even to tell the foolish acts accomplished by it(him) later
Conscious conclusion which SEI does(makes) of internally tragical perception(recognition) of the world, is better to formulate the citation from Lobster Khayyam:
To arrows, that mechet death, to us to not find a board
Both with the beggar and with tsar it(she) is equally abrupt,
That with naslazhdenem to live, live for naslazhdenya
All other, believe, only one vanity.
SEI the condition of aspiration to pleasure, content(prosperity), happiness is peculiar. When it would be desirable to collect, keep, transfer(transmit) these particles of happiness to associates. When it(he) is ready to struggle for this pleasure for itself(himself) and the relatives, perfectly understanding, however(as) much in this world interferes with it(her).
Considers(Counts), that confidence of tomorrow illusion. And time so it is not necessary to postpone a life for tomorrow. Today's pleasure, comfort, pleasure for itself and the relatives a subject of its(his) cares.
It(He) is able to live and allow to live another. It(he), usually, does not aspire to become "lord" of a life, preferring a role of its(her) artist. Personal social prosperity in itself conceals for it(him) much less temptations, than those sincere pleasures, disinterested and pure(clean) what the life can present it(him), there Is in it(this) even a known naivety. But classical, realized SEI also there is a person ingenuous. It(him) love for appeasable customs, skill to create easy(light), playful toya
Reaction to life SLI also leans(bases) on sensation of interests, conditions in which it(he) is. But the emphasis here is more on conditions for work. To no small degree are conditions of a payment. The cleverest writer T.Tolstaya with inimitable humour podrobnejshe has shined(covered) in the interview extortionate orders VAAPa (agencies under copyrights). SLI does not hesitate to speak on these themes. Any work should be paid an element of its(his) vital belief.
SLI it is very close(attentive) to touches. It is the important element of dialogue. It(he) will not allow to touch itself(himself) to the person who considers(counts) unpleasant. Itself can easy embrace the partner for shoulders and it means, that it(he) it is good to it(him,them) concerns.
As comfort of an atmosphere of dialogue is included also into the competence of function " sensoriki sensations ", both SEI, and SLI are able to create it(her). The first thus leans(bases) on the skill to adjust(regulate) an emotional background of the dialogue, the second operates with the tactfulness, skill in time to tell, in time to keep silent, in time to smile.
(The first part of clause(article) has been published only. The termination(ending) is lost).
Revealing and estimation of psychological effects of socialization at formation of communicative type at persons(faces) of different age
For the first time it is published in sb.:
Psychological consultation of subjects of educational process: Materials of regional scientifically-practical conference, on May, 16th 2003 g.-Barnaul: Publishing house BGPU, 2003. With. 78-86.
Repeatedly: Mentality and the communicative environment in a transit society: the Collection of clauses(articles) under V.I.Kabrina and O.I.Muravevoj.-'s edition Tomsk: Tomsk state university, 2004. With. 244-253.
The summary. In logic of the typological approach the problem of a parity(ratio) of processes of socialization and an individualization is considered(examined), the opportunity of a qualitative and quantitative estimation of current and a parity(ratio) of these processes is analyzed.
Keywords. Socialization, an individualization, social adaptation, psikhofiziologichesky and communicative types, prirodosoobraznyj a way of development
As it was already repeatedly specified by many psychologists, socialization represents ambiguous process by the results (to Korobejnikov I., 2002). On the one hand, it(she) helps(assists) the person to enter into society, to acquire norms(rates) and the forms of behaviour comprehensible in a society, and also gives to it(him) an opportunity to realize through social interaction. On the other hand, during assignment of social values and cultural samples the person is sometimes compelled(forced) to adapt to not always favorable or even to hostile influences of environment(Wednesday), to some extent losing the individuality.
Whether it is possible to concern to loss of individuality, how to something insignificant? It is obvious, that is not present. The question on value of an individualization in the psychological literature is discussed already enough for a long time (Asmolov A.G., 2001). In opinion of our domestic psychologists ( S.L.Rubinshtejn, B.G.Ananev), the life of the person is a way of becoming of its(her) individuality. At the same time, the analysis of the scientific literature shows, that basically all reasonings concerning socialization and an individualization mostly have declarative character, they in a small degree are supported by an experimental material. In particular, lack of the fact sheet is caused insufficient razrabotannostyu methods of a quantitative estimation of process of socialization and a degree of its(his) harmony with process of an individualization. It essentially complicates the decision of a question on, whether we observe process of an individualization through socialization or socialization occurs(happens) to the detriment of an individualization.
It is obvious, that for a quantitative estimation of processes of socialization and the psychological analysis of its(her) consequences it is necessary to have any reference point. In its(her) search, logically arguing, we have assumed, that socialization of the person which is accompanied by essential loss of its(his) individuality, can be shown in the form of specific psychological effects. They can be observed at personal and behavioural levels and them, in our opinion, it is possible to reveal and quantitatively to estimate(appreciate), using representation about primary, base structure of mentality of the person which kernel is made with the basic ways of perception(recognition) of the information and its(her) estimation. In turn, this structure, according to our representations, is substantially determined morfofunktsionalnoj by the organization of hemispheres of a brain. And, hence, about structure of mentality we can receive data on features of this organization, "deciphering" a special code in which code signs are motor and touch parameters of functional asymmetry of a brain. According to the model of structure of mentality offered by us it(she) has the typical nature and consequently each person in view of specialization of its(his) hemispheres of a brain can be carried to this or that type which has received the name "base" or "psikhofiziologicheskogo". According to our representations, it is expedient to allocate 16 psikhofiziologicheskikh types. There are experimental bases to approve(confirm) about existence of conformity between these types and K.Yunga's psychological types. It means, that everyone psikhofiziologichesky the type is characterized by a specific set yungovskikh mental functions and, as consequence(investigation), a steady set of personal features and behavioural features (Bogomaz S.A., 1998-2000).
Psikhofiziologichesky type, which nature it is caused by specialization of hemispheres of a brain, we and suggest to consider(examine) as a reference point at the decision of a problem of a parity(ratio) of processes of socialization and an individualization. With this type, in our opinion, such psychological concepts, as "deposits(inclinations)", « congenital potential » or « the lowest mental functions » are connected by L.S.Vygotskogo. Their development which can be reached(achieved) during ontogeneza at corresponding(meeting) sredovykh conditions, will lead to transformation psikhofiziologicheskogo type in the certain personal type. Such variant of development of the person, obviously, it is necessary to designate as « prirodosoobraznoe development ».
However, sredovye conditions can resist to some extent to development psikhofiziologicheskogo type. In a similar case this type during adaptation of the person to concrete requirements and conditions of a social environment can be transformed, in our opinion, in other type which should be designated as "communicative". Other specific set yungovskikh mental functions, steady personal features and behavioural features (i.e. it will be any another yungovsky type) will be peculiar to it(him). At the same time, the person with the generated communicative type, possibly, or can have any additional psychological features, or, on the contrary, there can be their loss.
Comparing with two types, psikhofiziologichesky and communicative, we, obviously, can reveal these features and estimate(appreciate) their positive or negative orientation for development of the person.
It is necessary to note, that formation of the communicative type which is growing out an equilibration of the individual with the social environment, it can be regarded as the positive phenomenon. But alongside with obvious pluss of such equilibration, in our opinion, can be shown and the negative parties(sides) of this phenomenon. So, "payment" for adaptation to society can appear loss of the individuality, capable to lead to change prirodosoobraznogo ways of development which is caused by genetic programs of the person. In other words, process of an individualization can be brought in "victim" to process of socialization.
Occurrence of communicative type as we were convinced during numerous researches, for example, can occur(happen) because of kulturalnykh influences. So, it is frequent enough at girls with psikhofiziologicheskim logic type, there is a formation communicative emotivnogo type. On the contrary, at boys with psikhofiziologicheskim emotivnym the type often forms communicative logic type. It is obvious, that these laws are caused kulturalnymi, polar as a matter of fact, ideals about the "present(true)" men (which, including, should be rationally thinking, logic, but not sensual) and about women (which should be soft, gentle, sensual, with "thin" emotions, etc. but which logicality is not welcomed).
Let's pay attention but that at the person at formation of communicative type does not disappear psikhofiziologichesky type. In some "rudimentary" condition it(he) remains at the person as at it(him) under influence of socialization does not change the organization of hemispheres of a brain (is kept) morfofunktsionalnaya. In other words it means, that the same individuals can have two psychological realities psikhofiziologichesky and communicative type. The degree of discrepancy between them (a degree of "deviation(rejection)" of communicative type from psikhofiziologicheskogo), from our point of view, will bring the essential contribution to a psychological originality of the person.
In the given work we have decided to approve the typological approach for revealing and a quantitative estimation of psychological effects in the intellectual and ценностно-semantic spheres of the person resulting significant discrepancy between its(his) communicative and base psikhotipami.
We studied(investigated) parameters of mental abilities by means of the Test of intellectual development of Vexler for sample of teenagers of 10-13 years as this age is very important for intellectual development of the person. During the given age period elements of theoretical thinking are intensively formed, there is an ability to argue гипотетико-deductively. Skill to operate in the decision of intellectual problems(tasks) is considered(examined) by hypotheses as the major purchase by the teenager of skill to analyze surrounding validity. It(he) has a reflective thinking which is unconditional value for successful adaptation of the person in a life (Sapogova E.E. 2001).
The structure of ценностно-semantic sphere was studied(investigated) by us among young men (teenagers) of students of younger rates TGU (16-18 years). This age in a traditional periodization of psychology of development refers to youthful. It(he) is connected with formation of an active vital position, self-determination, comprehension of own importance. All it is inseparable from formation of outlook as systems of sights at the world as a whole, representations about the general(common) principles and bases of life as vital philosophy of the person, the sums and a result of its(his) knowledge (Kulagin I.Y.Kolyutsky of Century, 2001.) Therefore we expected, what exactly during this age period it will be possible to observe most distinctly(clearly) those psychological effects in ценностно-semantic sphere in which basis of development interaction of an individualization and socialization lays.
Methods of research:
65 pupils of high school took part(participated) in research and 87 students. By criterion of an individual structure of functional asymmetry into which parameters of impellent asymmetry, visual asymmetry, type of coupling of hands and type of an interlacing of fingers entered, examinees were differentiated on 16 psikhofiziologicheskikh types. Communicative psikhotip at examinees it was defined(determined) by a method of structural interview. To each examinee the same set of the questions directed on revealing of their typical strategy of thinking and typical reaction in various vital situations was set. According to the representations accepted in typology YUnga, answers were differentiated on scales: ekstraversiya introversiya, sensorika intuition, logic feeling, stability instability of mental activity. On the basis of prevalence of answers on any from these scales we did(made) a conclusion about an accessory(a belonging) of the examinee to one of 16 communicative types.
In a domestic variant postyungovskoj typology affirms, that between 16 yungovskimi types probably 16 various intertipnykh attitudes(relations) which as a first approximation differ a degree of comfort and a degree of a conflictness. (Augustinavichyute, 1982). Earlier we had been undertook attempt of a quantitative estimation of these degrees and rangings on this basis intertipnykh attitudes(relations) (Bogomaz S.A., 2000). In the given work we used algorithm of ranging intertipnykh attitudes(relations) for the quantitative description of a degree of "deviation(rejection)" of communicative type of examinees from its(his) basic type. Thus more expressed degree of a deviation(rejection) was expressed by higher factor of a deviation(rejection) which we have calculated for each of participants of research. At the same persons psikhofiziologichesky and communicative types can coincide or in a various degree to differ from each other. On a degree of distinction between base and communicative psikhotipami we judged a degree of a deviation(rejection) of development of the person from it(him) prirodosoobraznogo ways.
We studied(investigated) structure of mental abilities of pupils by means of Vexler's test(dough), using 8 subtests. Subtests "awareness" were applied to definition of verbal intelligence, "arithmetic", "similarity", « recurrence of figures »; for studying nonverbal intelligence subtests « missing details », « cubes Kossa », « folding of figures » and "encryption" (procedure of inspection standard).
Besides all participants of teenage group have been tested by technique Filipsa with the purpose of diagnostics of school uneasiness. This technique allows to estimate(appreciate) a level of the general(common) uneasiness, fear of self-expression, fear to mismatch expectations of surrounding(associates), etc.
For studying effects which appear in structure of values on a background of formation of communicative type, participants of the senior age group have been tested with use of the Questionnaire of terminal values (FATHER) I.G.Senina. Results of testing allow to define(determine) eight vital values (own prestige, a financial position, kreativnost, social contacts, development of, achievements, spiritual satisfaction, individuality), and also need(requirement) of their realization for one of five vital spheres (professional work, formation(education), family, a public life, hobbies).
All obtained data have been processed by standard methods of the statistical analysis by means of the computer software package "Statistics".
Results and their discussion:
Processing of results of intellectual testing has shown, that all schoolboys surveyed by us have executed Vexler's test according to their age norms(rates). The parameters of their uneasiness diagnosed by means of technique Filipsa, also did not fall outside the limits age norm(rate).
Definition at schoolboys of communicative and base types has shown, that in most cases they to some extent differ. With application of special algorithm this degree has been expressed by size of factor of a deviation(rejection) which was used during the correlation analysis. Its(his) results have confirmed our assumption that the significant deviation(rejection) of a vector of development of the person from prirodosoobraznogo ways can be accompanied by original changes in structure of its(his) intelligence and values.
To make such conclusion to us the found out negative correlation dependences between factor of a deviation(rejection) and parameters of intelligence at schoolboys have allowed. So, strong negative correlation communications(connections) have been revealed between factor of a deviation(rejection), on the one hand, analytical abilities of pupils (R = -0,341; r = 0,005), ability to heuristic thinking (R =-0,319; р=0,010), a parameter of the general(common) (R =-0,551; р=0,004) and nonverbal intelligence (R =-0,470; р=0,015), on the other hand.
At the same time, as it has been established(installed), there were no significant correlations between factor of a deviation(rejection) and the parameters of uneasiness defined(determined) by technique Filipsa. This absence of correlation communications(connections) we also expected to receive, as, according to logic of our reasonings, we have revealed formation of communicative type, which presence at the majority of schoolboys, should be accompanied by decrease(reduction) in uneasiness.
At the same time, the found out negative correlations of factor of a deviation(rejection) with intellectual parameters, in our opinion, specify that formation of communicative type can negatively influence deep, base structures of intelligence which are responsible(crucial) for ability to аналитико-synthetic thinking, spatial imagination, skill to correlate the whole and private(individual). And, as follows from our data, the in a greater degree the deviation(rejection) of communicative type of pupils from their basic type is expressed, the more considerably it is reflected in structure of intelligence, consequence(investigation) of that is decrease(reduction) at them the general(common) intellectual level.
It is necessary to pay attention that formation at pupils of communicative type practically does not influence their parameters of verbal intelligence. We consider(count), that it is very indicative fact as development of verbal intelligence is closely connected with successful socialization of the child. Analyzing all set of the revealed facts, we can build them in a uniform logic chain: necessity to adapt for conditions and requirements of society can generate at pupils transition from basic psikhotipa to communicative. This transition is accompanied by absence of growth of uneasiness and preservation of tendencies of development of the verbal mental abilities providing the effective communications with surrounding people. During too time purchase by schoolboys communicative psikhotipa can cause oppression of some nonverbal abilities which are extremely important for high-grade (harmonious) development of the person and which, obviously, it is possible to consider(examine) as a component of " congenital potential opportunities ».
Differently, if in the development the child essentially deviates « an initial plan of the nature », how show the received results, it can negatively affect a harmony of development of its(his) mental abilities. This harmony, obviously, also enables the person to feel the high-grade subject of life. However its(her) achievement is only potentially possible(probable). In some cases harmonious development of mental abilities can be interfered by formation at the teenager of communicative type who arises in reply to discrepancy of requirements of environment(Wednesday) to its(his) specific features. In this connection especially it is necessary to pay attention that at an essential deviation(rejection) of communicative type from basic teenagers have a decrease(reduction) evristichnosti thinking. And evristichnost, as is known, is the important condition of creative reconsideration of the surrounding reality, allowing to create something essentially new, including significant for society.
The facts testifying in favour of our hypothesis that the essential degree of distinction between psikhofiziologicheskim and communicative types of the person can initiate specific psychological effects, have been revealed and at research of ценностно-semantic sphere at students. So, during the correlation analysis us it was revealed, that the increase in factor of a deviation(rejection) at surveyed was accompanied by increase of value « Own prestige » (R=0,291; р=0,023). It means, that the young men having communicative type which considerably differs from psikhofiziologicheskogo, there are more dependent on opinion of associates, than their contempoparies with less expressed difference between psikhotipami. For them first of all the respect, a recognition and approval from associates have the personal importance, in the decision of vital situations they search for a support, first of all, outside, instead of inside of themselves. Such valuable orientation, certainly, can become the factor of instability of the person and in a consequence to result(bring), for example, in its(her) neurotic development.
That fact is interesting, that the need(requirement) for own prestige at young men is mainly shown in sphere of a public life, instead of in sphere of professional work or in sphere of formation(education). The found out positive correlation specifies it between a degree of a deviation(rejection) and size « expressiveness of prestige in a public life » (R=0,286; р=0,037). We shall notice, that high points on this scale reflect aspiration to adhere to the most widespread sights on socially a political life and to express not the opinion, and opinion of authorities. For the people who have received high points, dominating motive is not service to people and not cooperation with them, namely use of society for realization of the arrogant aspirations.
Besides at statistical processing results of research between a degree of a deviation(rejection) and size « expressivenesses of value of prestige positive correlation communication(connection) has been found in sphere of hobbies » (R=0,279; р=0,03). Similar correlation is interpreted by us as the certificate of that young men with the expressed difference of communicative type from basic in the hobbies, first of all, aspire to be engaged in that can form the basis for their high estimation other people. In our opinion, such orientation to external approval even own hobbies can be display of inability to independent search of criteria of an estimation of the behaviour and any display of as persons in society.
The revealed correlations and their psychological interpretations, from our point of view, distinctly(clearly) show the important law. It(she) is shown that at aspiration (or necessities) the person to adapt to conditions of a microhabitat which is realized by means of formation communicative psikhotipa (or, in other words, is accompanied by a deviation(rejection) from prirodosoobraznogo ways of development), there can be a reorientation of the person in favour of values of a public life to the detriment of values of individual development (socialization is opposed with an individualization). Positive correlation communication(connection) testifies To it(this) between factor of a deviation(rejection) and size « expressivenesses of value of development of in a public life » (R=0,333 also; р=0,0009). Such correlation specifies aspiration of young men with the expressed difference of communicative type from basic to realize itself and to develop the abilities, first of all, in sphere of a public life. If to consider, that thus they under a public life understand participation in amateur performance and in youth parties, campaigns on discos and so forth the dominating status of values of a public life is represented to us as the negative effect arising during socialization of young men at a deviation(rejection) of their development from prirodosoobraznogo of a way.
Thus, the data set, the examinees received on two age groups, testifies in favour of our assumption that the deviation(rejection) from prirodosoobraznogo ways of development which can arise during socialization, is shown in various spheres of the person and has more likely negative character of influence on its(his) individuality and uniqueness. As show the executed researches, the typological approach based(founded,established) on the analysis of distinctions between psikhofiziologicheskim and communicative types of the examinee, allows to reveal and estimate(appreciate) specific psychological effects of socialization.
1. Asmolov A.G.psycholog of the person: Principles obshchepsikhologicheskogo the analysis., 2001. 416 with.
2. Korobejnikov I.A.Narushenie of development and social adaptation., 2002. - 192 with.
3. Sapogova E. . Psychology of development of the person: the Manual., 2001. 460 with.
4. Kulagin I.Y.Kolyutsky V.N.age psychology: Full life cycle of development of the person., 2001. 464 with.
5. Bogomaz S.A.designing of typology of individual distinctions on the basis of specialization of hemispheres of a brain // Year-book RPO " Psychology and practice " . Yaroslavl, 1998. T. 4, Vyp. 2. With. 253-256.
6. Bogomaz S.A.psychological K.Yunga's types, psikhofiziologicheskie types and intertipnye otnosheniya.-Tomsk, 2000.71 with.
7. Bogomaz S.A.typological of feature of the motivation caused by specialization of hemispheres of a brain // In sb.: « Modern psychology: a condition and prospects » ., 2002. T. 1. With. 187-190.
8. Trenkaeva N.A., Bogomaz S.A.feature of structure of intelligence of the schoolboys, shown at them prirodonesoobraznom development // Differential psychology: problems and prospects: Materials of the All-Russia scientifically-practical conference (on June, 27-28th, 2002). - Biisk: NITS BPGU it(him). V.M. The Shukshin, 2002. - With. 326-334.
Sotsionika and genetics
E.S.Filatova, December 2000.
Epilogue to the book:
Filatova E.S. The person in a mirror sotsioniki: the Solution of secret of doubles. SPb.: ü*è, 2001. 286 with.
Presently everyone, since the pupil of high school, knows, that in a basis of a variety of plants, animal, together with people genes lay. Appearance of the person the form of a nose, an oval of the person(face), a cut(section) and color of eyes, features of physiology and a metabolism, predisposition to various diseases and many other things attributes everyone are defined(determined) by a set and interaction of huge number of genes the genetic information which has been written down in 46 chromosomes, present in cells(cages) of each person.
The section of the genetics, engaged studying of inheritance of features of behaviour, refers to as genetics of behaviour. Would be naive to believe, that inheritance of mental attributes and features of behaviour can be so easily tracked and characterized(so easily looked after and characterized), as well as physiological and fenotipicheskie attributes.
The basic problem of genetics of behaviour is connected by that each of us lives among other people, grows and forms the character, being under constant influence of family, school, street, an athletic field, TV
All this renders huge influence on development of character of people, features of their behaviour and mental reactions. This influence is so great, that, despite of all attempts in beginning XX of a century to connect this behaviour with genetics, prior to the beginning of 1960th years, scientists nevertheless searched for the reasons of acts of the person, basically, in its(his) environment and conditions of a life.
In 1966 the role of genes in predisposition to schizophrenia for the first time has been shown. Since then numerous researches have opened a genetic component in development of many behavioural characteristics, including mental faculties, abilities to training, specific features, including, such, for example, as propensity to homosexual attitudes(relations), propensity to an alcoholism.
Certainly, it at all does not mean, that such predisposition by all means should be realized. Under favorable conditions of education, at close(attentive) to the attitude(relation) from parents, teachers, doctors
, it is possible to avoid display of negative character traits which could lead to undesirable consequences. The son of the alcoholic will completely not necessarily grow the alcoholic. Till now many scientists believe, that in behaviour of the person, approximately, fifty-fifty there are social factors and genetic predisposition.
For branch of influence of a genotype from influence of an environment most often use supervision for odnoyajtsovymi (identical twins). odnoyajtsovye twins grow out division of one impregnated yajtsekletki and, as a result, they have always an identical floor and completely an identical set of genes. Thus, the works lead on twins which have been separated right after birthes have the greatest value and have grown in different conditions.
Supervision are especially interesting to us on this theme of researchers which, simultaneously, are engaged and sotsionikoj.
D.I.Ivanov at studying odnoyajtsovykh twins has found out, that each pair belongs to one psikhotipu:
In all pairs odnoyajtsovykh twins it was observed not only the certain identity of clinical displays of mental infantility, but also full similarity sotsionicheskikh types. It is come out with the assumption of a prevailing role of the genetic factor in formation of type of an information metabolism above factors of an environment and education. (
In this work data for 7 odnoyajtsovykh pairs are cited: eii-Ý¿¿ 4 pairs, iei-¿Ý¿ 1 pair, ile-¿½Ý 1 pair, iee-¿ÝÝ 1 pair.
In 9 raznoyajtsovykh pairs - all psikhotipy different.
Let's notice however, that that fact, that at raznoyajtsovykh twins has never met identical psikhotip, apparently, it is impossible to consider(count) obligatory. At increase in number of investigated(researched) pairs raznoyajtsovykh twins, up to hundreds and more, such psychologically same twins, generally speaking, can be found out.
Works of physicians on researches not only twins, but also doubles those who is distinguished with surprising external similarity are interesting also, but there are no related attitudes(relations). In introduction to the book « the author of this book V.I.Kulikov writes the Individual test "description":
The so-called doubles having, like odnoyajtsevykh twins, identical antigenic structure of blood, repeatability of morphology and mentality represent doubtless interest.
V.I.Kulikova interests this problem from the point of view of compatibility of fabrics, therefore, it(he), in particular, cites data about identity of numerous physiological parameters of doubles, doing(making) a conclusion and about their genetic similarity:
At selection of identical phenotypes we have an opportunity to select and practically identical genotypes.. (
And that to fix uniformity of genes to identical morphological attributes easier? (
). And fabrics of the universal donor can be replaced to any recipient, without occurrence of reaction of tearing away. (
Thus, new original ways of the decision of a problem of compatibility of fabrics old dream of mankind » were outlined. P. 4,5
So, on the one hand, - research odnoyajtsovykh twins has revealed at them identical psikhotipy (D.Ivanov);
On the other hand, - research external fenotipicheskogo similarities, alongside with identical numerous physiological parameters leads to a conclusion about the certain genetic similarity. (V.Kulikov).
That is, from physiology and genetics of twins to identical appearance and psychological type (D.Ivanov);
And on the contrary from identical appearance and similarity of physiological parameters of doubles to their similar genetics (Century Kulikov).
And now let's return directly to the maintenance(contents) sew the books, devoted typology YUnga which subsequently has been developed Aushroj Augustinavichyute and its(her) followers. We understand, that the typology is an allocation of any general(common) attributes at different groups of people on which these groups differ from each other.
In the beginning YUng has allocated groups of extroverts and introverts, in detail having described their different orientation. Further it(he) has noticed, that inside of these two groups are observed also other same groups so those who in sotsionike have received the name logikov and etikov have been certain, and also sensorikov and intuitov.
Later in sotsionike, have been certain only 16 psychological types and long enough researchers tried, how much(as far as) it probably, in detail to describe each of these types. But here there were the problems, consisting that descriptions often missed, contained different character traits of the same types. Accordingly, vozniklim difficulties with definition psikhotipov. The some people with otsioniki expressed opinion, that everyone sees another from positions of the psikhotipa, therefore, in an ideal, 16 variants of the description of everyone psikhotipa should be written to everyone psikhotipom.
Others - have put forward very constructive idea that each of 16 types, actually, is divided(shared) into subtypes about it(this) we had a speech above. And everyone, describing type, actually, describes, in zachitelnoj degrees, someone from good to it(him) familiar people, but all variants of type are not settled(exhausted) by it(this). Thus, it became clear, what it is necessary to continue division but where at it(this) to stop?
Above we have resulted(brought) D.Ivanov's some reasons and Century Kulikova from which directly follows, that doubles (which photos the reader could see in the present(true) edition about hundred pairs) have similar genetic structure. And it means only that as soon as we find out group of people with "dvojnikovoj" identity we can speak about their certain genetic similarity. The reader, certainly understands, that it and is a limit of division. These genetically identical groups will have also identical physiological properties of organisms and identical psychological reactions.
It is necessary to note once again, that such groups in everyone psikhotipe it is possible to allocate about one and a half ten. As, full number of people of everyone psikhotipa photograph collections about one and a half thousand, on the average, everyone psikhotip is presented by the number close to one hundred). Interestingly thus, that "dvojnikovost" does not depend on a floor man's and female persons(faces) can be so similar, that their accessory(belonging) to the same genic structure, practically, is obvious. Close(attentive) readers, certainly, have paid attention to numerous cases "dvojnikovosti" of representatives of different floors. We shall not try to explain this phenomenon are physiologists, physicians and genetics will better make.
Except for research of external similarity of people different psikhotipov, the analysis psikhotipov in families is lead also. It has been investigated(researched) only 105 families in which were defined(determined) psikhotipy as parents as well their children. It has appeared, that there is a correlation between them psikhotipami, namely: duality of children to mothers and identity to fathers strongly prevails of all other types of attitudes(relations). Really, at the full number of children equal 142, it was possible to track(look after) at 136 - the attitude(relation) to mother and at 108 the attitude(relation) to the father. It was found out, that more to a quarter of children dualny mothers and are identical to the father (on our data of 25,7 % and 28,7 % accordingly). Considering, that equally 16, such strong deviation(rejection) hardly it is possible to consider(count) full number of variants of attitudes(relations) casual. Simultaneously, identity of children to mothers and duality to fathers especially is not allocated with anything among other types of attitudes(relations).
Further . In all listed families it was possible to define(determine) psikhotip 21 grandsons from whom 8 repeat psikhotip someone from the grandfathers or grandmothers. But, here it was possible to track(look after) only one vertical line. However, each grandson has two grandmothers and two grandfathers, hence, the probability of recurrence psikhotipov them increases twice.
Thus we see, what most often there is a situation when psikhotip grandsons repeats psikhotip grandfathers, whether in it(this) the reason of especially gentle attachment to the grandsons of older persons? At least, even such small statistics reveals this tendency confidently enough.
The data listed above, namely:
an accessory(a belonging) odnoyajtsovykh twins to one psychological type;
physiological similarity as twins, and doubles;
an accessory(a belonging) of doubles to yungovskim to subtypes;
occurrence of children, to dual mothers and types identical to fathers with probability, greater, than 25 %;
frequent recurrence identical psikhotipov through generation;
Speaks, as it is represented, about a genetic origin psikhotipov.
Really, hardly impregnated yajtsekletka already bears(carries) in itself the certain genetic information which in the further at normal development of a fruit does not vary and kept after a birth of the child.
Often ask a question: in what basic difference sotsioniki from others tipology consists? Whether it(she) is, similarly to the majority tipology, some approached description which has been washed away enough which outlines only some frameworks of type. Many brand it(her) for « naveshivanie labels » from the general(common) reasons approving(confirming), that the type cannot be certain basically precisely, there can be only a certain probability of the maintenance(contents) in it(him) of different types as certain them superprzitsii: - it is more than one, it is less than another. The some people refer thus on « most YUnga » which wrote, for example, in « Analytical psychology » the following:
« Do not think, that I display people on polochkam, defining(determining): « It intuitiv, and is cogitative type ». Me often ask: whether « concerns such to cogitative type? » And I answer, that never of it(this) thought, and actually it so. It is not meaningful to hang labels, however when we have a big empirical material, the ordered principles are necessary for its(his) classification. Without exaggeration I shall tell, that for me it is the extremely important to put into a material the order. » With. 25
And still time goes, the science is not necessary on a place and those data whom we have now allow, even contrary to YUngu to approve(confirm), that sotsionika has left on "elementary" type which is not likelihood superposition of different types, and is quite set, and set - genetically. It(he) can be described by the certain set of genes and, accordingly, has quite certain set properties..
The gene is quite concrete unit, and various combinations of genes give sets of discrete organisms, each of which can be described by quite exact feature set. And these attributes make genetic essence, a genetic code which is shown in an internal physiological structure of an organism, in its(his) appearance and, at last, in its(his) psychological character.
And this statement with all definiteness can be made already now.
Thus, merit YUnga and modern sotsioniki consists that despite of the numerous social factors complicating a picture of properties psikhotipa, we can allocate psychological structure, that basis of mentality which belongs to us from a birth
How many such "sets" of genes the Nature "makes"? While about it(this) to speak early, we shall remind only, once again, that the number observable klasterov the same persons(faces) has the order of one and a half tens. (to a shower(soul) sotsionika so figure 16 is close! Perhaps, so it also is, as this number should be even.)
Certainly, in the future, after attraction of greater statistics, we can describe in details each of these subtypes which exact number will be, for certain, is established(installed) in the near future.. We are still with more many opening, but also now, with the big share of confidence, it is possible to speak that we are close to understanding of that the person, in what represents differences of people among themselves in their mental and physical basis, what predisposition to diseases of people of different subtypes, what compatibilities of fabrics, and what, at last, psychological compatibility. The main thing, that we have found a way on which it is possible to come nearer to the decision of all these problems effectively.
About inheritance sotsionicheskikh attributes: The technical analysis of statistics of E.S.Filatovoj
Ivan Popov, Bulgaria, 29.09 02.10.2006
E.S.Filatovoj's family statistics  most representative of all published in sotsionicheskoj to the literature. In it(her) data about sotsionicheskikh types of parents and children in 105 families contain. Results of statistics have served one of the bases for a hypothesis about genetic nature TIMa . Still in  it has been specified some features at inheritance TIMa: in particular, it has appeared, that it is a lot of children dualny mother (26 %) or are identical to the father (29 %). However the analysis has remained not finished; outside of its(his) field there were the some people (by the way, strongly pronounced enough in data file) features of inheritance.
The present(true) work also is devoted to revealing of these features. Here and the most important results of the analysis:
· The general(common) picture of inheritance sotsionicheskikh attributes essentially depends on the attitude(relation) between TIMami parents;
· At least three independent attributes (YUnga and-or Rejnina) are inherited asymmetrically: from the father (a statics/dynamics(changes), ekstra -/интроверсия) or from mothers ("process/result"). Presumably, it is caused by effect genomnogo imprintinga for the genes operating these attributes;
· Parities(Ratio) for inheritance of some attributes (first of all, "process/result") depend on a floor of children;
· Some more features of inheritance specify on stseplennost (in genetic sense) different attributes, and also complex(difficult) enough mechanism of mutual switching of action (epistaz, updating dominantnosti).
On the basis of these results it is possible to conclude, that TIM, basically, it is defined(determined) by action rather a small number of genes only a little. Unfortunately, the small size of statistics and its(her) some features (effect of " a dark matter ", see below) interfere with creation of full genic model of inheritance TIMa.
General(Common) acquaintance with data file
The set forth above features of inheritance is better to see if to order data from  as the attitude(relation) between parents. In that case it is necessary to exclude from statistics of those families in which the type of one of parents is unknown. The remained 77 families (in them only 110 children) can be presented to the table:
No. Mother The father Otn. Children With mother With the father
1 LSI EIE D With-Ý¿Ý, d-Ý¿Ý, d-¿Ý¿ D, D, AND T, T, Zer
9 LSI EIE D With-Ý¿Ý, with-ÝßÝ D, pd T, the Sort
17 ESE LII D With-ÝßÝ, d-½¿¿ T, D D, T
32 SEE OR D d-ß½Ý, with-¿ÝÝ Sort, Affairs pd, M
44 EIE LSI D d-¿ÝÝ KT Kf
54 SEE OR D With-or, ñ-or D, D T, T
56 IEI SLE D With-ß½Ý D T
58 SEE OR D d-Ýß¿, with-or, With-½¿¿ Zer, D, Kf AND, T, KT
69 ILE SEI D With-ßÝ¿, with-½ßÝ D, Z> T, R>
74 ESE LII D d-¿Ý¿ R> Z>
97 SEI ILE D With-¿½Ý D T
104 IEE SLI D With-½ßÝ AND Zer
15 LSI IEI AND With-Ý¿Ý D Zer
28 LIE SEE AND With-½¿¿ SOFTWARE Kf
39 LII SEI AND With-or KT SE
57 SEI LII AND d-½¿¿ AND T
64 ESI OR AND With-or, d-ÝßÝ AND, SOFTWARE T, Kf
65 IEI LSI AND d-½¿¿, with-¿ÝÝ > Z, SOFTWARE Sort, Kf
70 EIE SLE AND d-ß½¿ Kf SOFTWARE
82 SEE LIE AND d-½ßÝ, with-½ß¿ > Z, R> Sort, M
86 SEI LII AND d-ßÝÝ SOFTWARE Kf
94 SEE LIE AND d-Ý¿¿ > R pd
95 SEE LIE AND With-½ßÝ > Z Sort
100 IEE LSE AND With-½¿Ý, d-½ß¿ > Z, Kf Sort, software
14 SEE ESI Zer With-Ý¿Ý, with-or Z>, D M, AND
36 LIE OR Zer With-or, with-¿Ý¿ Zer,> R T, the Sort
41 SLI LSE Zer With-¿ÝÝ D AND
61 OR LIE Zer d-½¿Ý Zer T
62 SEE ESI Zer d-Ýß¿ Zer T
66 ILE LII Zer d-ßÝ¿, with-or D, SOFTWARE AND, KT
102 LSE SLI Zer d-¿Ý¿ Kf SE
105 EIE IEI Zer With-¿½Ý, with-Ý¿Ý Z>, T M, Zer
40 LSE LSE T With-½ßÝ, d-½ßÝ T, T T, T
33 SLE SLI SOFTWARE With-¿½Ý, with-ßÝÝ Affairs, the Sort pd, M
60 OR ILE SOFTWARE With-¿½Ý SOFTWARE T
67 EIE EII SOFTWARE d-Ýß¿ M Sort
71 IEI IEE SOFTWARE With-¿ÝÝ SOFTWARE T
19 SLE LSE KT With-¿Ý¿, d-ß½Ý D, T Kf, KT
42 IEE EIE KT d-¿Ý¿ SOFTWARE Zer
68 SLI LSI KT d-½¿¿ Z> Sort
81 EII IEI KT With-¿Ý¿, d-Ý¿Ý KT, SOFTWARE T, Zer
84 LII OR KT With-ß½¿ > Z Affairs
90 LII OR KT With-½¿Ý SOFTWARE Zer
103 ILE LIE KT With-½¿Ý KT T
49 EII SLE Kf With-½ß¿ SE Zer
59 SLI EIE Kf With-¿ÝÝ D KT
73 LIE SEI Kf With-½¿¿, with-¿Ý¿ SOFTWARE,> R And, Affairs
99 SEI LIE Kf d-¿ÝÝ pd Z>
52 EIE LSE SE With-or, d-½¿¿ > R, pd R>, M
55 OR SEI SE d-ßÝ¿ SE T
83 LSE EIE SE d-½¿¿, with-½ß¿, d-½¿¿ M, SOFTWARE, M pd, D, pd
2 EIE LII pd d-Ý¿¿, d-¿Ý¿ Software, Zer Affairs, Z>
13 ESE LSI pd With-Ý¿Ý Sort D
27 LII EIE pd d-½¿¿, d-ÝßÝ T, D pd, the Sort
30 ESE LSI pd d-ß½Ý, with-¿Ý¿ Z>, R> Zer, And
53 SLE OR pd d-ßÝÝ Sort D
89 SLE OR pd d-½¿¿ > R KT
96 ESI LSE pd d-½ß¿ Affairs SOFTWARE
98 EIE LII pd With-½¿¿ pd T
101 EIE LII pd d-½¿¿ pd T
29 IEI SEI Affairs With-½¿¿, with-ßÝ¿ > Z, Affairs AND, T
35 LIE EIE Affairs With-Ý¿Ý Affairs T
47 LIE EIE Affairs With-½¿Ý T Affairs
50 ESE EIE Sort With-Ý¿Ý Sort T
72 ESI EIE M d-½¿Ý D Affairs
92 IEE OR M ä-or M T
3 EII OR З> With-½ßÝ D > R
21 ILE LSE З> With-ßÝ¿, d-ß½¿ D, pd > R, Zer
63 LSE ILE <Z With-¿½Ý > Z T
75 ESI IEI <Z d-¿Ý¿, with-½¿Ý > Z, D T, R>
78 IEI LII <Z With-Ý¿¿, d-½ßÝ KT, Kf Affairs, M
85 LII SLI <Z d-½ßÝ M Zer
12 IEI LIE Р> d-ß½Ý D > Z
20 EIE SEI Р> d-¿½Ý Z> D
80 SEE EII <R With-or, d-½ß¿ D, R> Z>, SE
91 EIE OR <R d-¿ÝÝ KT M
93 LII IEE <R d-ßÝÝ Kf Affairs
The first specifies a serial number of family in statistics . The floor of children (son/daughter) is specified also. Designations Z> and R> mean, that the child the customer (auditor) of the parent;> Z and> R the child podzakaznyj (podreviznyj) to the parent. Other designations intertipnykh attitudes(relations) follow developed in sotsionike terminology.
It is possible to define(determine) also frequencies of occurrence for different intertipnykh attitudes(relations) of children with parents:
D AND T Ze SOFTWARE KT SE Kf
With mother: 23 4 7 5 13 6 2 6
With the father: 5 7 30 11 3 5 3 6
pd Sort M Affairs > R R> > Z Z>
With mother: 6 5 5 5 5 4 8 6
With the father: 6 9 8 7 2 3 1 4
Still it is necessary to mean, that sample of parents is distributed(allocated) on sotsionu non-uniformly not only in sense of attitudes(relations) in pair (that is natural, in fact some of them are more favorable than others). If to count up number of mothers/fathers of everyone TIMa:
ILE: 4/3 EIE: 10/10 LIE: 5/7 IEE: 4/2
LII: 6/9 IEI: 6/4 OR: 3/12 EII: 3/2
ESE: 5/0 SLE: 4/3 SEE: 9/1 LSE: 4/7
SEI: 4/6 LSI: 3/5 ESI: 4/2 SLI: 3/4
It is visible, that if mothers are scattered on sotsionu more or less in regular intervals, set of fathers obviously asymmetrically with a skew aside intuitov (in particular dinamikov) and with deficiency of сенсорно-ethical types. It is no wonder, that the set of children too has appeared asymmetric. In табл.4 the number of daughters/sons of each type is specified:
ILE: 6 (1/5) EIE: 10 (2/8) LIE: 7 (2/5) IEE: 8 (3/5)
LII: 15 (10/5) IEI: 11 (6/5) OR: 11 (2/9) EII: 3 (2/1)
ESE: 4 (2/2) SLE: 5 (4/1) SEE: 4 (3/1) LSE: 9 (4/5)
SEI: 5 (2/3) LSI: 6 (3/3) ESI: 3 (3/0) SLI: 3 (2/1)
It is remarkable, that sons have again appeared shifted aside intuitov-динамиков whereas daughters are distributed(allocated) in regular more intervals (exception pair lii/¿½Ý).
It is possible to seem, that these skews in distribution of parents on sotsionu does(makes) sample of data of little use for the analysis, and conclusions of such analysis doubtful. However all the same it is possible "to squeeze out" of this sample some very important consequences(investigations) and on their basis to formulate useful hypotheses.
Dependence of inheritance TIMa on type of family.
Problem of heterozygosity
If to look at basic table 1, evident strong dependence of attitudes(relations) the child-parent from the attitude(relation) between TIMami parents at once is. An example: in dual families (12 pairs) 10 of 21 children, i.e. almost 50 %, dualny mothers also are identical to the father. However, in "aktivatsionnykh" pairs (them too 12) dualen mothers only one child, and are identical to the father only 2 of 16. Hardly it can be written off(copied) on accident or on influence of the psychological environment: dual attitudes(relations) not so strongly differ from aktivatsionnykh.
Most likely, such greater(big) share of children who are being one position as attitudes(relations) with parents, is characteristic only for some types of families. Except for dual, it there can be also identical, "opposite" or related families, however statistics for them is too small (only on one identical and related pair!). In other families the disorder of children on types of attitudes(relations) with parents is much stronger.
In this plan it is necessary to make the important remark of sphere of genetics. Even if TIM also it is defined(determined) on 100 % by genetic factors if we observe, say, two ILE at them " genes TIMa " are not obliged to coincide in any way. That we define(determine) are a phenotype (real expression of attributes), instead of a genotype. Genetics solve this of problems, deducing(removing) " pure(clean) lines ", say, drozofil, and then crossing them. (it is clear, that sotsioniki this opportunity are deprived.) Cleanliness consists that on the given gene of the individual gomozigotny bear(carry) its(his) same form (allel) on the given place in two gomologichnykh chromosomes. Otherwise speak, that the individual geterozigotna on the given gene. However the parent transfers(transmits) the descendant through a sexual cell(cage) (gamete) only half of chromosomes. And so, if parents dualy it is absolutely unessential that their concrete gametes (yajtsekletka and spermy) have appeared "dual" in sense, that in them are coded the same dual TIMy, as shown at parents. The probability of the last, basically, can be estimated(appreciated) if to know number of the genes "adequating" for TIM, and frequency of occurrence geterozigot on each gene in a population; neither the first, nor we yet do not know the second.
If to mean, that TIMnykh genes anyway should be not less than 4 is very tempting to assume, that in our dual families children, dual mothers and identical to the father, are born just if gametes from both the parent precisely code their attributes TIMov and, accordingly, are in the "dual" attitude(relation). But while it only a hypothesis, at that it(she) is not given reason by anything except for one intuition of an analyst. Besides even if the hypothesis is true, the share of children, dual mothers (almost 50 % in families of dual type), seems to me too high. Certainly, it is possible to argue, that in statistics those families where at both parents TIM it is expressed precisely enough have got only, and any share of "indistinct" pairs has dropped out because of problems at tipirovanii one of parents and consequently the share of homozygous parents in statistics has appeared above, than in a population. This question (conditionally I name it(him) " a problem of a dark matter ") will be discussed below.
Probably, with a problem of heterozygosity it is possible to work if to collect statistics not only for TIMa, but also for a degree of expressiveness of separate attributes (both YUnga, and Rejnina) or a subtype. Then it would be possible to argue, that if any attribute is expressed more strongly, the individual, most likely, gomozigoten on a gene, coding this attribute; and on the contrary, if the attribute is expressed poorly we have heterozygosity. However it is at all unessential, that ekspressiya each of genes sootvetstvovuet to one and only to one sotsionicheskomu to an attribute; attitudes(relations) between genes and attributes can be much more complex(difficult).
Still it is necessary to understand why the congestion of children in one position in relation to parents is observed only in dual families (and, probably, in identical and some other where it is few statistics), and in aktivatsionnykh, mirror and so forth families the similar congestion is not observed.
The attributes subject genomnomu imprintingu
Let's return to the analysis табл.1. We have already noted, that the statistics intertipnykh attitudes(relations) of children to parents strongly depends on type of family. However let we shall try to find something the general(common). We shall tell, in aktivatsionnykh families dualen mothers only one child, but 4 are opposite and 4 podzakazny to mother. In general, attitudes(relations) of full contrast and the order (in both directions) children with mother as a whole meet often enough (see табл.2): accordingly, 13 and 14 children. Together with 23 dual on mother it gives 50 children from 110 almost half from all.
What the group of attitudes(relations) (D represents from itself, software, Z>, >)? These are attitudes(relations) with a ring of audit duala; in our case duala mothers. It is possible to allocate a ring of audit by means of two attributes Rejnina: a statics/dynamics(changes) and process/result (the right/left types). (D, software, Z>, >) attitudes(relations) between TIMami different "mobility" (statics/dynamics)(changes)) and one "orientation" (left/right). It is possible to enter also designations for these groups of attitudes(relations):
· (D, software, Z>,>) = (Rd) a ring of audit duala;
· (T, SE, R>,>) = (Rt) a ring of audit of identical type;
· (And, KT, pd,) = (Ra) a ring of audit of the activator;
· (Zer, Kf, the Sort, Affairs) = (Rz) a ring of audit of mirror type.
Here again it is necessary to note: the group of attitudes(relations) (Rd) children with mother dominates (covers nearby and more than half of children) but not in all types of families. In mirazhnykh, poludualnykh, related and business families in this group get 5 of 19 children, i.e. the order of one quarter as though forming attributes are transferred(transmitted) cleanly casually. Types of these families can be united in group by means of attributes left/right and ratsio -/¿Óрацио¡á½Ù: these are families, in which parents different "orientation" and one-нальности. I believe, that this fact not sluchaen and should be used it(him) at construction of genetic models of inheritance TIMa. It is Even less than children from group (Rd) on mother in identical and a superego-families only one of eight cases, though here the statistics is too small to do(make) of it(her) any conclusions.
Let's return to group of attitudes(relations) (Rd) and we shall consider(examine) separately inheritance of attributes forming it(her). The attribute right/left is inherited basically from mother: 39 against 22 children (a parity(ratio) almost 2:1) in families, where parents of different "orientation", and 29 against 20 (the order 3:2) in families, where both of the parent one "orientation". The attribute of a statics/dynamics(changes) is inherited basically from the father: 53 against 21 children at parents of different "mobility" but if both of the parent the same statics/dynamics(changes), the attribute "overturns" at half of children: 18 from 36. Here too all depends on type of family.
There are, that the genes coding some attributes as though " "know", whence they send(have come) from the father or from mother that ekspressirovat or inaktivirovat itself. It, by the way, is visible and on separate statistics for dual families: in fact there half of children dualy mothers and identical to the father, that is the same genes received from both parents, should operate(work) with different force. In genetics such effect is known, and it(he) refers to genomnyj imprinting [4, 5]. Its(his) essence that some genes which have come from mother or from the father, are marked (metilirovany) and consequently inaktivirovany completely or only at some stage of development of an organism; then operates(works) only allel, inherited from other parent.
Utility of this information for sotsioniki consists that according to(agree)  imprintingu small enough share human genoma about 0.1 % from all 50-70 thousand genes is subject, or all some(a little bit) ten genes. The part from them is deciphered; it appears, that some of them are responsible for intellectual and communicative abilities, and mutations in them cause mental illnesses and syndromes. I consider(count), that in it(this) and the chance sotsioniki consists more quickly to promote in search of genic basis TIMa. Simply for the beginning it is necessary to direct search to the genes subject imprintingu. Apparently, from all prime TIMnykh genes at least 3 are subject imprintingu: one, operating an attribute of a statics/dynamics(changes) (inaktivirovan parent allel), another, operating an attribute left/right (inaktivirovan fatherly allel). And one more imprintuemyj the gene is necessary that "sorientirovat" TIM children to last independent attribute, differing at dual parents (presumably, the gene will operate ßÑ¡ß«Ó¿«®/intuition).
Here again it is necessary to hold in mind(wit), that expression " a gene operates an attribute " does not mean any mutual unambiguity in sense, that any sotsionichesky the attribute is defined(determined) by one and only one gene. Some genes can influence it(him) at once, at that one can "switch" action of others (in genetics it refers to epistazom). Most likely, and business with TIMnymi genes is if to judge on the extremely essential dependence of inheritance on type of family.
Dependence of inheritance TIMa on a floor
At the analysis табл.1 it is quickly enough found out, that inheritance of the some people sotsionicheskikh attributes at sons and daughters differs, it is at times essential enough, though in different groups of families it is shown differently. Here a lot of examples:
· In group reviznykh and custom-made families (11 pairs: 6 sons, 9 daughters) five of six sons repeat attribute Rejnina the "left/right" parents and only in one case the attribute varies on opposite; a parity(ratio) 5/1. However for daughters the same parity(ratio) makes 4/5, that is the attribute varies approximately in half of cases.
· If to unite mirror and disputed families (on the basis of identical to both parents of a statics/dynamics(changes) at opposite рацио -/irrationality and it is left/»Óáó«ßÔ¿), we receive group of 12 pairs (12 sons, 5 daughters). At sons the attribute "left/right" in 11 cases is equal parent and only once fatherly. For daughters the same parity(ratio) 1/4.
· In dual families (13 sons, 8 daughters) the attribute left/right «»¿ÓÒÑÔßn/varies in 9/4 and 4/4 cases, accordingly for children man's and a female.
· However the same attribute left/right in other groups is inherited in almost identical parity(ratio) from children of both floors. In group aktivatsionnykh and kvazitozhdestvennykh families () parities(ratio) for inheritance of an attribute on mother/father make 19 pairs, 13 sons, 12 daughters 9/4 and 9/3 for sons and daughters accordingly.
Examples of similar dependence for other attributes:
· Inheritance of an attribute of a statics/dynamics(changes) in aktivatsionnykh, kvazitozhdestvennykh and custom-made families (in them parents different рацио -/irrationality and a statics/dynamics(changes); the group contains 25 families, 18 sons, 16 daughters). In 28 cases the attribute is inherited from the father and only in 6 from mother. However for sons this parity(ratio) 17/1 (!), and for daughters 11/5. Further, if to break group still on the basis of intro -/экстраверсии parents for ekstravertnykh families we receive parities(ratio) 7/1 and 3/4 for inheritance of a statics/dynamics(changes) at sons and daughters. And here in introvertnykh families these parities(ratio) make 10/0 and 8/1!
· Inheritance of рацио -/irrationality in mirror, disputed and reviznykh families (parents different Óáµ¿«/irrationality and an identical statics/dynamics(changes); in group of 17 families, 13 sons, 10 daughters).Нальность from daughters it is inherited, basically, from the father (7/3 cases), and at sons on the contrary (5/8 cases).
· Inheritance of ßÑ¡ß«Ó¿¿/intuition in mirror, identical, kvazitozhdestvennykh and opposite families (both of the parent the same ßÑ¡ß«Ó¿¿/intuitions, and also are in one kvadre or in protivopolozhnikh kvadrakh). In this group of 12 intuitive families; in them 11 sons (intuity/ßÑ¡ß«Ó¿¿ = 10/1) and 5 daughters (the same parity(ratio) = 3/2). In touch families that is interesting, again it is a lot of intuitov: parities(ratio) for sons and daughters again differ 5/2 and 2/3 accordingly.
It is characteristic, that in all these examples the statistics for sons looks(appears) essentially more dense, ordered; daughters are distributed(allocated) in regular more intervals, more strongly scattered to attributes.
Attributes, which inheritance depends on a floor, in genetics are known for a long time. It can be, first, the attributes limited by a floor: at individuals of other floor they suppress (an example a beard at people). Secondly the attributes linked to a floor: the gene which is responsible for such attribute, is in a sexual chromosome. As a rule, at the person and animals it is a X-chromosome as the Y-chromosome contains very few "meaning" genes. If the gene is in a X-chromosome at children of a female two it contain allelya from mother and from the father, and at children of a male only one allel, inherited from mother.
At first sight it seems, that attribute Rejnina "left/right" the candidate on stseplennost with a floor. However it is impossible to forget about strong dependence of inheritance of this attribute on type of family. Therefore I hold the opinion, that in a X-chromosome there can be only one of the genes, capable to switch this attribute (and, probably, not only it(him)). The Same, by the way, is not excluded and for other genes, capable to switch other attributes., apparently, it is necessary for a full explanation of a question of greater statistics even for some sot pairs that types of families have been presented in a sufficient measure all.
Anyway suspicions in stseplennost with a floor powerful argument in favour of search of candidates in TIMnykh genes in a X-chromosome.
Theoretically probably and other explanation. Last years scientists have found out, that at least a little sot genes operate(work) differently in man's and female organisms. It is impossible to exclude, that among TIMnykh genes can be and such.
Problem of " a dark matter "
The unexpected and surprising result has turned out at calculation of a parity(ratio) of children of both floors in statistics.
At a superficial sight on табл.1 it is visible, that in some types of families this parity(ratio) is strong neravnovesno. This(it) cannot be surprised, as the number of families in each type not so and is great, and parities(ratio) of the order 4/0, 4/1 or 5/1 sons/daughters can turn out and is casual, with probability of the order of 5-10 % that is a lot of. However if to gather these small groups on the some sotsionicheskim that is especially not casual to attributes, the parity(ratio) of floors does not smooth out, and remains to the extremely nonequilibrium.
As the whole, in statistics 59 sons and 51 daughter approximately fifty-fifty are presented; the difference keeps within within the limits of admissible.
Let's divide(share,undressed) data on two groups. In the first families, where both of the parent from one kvadry or from opposite kvadrakh (attitudes(relations) D, T, And, Zer, software, KT, Kf, SE). In the second families, where parents from next kvadrakh (attitudes(relations) PD, M, the Sort, Affairs, the order and audit). It is division on not -/concurrence at parents of attribute Rejnina "democrats/aristocrats". In the first group 51 families, 45 sons and 31 daughter; in the second 26 families, 14 sons and 20 daughters. It is visible, that neravnovesie in distribution sharply increases.
Let's allocate in the first group those families, where the father irratsional. Their only 24, sons in them 27, and daughters only 8! This distribution, in my opinion, in any way cannot be written off(copied) on accident. Probability, that such neravnovesie it has turned out casually (at equiprobable character of a sexual attribute for each of children), it is possible to count up under the formula for binomial distribution; very small size about the tenth share of percent(interest) turns out.
In the second group (parents different "-кратии") where it is more than daughters, the similar strong sexual skew is observed in a subgroup uniting poludualnykh, mirazhnykh and reviznykh families: 16 daughters and only 4 sons. If to allocate here only those pairs, where the father dinamik in them there are 10 daughters and any son.
It is possible to allocate and other groups of families with (though and it is not so strong) asymmetric distribution of children on the basis of a floor.
This result was for me full unexpectedness. Anyway, anywhere in sotsionicheskoj to the literature to me there was no even a mention think, that in some types of families boys are born more often than girls, and in others on the contrary. And this idea strongly contradicts all representations about genetics of a floor according to which the floor of an embryo does not depend in any way on genotypes of parents. But if such dependence all the same would exist, would be possible(probable) to receive significant overweight of boys above girls (or on the contrary) in some population, simply having married people " on sotsioniki ". And balance between both floors that is observed in a real life, it would be necessary to write off(copy) on A.Augustinavichyute mentioned still(even) asotsionnost societies...
How to reconcile results of statistics to genetics of a floor (and with common sense)? In my opinion, for this purpose exists at least two opportunities.
First, it is possible to assume, that the part of children in the investigated(researched) families simply has not entered into statistics. However it is necessary still that not entered have been strongly asymmetrically distributed(allocated) on the basis of a floor. If they simply have not got tipirovshchiku such asymmetry has no place to undertake (with what stati in one families from it(him) daughters, and in others sons will be hidden?) . Other business if them tipirovali, but the result has left indistinct, "greased", tipirovshchik could not define(determine) confidently TIM and consequently has not entered these children in statistics. In fact quite probably to appear, that in some group of families TIM at sons it is expressed regularly more precisely, than at daughters, and in families of other type on the contrary. Time is available dependence of inheritance sotsionicheskikh attributes from a floor it is logical to assume similar dependence and for force of their expression. Unfortunately, the given statistics here cannot help(assist) us as it(she) nothing speaks about a degree of expressiveness of attributes. I have addressed on this question to E.S.Filatovoj, but it(she) too could not resolve it(him) because people from its(her) statistics tipirovany it is enough for a long time.
The question about tipirovannykh, but not got in statistics because of indistinct expressiveness TIMa of children (for their name to me the term from astrophysics has attracted " a dark matter "), is extremely important for the analysis. In fact the set of children with less precise TIMom can have regular shift not only on the basis of a floor, but also on any sotsionicheskomu to an attribute! We shall tell, in families of some type at children-сенсориков TIM it can appear poorly expressed, and at children-интуитов on the contrary; then the first in a lot will get in " a dark matter ", and the visible statistics will move aside the second. It is clear, that the statistics collected thus can differ rather strongly from real parities(ratio) at inheritance TIMa. Besides neuchet " a dark matter ", most likely, regularly "aggravates" statistics, does(makes) laws for inheritance of attributes sharper and strong, than they are actually. Thus, parities(ratio) like 17/1, 11/1, 10/0 and so forth, On a regular basis arising in the analysis, actually can be softer". Unfortunately, the problem of " a dark matter " cannot be solved in E.S.Filatovoj's statistics. Therefore all the parities(ratio) deduced(removed) from it(her) for inheritance of attributes remain no more than the hypotheses, obliged to pass(take place) check on fuller statistics including the information on a degree of expressiveness of attributes both at children, and with parents.
Let's return, however, to the sexual asymmetry found out by us. Except for neuchetom " a dark matter ", it is possible to explain it(her) and other reasons. Probably, that some combinations of genes in an organism of the given floor are lethal the child with such genes perishes in a womb of mother. In genetics lethal combinations of genes the familiar phenomenon; them have found out, for example, among the genes coding painting of a wool at mice. If such combinations are available among TIMnykh genes in some types of families it should lead to frequent enough spontaneous abortions. It is clear, that sotsionicheskaya the statistics for spontaneous abortions will be hardly made sometime, therefore I do not undertake to judge an opportunity for check of this hypothesis.
The opportunity of existence of lethal combinations among TIMnykh genes fairly complicates a problem(task) in formal modelling rules of inheritance TIMa. As both of the factor " a dark matter " and lethal combinations of genes can work and together.
Other features of inheritance TIMa
From табл.2 it is visible, that in custom-made and reviznykh attitudes(relations) with the father very few children only 10 of 110 consist. Besides, that is interesting, five of them are in families reviznogo and custom-made type, and all five dualny mothers! Hardly it is possible to consider(count) it casual. Also nelzya to consider(count) casual the lowest occurrence of such children in families of other types.
Let's analyse a situation hardly more deeply. Attitudes(relations) of the order and audit are allocated in group by means of attributes left/right and рацио -/irrational (and also additional with it(him) an attribute of a demo -/aristocrats); these are attitudes(relations) between TIMami one orientation and different-нальности (and, accordingly, different-кратии). That's all 4 groups of attitudes(relations) formed by these attributes:
· (nk): (the Certificate(Act), KT, Zer, Kf) attitudes(relations) different-нальности and one -кратии;
· (NK): (D, T, software, SE) attitudes(relations) of one-нальности and one-кратии;
· (Nk): (PD, M, Affairs, the Sort) attitudes(relations) of one-нальности and different -кратии;
· (nk): (R>,> R, Z>,>) attitudes(relations) different-нальности and different-кратии.
It appears, in families of the first group (nk) only one child from 42 belongs to group (nk) in relation to the father; in families of group (Nk) one of 19; in group (NK) 3 from 34; and in group (nk) 5 from 15.
This dependence can be stated and different ways: if -нальность the child does not coincide with-нальностью the father almost always at them the attribute left/right (exception does not coincide also make reviznye and custom-made families). Or so: if the attribute left/right coincides at the father and the child the attribute-кратии will almost necessarily coincide also. Or: if does not coincide-кратия will almost always coincide-нальность.
In genetics the phenomenon stseplennosti attributes is known: the genes coding such attributes, are in the same chromosome and consequently are transferred(transmitted) posterity together. By an exchange of sites between gomologichnymi chromosomes (krossingover) such attributes sometimes can be unhooked from each other; the probability for this purpose depends on distance between genes in a chromosome. At first sight vysheupomyanutaya feature of inheritance too specifies on stseplennost attributes-нальности, is left/»Óáó«ßÔ¿ and-or additional it(him)-кратии. However it is impossible to forget that a gene operating an attribute left/»Óáó«ßÔ¿, most likely imprintirovan, at that inaktivirovana just its(his) fatherly copy. It is impossible to forget also about custom-made and reviznykh families where this stseplennosti as though is not present, and there is any absolutely other dependence. So though any stseplennost, most likely, takes place, it(she) covers the genes involved in complex(difficult) enough mechanism of mutual switching of action. And at last, above all these theoretical attempts by a sword of damocles " the dark matter " hangs...
Presence in statistics of such strongly pronounced rule of inheritance (in group (nk) only one exception of 42 children; in group (Nk) one of 19) can be considered(examined) as the indirect certificate on enough high accuracy tipirovaniya E.S.Filatovoj. In fact here the attribute -нальности, traditionally brought in tipirovanii the greatest share of mistakes(errors) from all attributes YUnga is involved. The fact of reception of such parities(ratio) as 1/19 and even 1/42, means a mistake(an error) in definition of attributes less than 5 %. If the mistake(error) was above, the parity(ratio) would turn out less precise. However such accuracy tipirovaniya till now is considered, at that it is not unreasonable, unrealizable dream... Certainly, it is possible to judge, that just the most problem cases send away(have left) in " a dark matter ", therefore and the visible result "was cleaned". However ability to separate from such accuracy problem cases from problemless in itself quite good achievement.
We come back to questions of inheritance. The attribute of рацио -/irrationality costs(stands) as though aside from others. It(he) does not show symptoms imprintirovaniya: in families where parents opposite-нальности, the attribute is transferred(transmitted) approximately fifty-fifty on mother/father 26/31 cases. In pairs one-нальности the attribute »ÑÓÑñáÑÔßn/varies in 40/13 cases a parity(ratio), is close to often met in genetics 3/1. Influence of other attributes is here too felt. We shall tell, in pairs group (D, software, PD,) where parents one-нальности and different-вертности, 10 of 11 cases of change -нальности in new generation are concentrated in families with ekstravertnoj mothers and introvertnim the father. In families of group (Zer, Kf, R>,>) where parents different-нальности and one statics/dynamics(changes), it is shown also dependence on a floor, it(she) besides operates(works) differently in different subgroups. In a subgroup with the rational father and irrational mother the attribute is inherited from mother in 5/1 cases from sons and in 3/3 cases at daughters. In other subgroup where mother is rational, and the father irratsional, the attribute is transferred(transmitted) in another way: for daughters in 4/0 cases from the father, and for sons in 4/3 cases.
Features have precisely enough come to light by transfer of an attribute ßÑ¡ß«Ó¿á/intuition. The part from them has been already mentioned in connection with dependence on a floor. As the whole, in cleanly intuitive families touch children are born seldom, whereas intuitive children in touch families the usual phenomenon: their order of half. In intuitive pairs from group (Zer, software, KT,) intuitive children concern to touch as 13/3 (10/1 and 3/2 for sons and daughters). In touch pairs the same group a parity(ratio) 7/5 (5/2 and 2/3 for two floors). In intuitive pairs in group (PD, M, Affairs, the Sort) the same parity(ratio) 8/1 (3/0 and 5/1 for both floors). In touch pairs the same group (though them only three poludualnykh) 2/2 (2/0 and 0/2). It seems, all this specifies on usual genic dominantnost what searched in S.Shibkov's this statistics ; at that the intuition appears retsessivnym an attribute. However reviznye and custom-made families again spoil all: In five cleanly intuitive pairs this group four touch children at two intuitive. So and by transfer of this attribute again all depends on type of family.
The attribute of ßÑ¡ß«Ó¿¿/intuition renders appreciable switching influence on transfer of other attributes. In intuitive families kvazitozhdestvennogo and opposite types all 9 children repeat a statics/dynamics(changes) of the father. However in touch families of the same group that attribute is transferred(transmitted) in 3 cases on mother and in two on the father. In families where parents differ on a demo -/aristocracy, as object of switching last attribute acts just. In cleanly intuitive families custom-made and reviznogo type 6 children repeat all-кратию mothers. And here in the mixed pairs (one parent sensorik, another intuit) the same group the attribute-кратии is transferred(transmitted) mainly on the father in the ratio 6/3; at that all three "exceptions" dualy mothers! In families of group (PD, M, Affairs, the Sort) in mixed or cleanly touch pairs-кратия copies fatherly in 9 cases against one (exception besides dual mothers). In cleanly intuitive families of this group-кратия children it is transferred(transmitted) approximately fifty-fifty from both parents (5/4). However in all four cases when the attribute copies fatherly, children are identical to the father...
Here all the same it is necessary to remember, that in such small groups the statistics can noticeably play due to usual accidents, and also that in small scale the skew of group to other attributes which just can strongly influence an investigated(a researched) attribute is inevitable. Therefore I shall not begin to list(transfer) all small-scale asymmetries in statistics (their great variety, and the some people concern(touch) attributes Rejnina like "obstinate/compliant", "careless/provident" and so forth). The mentioned dependence of inheritance-кратии from ßÑ¡ß«Ó¿«®/intuition is remarkable that features of inheritance are shown both in small scale, and in big ("accidents" of the same types in different small groups of families).
The conclusion. A hypothesis about oligogennom character TIMa
So, we see, that laws of inheritance sotsionicheskogo type certainly exist, besides some of them are expressed very precisely though separate attributes YUnga and Rejnina "are bound" influence on inheritance each other in rather uneasy image. (in exceptions asks unless an attribute of рацио -/irrationality which is inherited "more cleanly" others, but there too not all is pure(clean).)
In genetics there is a division of attributes on mono-and polygenic: the first are coded only by one gene, and the second turn out at joint action of many genes. Real expression of the attributes first type in a population has discrete character: two, sometimes three or several opportunities (for color and so forth). Expression in a population of polygenic attributes (usually it is the size, weight and so forth) continuous character: on the schedule it usually reminds gaussianu.
To what of these types concern sotsionicheskie attributes? Though they also are expressed as dikhotomii, their degree ekspressii variruetsya is continuous, besides in a population it is impossible appreciable "dvukhgorboe" distribution for separately taken attributes. Possibly, it was meant also by V.L.Talanov directly written about polygenic character TIMa . But how many it "poli-"? How many genes form TIM?
I consider(count), that actually it is a little of them only a little. For this purpose I find the bases in too strong laws at inheritance. In fact the more genes are involved in formation TIMa, the there would be, say, a share of children, dual mothers and identical to the father in dual families less. With increase of number TIMnykh of genes their variety at parents at the same TIMakh would grow very quickly. But it diminishes chances of that sets of genes in concrete gametes (yajtsekletka and spermy) will appear in the necessary kind, that (for dual pairs) to make generation, dual mothers and identical to the father. I have already noted in connection with a problem of heterozygosity, that 50 % congestion of children only in one position in relation to parents seems thinking too strong. The genes which are responsible TIM, should be not less than four but also nenamnogo more. Therefore I am inclined to speak not about poli-, and about oligogennoj to nature TIMa. And continuous distribution of force of expressiveness of attributes in a population it is possible to explain, first, interaction between TIMnymi genes during vzaimopereklyucheniya their actions; secondly, weaker influence of the other genes not capable, however, to switch an attribute; thirdly, influence of environment(Wednesday). All this in the sum is quite capable "to smooth" distribution.
Though there are no reasons to expect conformity " one to one " between genes and sotsionicheskimi attributes, the analysis naturally allocates those from them, that most essentially participate in mutual switchings and, thus, in laws of inheritance:
· Éáµ¿« -/irrationality;
· Statics/dynamics(changes) (it is subject imprintingu, is inherited basically from the father);
· Left/right (the attribute is subject imprintingu, it is inherited basically from mother, and also is great the probability, that is linked to a floor);
· Demo -/aristocrats (an attribute, additional the first and the third);
· æÑ¡ß«Ó¿á/intuition (switches -кратию);
· ekstra -/интроверсия (switches action-нальности and it is left/»Óáó«ßÔ¿ in some groups).
That interesting, I did not manage to find out serious participation in processes of switching such important (from the point of view of psychology) an attribute, as logic/ethics. It(he) is defined(determined), more likely, as result of action of two other attributes: a demo -/aristocracy and ßÑ¡ß«Ó¿¿/intuitions.
Some of the listed attributes are connected by parities(ratio) Rejnina; it means, that in the theory two of them completely define(determine) the third. However I quite suppose, that they can be coded not to two, but three genes. Then the contradiction of a real combination of genes with parity(ratio) Rejnina should lead " to struggle for domination " between attributes as a result of which one of them "will turn over" and together with one more will appear weakened(easied) "to adapt" to each other. Here an example ( strongly simplified): let three genes in the given individual separately set attributes irrationality, introvertnost, but a statics whereas on parity(ratio) Rejnina иррационалы-introverts are dinamikami. What of attributes "will recede", that will turn out: the irrational introvert (dinamik), or the irrational extrovert (statics), or the rational introvert (statics) also what will be with force of expressiveness of attributes? The concrete outcome of struggle will depend on interaction between concrete genes. This mechanism of a competition can answer and for variations in expressiveness of attributes, and for subtypes, is possible(probable) even for vysheupomyanutye lethal combinations of genes. However while it only reasonings.
It seems, that at presence of such data and laws we closely have approached(suited) to creation of full formal genic model TIMa. Also it is necessary to pass to a reality to revealing of candidates in TIMnykh genes. It means connection, except for sotsionikov, also experts on medical genetics and psikhogenetike where already there are results of research of the concrete genes influencing on qualities of mentality.
For sotsionikov there is a problem(task) of accumulation of more representative family statistics on which will probably recheck the present(true) results without constant threat for them from " a dark matter ". Here the basic problem how to combine quality tipirovaniya with size of statistics. In fact that hypotheses applied for the status of laws, the file from even a little sot families (in enough for each type of attitudes(relations)), at quality tipirovaniya, not conceding volume that is reached(achieved) by E.S.Filatovoj in its(her) statistics, with an estimation of a degree of expressiveness sotsionicheskikh attributes and at absence is necessary to " a dark matter ". I think, that it is a worthy call tipirovshchikam.
And still last remark. What will be, if two experts(auditeurs) in separately collected statistikakh will receive absolutely different laws for inheritance TIMa (or one will receive, and another is not present)? Who from them will be right? Probably, then it is necessary to search for displays " types on X. " in " types on Y. ", preobrazuyushchie laws of inheritance in an invariant kind for both statistik.
1. Filatova E.S.Sotsionicheskaya statistics for 299 women, men and their children. Sotsionika, mentologiya and psychology of the person, 2000, № 6;
2. Filatova E.S.Sotsionika and genetics // Filatova E.S. The person in a mirror sotsioniki: the Solution of secret of doubles. SPb.: ü*è, 2001. 286 with.;
3. SHibkov S.A.transfer of attributes Rejnina by right of succession // « Sotsionika, psychology and interpersonal attitudes(relations) », 2003, № 5 (?).
4. Gvozdev V.A.regulation of activity of the genes, caused by chemical updating (metilirovaniem) DNA. 1999.
5. Sapientsa K. Genomnyj imprinting. Scientific American (the edition in Russian). 1990.№12. с.14-20. http: // grokhovs2.chat.ru/gen/gen.html; http: // vitaeauct.narod.ru/004/gnt/0400.htm
6. Talanov V.L.answer on some often arising questions (the review of researches of 2005 the information for advanced sotsionikov). 2005. http: // karljung.narod.ru
Studying of an opportunity of inheritance psikhofiziologicheskikh types of people, Differentiated on their structures Functional asymmetry
Institute of formation(education) SDViS the Russian Open Society, Tomsk
Tomsk state medical university
During development of the original typological approach in which as criteria tipoobrazovaniya 4 parameters of functional asymmetry of a brain (Bogomaz are used, Isaeva, 1997; Bogomaz, 1998), we have counted necessary to estimate(appreciate) an opportunity of their inheritance.
It is necessary to specify, that such parameters were: asymmetry of impellent activity, asymmetry of sight, type of coupling of hands and type of an interlacing of fingers. Their combination at the concrete person are designated by the term « an individual structure of functional asymmetries » (IPFA). The parameters of asymmetry chosen by us, being combined by various image, give 16 structures and allow to receive 16 types of people. These types have been named by us psikhofiziologicheskimi as their nature is caused by specialization of hemispheres of a brain.
As shown in our researches, psikhofiziologicheskie types are characterized by specific features of temperament, is emotional-personal and cognitive sphere. And results of the researches executed by us testify in favour of that there is a certain conformity between these types and K.Yunga's psychological types (Bogomaz, Isaeva, 1997; Bogomaz, 1998). It allows us to approve(confirm), that specific variants mezhpolusharnoj specialization of psychological functions can underlie development of types of K.Yunga.
To come nearer to understanding of laws tipoobrazovaniya us individual structures of asymmetry (IPFA) at twins and structures of asymmetry at parents and their children have been studied(investigated).
In sphere of our attention there were 6 pairs monozigotnykh and 7 pairs dizigotnykh twins of different age (were not considered bliznetsovye pairs at which we did not manage to establish(install) unequivocally zigotnost). During diagnostics it was found out, that in everyone monozigotnoj to pair twins it was characterized identical IPFA: at them asymmetry of the impellent control, asymmetry of the visual analyzer, type of coupling of hands and type of an interlacing of fingers completely coincided.
Our hypothesis rather dizigotnykh twins was under construction on a following reasoning: if in dizigotnykh pairs to us there was even one case of identity of structures it would be possible to make the conclusion about their formation under influence of a family environment (parents). However we have found out, that in all dizigotnykh pairs at twins were observed a different degree of expressiveness of distinction in attributes of asymmetry: at them asymmetry of the impellent control and asymmetry of sight did not coincide, sometimes to it(this) distinctions in type of coupling of fingers, or in type of an interlacing of hands were added. And though quantity(amount) surveyed bliznetsovykh pairs small, obtained data in a greater degree specify, in our opinion, on an opportunity of existence of laws of inheritance IPFA and to a lesser degree on its(his) formation under influence of family factors.
By data of the literature, attempt of studying of family inheritance of variants IPFA till now have not given positive results (polyukhov, 1980).
Considering it, we have assumed, that the methodical approach to research of laws of inheritance IPFA can be constructed on the basis of the concept intertipnykh attitudes(relations).
This concept for the first time has been formulated by A.Augustinavichyute (1982) who has stated idea that between K.Yunga's 16 types can arise the natural image 16 various kinds of attitudes(relations). They have been studied(investigated) by a number(line) of authors and in detail described. As follows from these descriptions, 16 intertipnykh attitudes(relations) it is possible to divide(undresse) conditionally on two categories favorable and adverse communications for participants, and to allocate among them attitudes(relations) of mutual aid, mutual understanding, the attitude(relation) of management and the attitude(relation) of the conflict. It is considered, that intertipnye attitudes(relations) are ideal model of the communications of two types and development of interpersonal attitudes(relations) (Augustinavichyute, 1982 can underlie; SHepetko, 1991, 1996; 1997; Bogomaz, Isaeva, 1996; Vasilev, etc., 1996;, etc.).
We have assumed, that if psikhofiziologicheskie the types allocated in view of IPFA, correspond(meet) K.Yunga's to psychological types between psikhofiziologicheskimi types also are possible(probable) natural intertipnye attitudes(relations). On the basis of it(this) we predicted, that if IPFA are inherited or formed under influence of family factors it is possible to expect, that between parents and their children will meet is more often favorable and less often adverse intertipnye attitudes(relations). As opposed to it(this), their occurrence as a whole on a population should be more or less uniform.
For check of this assumption we have analysed frequency of distribution intertipnykh attitudes(relations) in the sample consisting of 31 families. In these families at parents and their children have been certain IPFA and psikhofiziologicheskie types. Originally by means of specially developed computer program, considering psikhofiziologicheskie types, theoretical frequency of occurrence intertipnykh attitudes(relations) between all possible(probable) pairs without taking into account related communications(connections) in investigated(researched) sample has been calculated. Such possible(probable) pairs in our sample, hypothetically capable to enter the communications, it has appeared 2146. As it has been established(installed), between them, according to our expectations, 16 kinds intertipnykh attitudes(relations) were distributed(allocated) almost in regular intervals (fig. 1).
On the contrary, married couples "parent-child", which number it was equal 45, intertipnye attitudes(relations) were distributed(allocated) non-uniformly. So, between related pairs there were no the most adverse intertipnye attitudes(relations) - "disputed" and "under control", seldom there were adverse attitudes(relations) "superego" (fig. 1). However in a structure peaks of occurrence such intertipnykh attitudes(relations), as "identity", "repayment" and "mirazhnye" were allocated. Statistical processing of results by method Vilkoksona (Wilcoxon Matched Pairs Test) has shown, that distinctions of analyzed structures of "theoretical" and "family" occurrence intertipnykh attitudes(relations) very significant (p=0.0004).
FIGURE IS NOT DISPLAYED
Rice 1. Structures of distribution intertipnykh attitudes(relations) between "casual" (without taking into account related attitudes(relations)) pairs surveyed persons(faces) (sample OBS) and between married couples "parent-child" (sample OBS_FAM). Intertipnye attitudes(relations): dual - dual, pdual - poludualnye, zer - mirror, tg - identical, ktog - kvazitozhdestvennye, pog - repayments, se - a superego, mir - mirazhnye, del - business, konf - disputed, zak - custom-made, pzak - podzakaznye, kontr - the control, pkontr - under control, akt - activation, rod - related. Distinctions between structures are authentic with p=0.0004.
Prevalence favorable intertipnykh attitudes(relations) of "identity", "repayment" and "Mirage" in married couples "parent-child" and absence in them of adverse attitudes(relations) of "conflict" and "podkontrolya" allows to make to us the conclusion about not casual formation IPFA at children. However, studying of occurrence intertipnykh attitudes(relations) in pairs "parent-child" does not allow to lead unequivocal differentiation of two opportunities: existence of laws of inheritance IPFA or its(his) formations at the child under influence of one of parents. Nevertheless, considering the data received on monozigotnykh and dizigotnykh twins, it is possible to tend in a greater degree to opinion on existence of the complex(difficult) mechanism of inheritance IPFA and psikhofiziologicheskikh the types diagnosed on their basis.
Interesting, from the point of view of an opportunity of the future researches, data that in pairs "daughter-fathers" and "sons-mothers" meet intertipnye attitudes(relations) of "repayment" (fig. 2А) is much more often are represented also. It is necessary to explain, that attitudes(relations) of "repayment" arise, for example, in pairs between intuitively-logic ekstravertirovannym type and intuitively-logic introvertirovannym type, or, for example, between sensorno-эмотивным introvertirovannym type and sensorno-эмотивным ekstravertirovannym type. In this connection, following the theory intertipnykh attitudes(relations), it is possible to assume, that in similar married couples the parent in attitudes(relations) to the child of an opposite floor can show is more often property of management (or even manipulations) its(his) behaviour at absence of the tendency to understanding of motives of its(his) behaviour and to mutual aid.
Unlike it(this), in pairs "daughter-mother" and in pairs "sons-fathers" met intertipnye attitudes(relations) of "identity" and "mirazhnye" (fig. 2Б) is more often. We shall specify, that attitudes(relations) of "identity" arise between types with identical structure of the person, for example, between two логико-intuitive types. "Mirazhnye" attitudes(relations) are established(installed), for example, between эмотивно-intuitive introvertirovannym type and эмотивно-touch ekstravertirovannym type. Thus for "identical" attitudes(relations) display of property of mutual understanding between kommunitsiruyushchimi types, and for "mirazhnykh" attitudes(relations) - a combination of properties of mutual aid and management (Vasilev, etc., 1996) is characteristic.
It is necessary to note, that all three kinds intertipnykh the attitudes(relations), most often meeting in pairs "parent-child", arise between identical or close types. It is obvious, that it can be one of mechanisms of formation of higher degree of stability of family attitudes(relations).
However for the proof of it(this) carrying out of special researches is necessary. It is important, that developed psikhofiziologichesky the approach to tipoobrazovaniyu can give essentially new opportunities of studying of mechanisms of inheritance of individually-typological distinctions and formations of interpersonal attitudes(relations) in small groups.
FIGURE IS NOT DISPLAYED
Fig. 2. And - a structure of distribution intertipnykh attitudes(relations) between pairs "daughter-fathers" and "sons-mothers". - a structure of distribution intertipnykh attitudes(relations) in pairs "daughter-mother" and "sons-fathers". Designations of attitudes(relations) same, as on fig. 1.
1. Augustinavichyute A.Teoriya intertipnykh attitudes(relations) // the Department of manuscripts of library Lithuanian AN.-Vilnius, 1982.116 with. (Manuscript).
2. Bogomaz S.A., Isaeva T.M.research intertipnykh attitudes(relations) in student's groups // Siberian psikhol. zhurn.-Tomsk, 1996.-Вып. 1. With. 40.
3. Bogomaz S.A., Isaeva T.M.studying psikhofiziologicheskikh features of schoolboys with various structures of functional asymmetry of a brain // Siberian psikhol. zhurn.-Tomsk, 1997. Vyp. 4. With. 43-48.
4. Bogomaz S.A.designing of typology of individual distinctions on the basis of specialization of hemispheres of a brain // Year-book RPO " Psychology and practice " . Yaroslavl, 1998. T. 4, Vyp. 2. With. 253-256.
5. Bogomaz S.A. To an opportunity of differentiation of training of schoolboys in view of their typological features of orientation of mental activity // Bulletin TGPU.-1998. Vyp. 4. With. 52-59.
6. Vasilev V.N., Ramazanova A.P., Bogomaz S.A.poznaj of others - find itself (Lectures on psychological types and their attitudes(relations)) . Tomsk, 1996.185 with.
7. Polyukhov A.M. « Coupling of fingers » and « crossing of hands »: populyatsionnye, hereditary and nejrofiziologicheskie aspects // Genetika.-1980. T. 16, №7.- С.1294-1300.
8. SHepetko E.Opisanie intertipnykh attitudes(relations) // Sotsionika. The ¿¡õ«Ó¼.-abstract. sb.-Novosibirsk, Kiev, 1991. - With. 26-34.
9. SHepetko E.Metod of simple classification // Psikhol. zhurn. "Bridge" . 1996. № 2. With. 16-18.
10. SHepetko E.Metod of simple classification // Psikhol. zhurn. "Bridge" . 1997. № 3-4.-With. 13-16.
Magazine " Sotsionika, mentologiya and psychology of the person ", N 2, 2002.
Some aspects of occurrence and preservation intertipnykh attitudes(relations)
Levels of the needs(requirements) satisfied by the subject in mutual relations, and their interrelation with occurrence and development various intertipnykh attitudes(relations) are described.
Keywords: sotsionika, intertipnye attitudes(relations), levels of need(requirement).
Deeply in human mentality - the original cause of all imaginations, belief and behaviour is available a complex of needs(requirements) to which satisfaction the person aspires in a life. There are four levels of needs(requirements) proceeding from which the person operates(works) also which wishes to satisfy in mutual relations.
The first level realized by all without exception and it is the most direct - physical needs(requirements), or inclinations of a body. When these needs(requirements) leave on the foreground the person is guided by such criteria as external data or style of a life at a choice of the partner. The mutual relations based(founded,established) on satisfaction of this group of needs(requirements), are most quickly fastened and soon enough break up, as, first, physical needs(requirements) change during a life, and, secondly, the partner can cease to satisfy them (for example, physical appeal is subject to influence of time or the provided partner can lose the condition).
Further the second level for which comprehension already certain internal development - intellectual needs(requirements) is required , or an inclination of mind(wit) for which satisfaction the partner which could something learn is searched follows . These are attitudes(relations) " the pupil - the teacher " which keep until the conducted partner will not reach(achieve) an intellectual level of the leader.
Under these levels the third category of needs(requirements) realized, as a rule, in much smaller degree, emotional needs(requirements), or an inclination of soul settles down . It can be need(requirement) for protection, shelter, safety, or, opposite in space for growth, creativity and self-expression.
But there is deeper, than emotional needs(requirements), (most the basic) a level familiar to each individual since the first seconds of its(his) life, mainly defining(determining) its(his) purpose: need(requirement) for " unconditional love ".
The person begins with that knowledge of unconditional love internally inherent in it(him) and, however, so seldom tests it(her) at mature age. It(he) should make the way back to a condition was for it(him) absolutely natural soon after birth! The unconditional love is that condition when love give and receive without an idea on purchase or loss. This highest condition of love where it(she) is most vital and salutary, it is not subject to time and circumstances. It(she) allows to rise highly above " a condition of war " which as can seem, is inevitable between two floors. This a condition of acceptance of the favourite person and feeling of acceptance by it(him) of. This condition at which the person tests love, not caring of , whether will love it(him), it(he) feels spiritual communication(connection), it(he) expresses itself(himself) not through acts, and is direct through the essence.
Obviously, needs(requirements) a major factor defining(determining) the scripts of an inclination. But they can often mislead. For example, the person feels need(requirement) for creativity to write verses or to draw, but is afraid to try(taste) itself in this area. Often(more often), to compensate the need(requirement), it(he) can connect itself(himself) with the creative person and try to live oposredovanno, through creativity of this person. The problem consists that actually the partner does not satisfy its(his) need(requirement). The person still does not try to express the creative potential and consequently creativity of the partner what attractive it was, never can satisfy it(him) completely. Usually all comes to an end with that the person rejects that partner for discrepancy to the needs(requirements) though the partner here at all at anything! Many become isolated in this circle, forgetting about the simple fact: in others people can search for that it is necessary to provide to itself independently.
The basic problem with such inclinations intended for indemnification of needs(requirements), consists that the inclination is given on an arbitrariness to these needs(requirements) and if needs(requirements) will change "love" or "friendship" is exposed to serious test.
In an ideal of mutual relation should be something greater(big), rather than simple satisfaction of momentary needs(requirements). Actually all people are aimed at unconditional love, as ability of the person to change and accept change in the person of the partner (not speaking about ability to self-expression) immensely increases in this condition.
First of all, it is necessary to understand, how three first level of needs(requirements) physical, intellectual and emotional "work" in mutual relations. Below a number(line) of not realized promptings by means of which these levels can withdraw aside from a correct choice of the partner is presented . These strong promptings signal that the person is not adequate to a reality that the person insincerely answers own needs(requirements) even if its(his) own imagination persistently convinces it(him) of the return. So, sometimes the person searches for it(him) or it(her) that:
1. To improve or develop the certain characteristic inherent in the person which it(he) prefers to love in others.
2. To get rid of the feeling of a certain inadequacy tested after the attitude(relation) to.
3. To be there, where the partner. There is a huge quantity(amount) of people with aura in which beams another would like to get warm.
4. To correct harmed. If the person always wished to like the certain people, but never achieved it(this), and it became for it(him) a symbol of own unattractiveness and nezhelannosti, it(he) can aspire to people at which presence will feel better.
5. To be entered in vital style or a circle of dialogue. The person feels, that the partner is a key to the whole world into which it(he) never could enter independently.
To each group of needs(requirements) correspond(meet) certain intertipnye attitudes(relations). So, the satisfaction of physical needs(requirements) is served with such attitudes(relations), as irrational audit, the rational order, poludualnye and business at irrational types and mirazhnye and related at rational. In such unions one of partners sensorik, and another intuit. It causes a physical attraction, but there is no addition on functions "logic-ethics", from? For what there are communicative difficulties, and also problems with an external environment. More often such attitudes(relations) are under construction on one of following schemes(plans):
1. One of partners is attractive, talented, but another is needy and impractical, and, on the contrary, is provided and sincerely wishes "to help"(assist") another, to set it(him) (it(her)) on " a way true " (more often this scheme(plan) can be seen in attitudes(relations) of the rational order);
2. Attitudes(Relations) "intellectual-servant" when sensorik incurs completely consumer services intuita; intuit, from its part, enters similar mutual relations because the partner "corresponds(meets)" to its(his) representations about matrimonial roles (as a rule, it occurs(happens) in attitudes(relations) of irrational audit);
3. Two attractive young men madly fall in love each other, but after a while finds out, that except for sex nothing connects them. In recent times the similar unions were rather rasprostranenny: young men married actually to have an opportunity to satisfy the sexual needs(requirements) "legally", and sometimes in a month got divorced. All similar marriages(spoilage) keep until there is a satisfaction of physical needs(requirements) of partners. But costs(stands) to one or to both partners to cease them to satisfy or pass to higher level of needs(requirements) as attitudes(relations) collapse.
To satisfaction of intellectual needs(requirements) are served with attitudes(relations) of rational audit, the irrational order, poludualnye and business in rational pairs and mirazhnye and related in irrational. Addition on dikhotomii "logic-ethics" that gives communicative compatibility Here takes place, but there is no addition on a scale "сенсорика-intuition" that leads to sexual disharmony. But sex plays these unions far not a leaging role. These are attitudes(relations) of the teacher and the pupil or colleagues. For preservation of similar attitudes(relations) by a necessary condition the mutual respect of partners and presence at them a common cause, whether it be creativity, conducting the general(common) business or education of children is . Problems arise when " the pupil develops teachers " or the common cause comes to an end. (by the way, such marriages(spoilage) suffer from " a syndrome of the become empty jack ", that is after leaving(care) from family of adult children). Then at partners two outputs(exits): Or urgently to search for new joint business, or to leave.
When the person rises on a following level of needs(requirements) emotional, the turn identical, mirror, kvazitozhdestvennykh and repaying attitudes(relations) comes. These are attitudes(relations) of friends, attitudes(relations) with "similar". In these attitudes(relations) on the foreground leaves requirements of "understanding" and "participation". The unions keep, while there is a friendship between partners. But these attitudes(relations) are unstable against serious vital collisions and changes, and also mutual relations with world around. In opinion of the author, these attitudes(relations) in general approach(suit) friends, rather than spouses more likely. Sex in them, as well as in previous, has no special value and even sometimes is absent, as partners consider(count), that it(he) can destroy their friendship and attitudes(relations) as a whole. (on supervision of the author, at this level all modern psychology, behind very rare exception "has got stuck". For this reason in psychology it is offered to search for the partner on similarity, instead of on addition. From here and aversion sotsioniki many psychologists).
In the fourth group of attitudes(relations) the highest demands for for their stability partners should be all at once are made: lovers, colleagues and friends, and it is extremely complex(difficult). These are dual, aktivatsionnye, a superego and disputed attitudes(relations). But as these attitudes(relations) are not similar against each other! The conflict and a superego are well described by a saying " together closely, and it is separately boring " when the way fortunately really passes(takes place) partners through preispodnyuyu. But, strangely enough, these attitudes(relations) seem to the some attractive and even unique (!), As " the present(true) love " is those, in opinion of one lady consisting in similar attitudes(relations) and preferring to love on distance. As to satisfaction of need(requirement) for unconditional love is most easier it is reached(achieved) in dual attitudes(relations). In them chances of preservation of satisfaction that is important as at other mutual relations always there is a danger of are highest that partners "will fall" to lower levels.
Proceeding from stated, in mutual relations, whether it be attitudes(relations) between spouses, friends, parents and children, etc ., it is possible to divide(undresse) problems conditionally on two groups depending on the reasons of their occurrence:
1. The problems connected with discrepancy of levels of needs(requirements) of partners;
2. The problems connected with change of needs(requirements) of partners.
In it(this), in opinion of the author, the reasons of disintegration of potentially happy attitudes(relations) between partners psychologically supplementing each other are covered. Thus, the more the difference in a level of needs(requirements), the is less probability of preservation of attitudes(relations). The person should "ripen" psychologically and spiritually up to dual attitudes(relations), differently it(he) never will appreciate them, and will understand, that it(he) has lost only after the partner will leave, and nothing can be made for preservation of attitudes(relations).
At heart all of us we want, that us loved such what we are. But whether ourselves are capable of such love?..
L and t e r and t at r and:
1. Bukalov A.V.phenomen concerning perception(recognition) of the partner depending on motivational installation. // Sotsionika, mentologiya and psychology of the person. 1996. - N 6.
2. Gulenko V.V.what would construct attitudes(relations) YUng. // Sotsionika, mentologiya and psychology of the person. 1995. - N 2.
3. Gulenko V.V ., Tyshchenko V.P.Sotsionika at school. Novosibirsk. 1998.
4. Lopatinskaya P.N.occurrence and development of mutual relations between the man and the woman./degree work. // the International Academy of psychological sciences. sankt-»ÑÔÑÓíÒú. 2000.
Magazine " Sotsionika, mentologiya and psychology of the person ", N 6, 1996.
Sotsionika in diagnostics and treatment of boundary psychopathology
The statistics of distribution sotsionicheskikh types at patients psikhasteniej, asthenic psikhopatiej, is resulted(brought) by neurosises and mental infantility. High correlation sotsionicheskogo type of the patient and a kind of disease that leads to necessity of the account of features of type of the person for a choice of психо-pharmacotherapy is shown.
Keywords: sotsionika, sotsionichesky type, psychopathology, психо-pharmacotherapy, psikhasteniya, psikhopatiya, a neurosis, mental infantility.
It is established(installed), that predisposition to this or that mental disease, appreciably, it is caused premorbidnymi by personal features which make a basis not only for formation aktsentuatsii, but also reflect a clinical picture of diseases [G.K.Ushakov, 1987]
Questions of a parity(ratio) between sotsiotipami and clinical displays in the literature were shined(covered) insufficiently, therefore the certain scientifically-practical interest is represented with our researches.
In total 227 patients with following diagnoses are surveyed: psikhasteniya 24 persons, asthenic psikhopatiya 49, neurosises with persuasive displays 65, neurosises with hysterical displays 82, mental infantility 7.
The control group was made by 70 healthy persons(faces) who on social conditions, the experience of work, an educational level did not differ from patients.
Leading criteria for research of correlation between sotsiotipami and psychopathological displays of patients choose аффективно-cogitative features which within the limits of considered(examined) forms of diseases are kept without rough qualitative structural changes.
The accessory(belonging) of surveyed patients to this or that type of thinking was defined(determined) by means of sotsionicheskikh questionnaires and their self-determination under the description of corresponding(meeting) types [V.V.Gulenko, A.V.Molodtsov, 1991]
Sotsiotipy Number of patients Number healthy In total
psikhasteniej Asthenic psikhopatiej Neurosis with persuasive displays Neurosis with hysterical displays Mental infantility
IL (ILE) 1 3 4
SE (SEI) 7 9 4 20
ES (ESE) 5 3 8
LI (LII) 22 2 24 2 50
ET (EIE) 23 6 29
LF (LSI) 3 3
FL (SLE) 4 4
TE (IEI) 4 2 7 13
FR (SEE) 1 3 4 8
TP (OR) 1 4 5
PT (LIE) 4 4
RF (ESI) 1 9 28 14 4 56
PS (LSE) 7 7
RI (EII) 27 12 7 6 2 53
IR (IEE) 1 19 5 25
SP (SLI) 8 8
In total 24 49 65 82 7 70 297
From the offered table of distribution of sick and healthy persons(faces) on sotsionicheskim it is visible to types, that 22 persons from 24 patients psikhasteniej have concerned to type LI (LII), that has made 91,6 %. Among patients asthenic psikhopatiej from 49 sick 26 (53 %) belonged to type RI (EII). 28 sick of neurosises with persuasive displays from 65 (43 %) have appeared этико-touch introverts RF (ESI), and 24 (37 %) логико-intuitive introverts LI (LII). Neurosises with the expressed hysterical displays were more often properties of этико-intuitive extroverts ET (EIE) 23 persons from 82 sick (28 %) and intuitively-ethical extroverts (IR, IEE) 19 person (23 %). From 7 sick of mental infantility 6 (85,7 %) have adjoined type of этико-intuitive introverts (RI, EII).
Thus, proceeding from the received results of research, it is possible to believe, that nozologicheskaya the form dezadaptirovaniya persons and on its(her) basis formation of boundary psychopathology, appreciably, depends from concrete sotsionicheskikh types.
Importance of the account of the personal factor for a choice of психо-pharmacotherapy emphasized Y.A.Aleksandrovsky , V.D.Kavasarsky, V.A.Tashlykov, A.P.Fedorov , K.Ernst . Therefore therapeutic tactics by us was under construction depending on an accessory(a belonging) of patients to those or others sotsionicheskim to types. Treatment of our patients with attributes rigidnosti installations, introspection that corresponded(met) to type LI (LII), began tranquilizers with the subsequent inclusion of psychotherapy. For treatment of patients with painfully raised(increased) suggestibility, the disturbing suspiciousness strengthened konformnostyu, constantly looking sympathy and the help of the doctor the active psychotherapy without application of psychotropic means was spent by us. At sharp аффективно-neurotic experiences, without dependence from sotsionicheskikh types of patients, tranquilizers in parallel psychotherapy were successfully applied. The rational psychotherapy was spent by influence on corresponding(meeting) functions of the given types of an information metabolism, it(she) included elements of psychoanalysis, methods of the statement of belief in recover of patients through the strong personal parties(sides), their involving in process of the self-help. Patients were explained essence and the reasons of neurosises, value of features of their person in development of disease process with development(manufacture) of ways of overcoming of the reasons and displays of disease. Besides patients were involved in initiative creative activity.
As criteria features also served in a choice most suggestoterapii sotsiotipa the patient. If the patient found out attributes of logic functions the rational psychotherapy was more effectively perceived by it(him). For patients of an ethical circle sotsionicheskikh types of more productive it appeared gipnoterapiya. In turn, and for the process gipnoterapii the characteristic sotsiotipa, in particular, for development(manufacture) and installation etiopatogeneticheskoj formulas of suggestion is important.
Use sotsioniki allows terapevticheski to differentiate effectively patients for psychotherapy, to divide(share) from into corresponding(meeting) groups, to impart it(him) a technique critical pereosmyslivaniya the painful(unhealthy) experiences, proceeding from concrete sotsionicheskikh potentials.
Sotsionicheskie types can serve as the important reference points for a substantiation of diagnostic criteria of boundary psychopathology.
Sotsionichesky the level of research of patients allows to reveal also certain tropizm this or that psychopathological semiology and by that to define(determine) corresponding(meeting) groups of risk.
L and t e r and t at r and:
1. Ushakov G.K.boundary psychological frustration. M.: Medicine, 1987. with. 241-245.
2. Gulenko V.V., A.V.introduction's Good fellows in sotsioniku., 1991.
3. Gulenko V.V., A.V.bas's Good fellows sotsioanaliza., 1991.
4. Aleksandrovsky YU.A.condition mental dezadaptatsii and their indemnification. M.: the Science, 1976, with. 272.
5. Karvasarskij B.D., Tashlykov V.A., Feodors A.P.parit of psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy at treatment of neurosises. L: Sb. Proceedings of scientific research institute it(him). V.M.Bekhtereva, 1986. with. 117-122.
6. Ernst K. Die pszchische Behandlung Schizophrenikranker im der Klinik II Shweis. Arch. Neurol. Pszchiat., 1985. Bd. 136, HI, s.67-74.
Magazine " Sotsionika, mentologiya and psychology of the person ", N 4, 1998.
About consecutive use and activation of corresponding(meeting) personal factors during stage-by-stage psychotherapeutic treatment of boundary psychopathology
The effective resonant psychotherapy of patients with various forms of neurosises is possible(probable) at purposeful influence on corresponding(meeting) functions sotsionicheskikh types of an information metabolism. The role of influence on suggestivnuyu (5-th), aktivatsionnuyu (6-th), intellectual (1-st), creative (2-nd) and other functions at different stages of treatment of boundary psychopathology is considered(examined). Dependence gipnabelnosti from sotsionicheskogo type of the patient is found out. Application of methods sotsioniki raises(increases) efficiency both individual, and group psychotherapy, and reduces terms of treatment.
Keywords: boundary psychopathology, a neurosis, sotsionika, type of an information metabolism, psychotherapy, functions of an information metabolism, gipnabelnost, reduction of terms of treatment
Adequacy and efficiency of psychotherapeutic influence at boundary psychopathology, especially at neurosises, speaks the nature and disadaptatsionnoj essence of these psychogenic frustration where personal orientirovannost makes a pathogenetic basis of treatment. The choice of psychotherapeutic methods should be carried out not by desire of the doctor-psychotherapist, even in view of its(his) experience and a clinical level, and proceeding from a personal warehouse of the patient. The success of treatment, first of all, depends on concurrence suggestivnykh receptions with personal and psikhofiziologicheskimi features of the patient. Thus it is very important to consider and that the inspired information differently is perceived and realized during the different periods of illness. Emphasizing it, V.N.Myasishchev  wrote about necessity of an individualization, a variation of methods of psychotherapy at different stages of treatment, it(he) considered(counted) as a basis of psychotherapy knowledge of the person, its(her) attitudes(relations), its(her) weak weak spots defining(determining) for it(her) by the moment dekompensatsii the party(side) of external conditions. Revealing and an estimation of somatic equivalents of a neurosis is an important point of preparation for system of psychotherapeutic treatment. In this connection words of known psychotherapist S.S.Libikh  are recollected: " Doctors are inclined psikhologizirovat a neurosis, patients - somatizirovat it(him) ".
94 patients surveyed by us with various forms of neurosises during treatment the rational psychotherapy was spent, thus purposeful influence on corresponding(meeting) functions of types of an information metabolism (TIM) was carried out.
By virtue of the certain conditions surveyed were homogeneous on a floor, social conditions and age.
The analysis of clinical supervision has allowed to organize process of individual psychotherapy in view of base personal structures in several consecutive stages, to each of which corresponding(meeting) methods of influence on the painful(unhealthy) person stole up. These methods, being different, were quite often blocked, supplementing each other. Duration of each stage depend on character, weight of disease and effect of spent treatment.
The first stage consist in acquaintance and adjustment of contact of the doctor to patients. The patient-neurotic who has addressed the help, usually from first minutes should be under active influence of the doctor. In this connection the purpose of the given stage was strengthening an arrangement and trust of the patient to the doctor, including installation to it(him) confidence, that to the doctor under force the given disease. Thus inclusion of potential of the fifth function (suggestivnoj) in model of mentality of the patient is expedient. Ocurrence in more productive therapeutic contact to patients(patient) is there and then possible(probable). Here it is necessary to give to it(him) conditions vastly to be uttered before the doctor, having stated the complaints with own assumptions of the reasons of development of disease, that quite often brings some simplification both from the most psychological unloading, and from perception(recognition) of enhanced attention from the attending physician.
At a following stage the basic effort was applied on calm of the patient, reduction of a neurotic pressure(voltage) by training to its(his) critical attitude(relation) to the reasons of emotional instability, fears, alarm, etc.
At all this, supposing, that nevrotizatsiya arises mainly on the basis of weak functions of the personal register (the third adaptable, the fourth mobilization and, quite often, the seventh supervising), is necessary, influencing these functions to calm, "protect" the patient, that enabled it(him) during treatment to believe in own forces that amplifies a positive estimation of the person on the sixth (aktivatsionnoj) functions.
Problem(Task) of the third stage of treatment an accessible explanation to the patient of the reasons and mechanisms of development of its(his) disease. It is important, that the patient showed activity in the consecutive and realized perception(recognition) of the beginning of the disease, precisely revealed its(his) psychogenic character. The maintenance(contents) of illness of patients was better comprehended at use of potential of the first (intellectual) function.
Being guided by opportunities of the first (intellectual) and the second (creative) functions, at the given stage also it is necessary to aspire to find and mark(celebrate) strong positive qualities of the patient, that further strengthening belief in understanding the doctor of its(his) suffering.
At the fourth stage calculated on fastening of psychotherapeutic influence, stabilization excelled by deeper involving of the patient in process of the self-help, use a method autogennoj trainings as method of " symptomatic psychotherapy "  through judgement by it(him) of opportunities of personal self-correction was carried out. Thus stimulation of the register of the first (intellectual) function is expedient.
In the fifth, the final stage, it is necessary to achieve installation on full recover. Here opportunities of the second (creative) and, partly, by the eighth (demonstration) functions of model of mentality of the person were maintained.
Within the limits of individual psychotherapy in most cases by us it was applied gipnoterapiya. In I.V.Strelchuka's opinion, the hypnotic dream is easier caused by influence through that alarm system, which more tormozima in the given patient. Similar law was observed at treatment of our patients: at persons(faces) with tormozimoj the second alarm system nonverbal components have appeared more operating(working) factors during suggestion (monotonous, rhythmic, light, sound, thermal and others razdrazhiteli).
Such types of an information metabolism (TIM) as FR (SEE), SE (SEI), with mainly tormozimoj the second alarm system, gave in to hypnotic influence by means of pure(clean) verbal suggestion more effectively. The formula of suggestion was programmed in view of characteristic potentials of functions in model of mentality of investigated(researched) patients.
Persons(Faces) with TIM RF (ESI) and ES (ESE) made exception because, being, basically, also vtorosignalno tormozimymi, appeared slabogipnabelnymi is more often. On the other hand, such TIM as ET (EIE), RI (EII) without obvious prevalence of this or that alarm system also found out verbal effect (see tab.).
At influence on patients with TIM LI (LII), TP (OR) in connection with tormozimostyu at them the first alarm system as relaksiruyushchikh factors the metronome, the device the "electrodream", a brilliant sphere, thermal razdrazhiteli in a combination to verbal suggestion were applied.
From the table it is visible, that most difficultly giving in to hypnotic influence there were persons(faces) with TIM LI (LII), RF (ESI) (p <0,05) because of what they in the further were exposed narkogipnozu. And the give most in gipnoterapii had appeared TIM RI (EII), ET (EIE) (p <0,05). The opportunity of finishing up to deeper degree of a hypnotic dream (that basically is unessential to treatment) is found out in the majority such TIM as ET (EIE), FR (SEE).
It is necessary to note also, that the so-called "fatherly" variant of suggestion (firm, imperative) was more effective concerning patients-neurotics with TIM ET (EIE), and "parent" (soft, lulling) for patients with TIM RI (EII).
Such TIM as IL (ILE), LF (LSI), FL (SLE), PT (LIE), PS (LSE), SP (SLI) among the given surveyed patients did not meet.
Tab. Distribution of patients with neurotic frustration on gipnabelnosti depending on TIM
TIM Number of patients gipnabelnye slabogipnabelnye
IL (ILE) 0 0 0
SE (SEI) 9 3 12
ES (ESE) 1 4 5
LI (LII) 0 7* 7
ET (EIE) 11* 2 13
LF (LSI) 0 0 0
FL (SLE) 0 0 0
TE (IEI) 1 1 2
FR (SEE) 4 2 6
TP (OR) 0 1 1
PT (LIE) 0 0 0
RF (ESI) 0 6* 6
PS (LSE) 0 0 0
RI (EII) 13* 3 16
IR (IEE) 1 2 3
SP (SLI) 0 0 0
In total 40 31 71
Statistical processing was carried out with application of criteria of signs.
The parameters noted by an asterisk, authentically differed from those the next group (at p <0,05)
If necessary the individual psychotherapy in some cases turned in collective. N.V.Ivanov  emphasized, that work of the patient above itself is supported(maintained), stimulated and enriched with influence of other participants if it gets for it(him) emotional value. At formation of psychotherapeutic collective we were based on the theory intertipnykh A.Augustinavichyute's attitudes(relations). 24 small groups consisting from 23 person have been organized: with mirror attitudes(relations) 11 groups, with attitudes(relations) of addition 6, activation 5, identical 2.
In investigated(researched) collective as a whole appreciably negative psychogenic influence collected deprivatsiej emotionally positively charged dialogue. In other words, the people, deprived opportunities to have close comrades, transfer(carry) psikhotravmiruyushchuyu a situation much more hard. This phenomenon is a subject to independent research.
In A.Augustinavichyute's  opinion, people, having definitely odnostoronne the developed mentality, for normal psikhosomaticheskogo developments sharply require addition of the missing parties(sides) of the person in the form of the partner which would compensate its(his) weak functions strong.
On our supervision, sick of a neurosis, especially arisen because of the mental infantility, temporarily grouped with the therapeutic purpose by a principle of the optimal mutual relations, tested really pleasure of dialogue. Everyone each other mutually favorably induced and is better perceived and comprehended questions of essence and the reason of neurosises, value of personal features in their development, a role of mutual aid in overcoming disease, they also with pleasure in common showed bent for to creative actions of the improving plan. On all extent of inspection and treatment the given patients actively supported(maintained) friendly sympathies.
Psychotherapeutic influence on corresponding(meeting) functions of model of mentality at different stages of treatment sick of a neurosis, mental infantility especially positively affected normalization of a dream, knocking over of feelings of alarm, reduction of emotional intensity, optimization of mood then patients began to be interested actively in accessible entertainments, to make real improving plans for the future. All it together with correction of some forms of behaviour, activation of mental resources promoted improvement of a condition of patients, has reduced the period of full restoration of their working capacity.
From described follows, that the account sotsionicheskikh the neurosises given in clinic enables purposefully to use personal potential of the patient, it is rational to individualize, vary psychotherapeutic receptions, skilfully adjusting(regulating) them, to raise(increase) effect of treatment with the limited quantity(amount) of medical products.
Efficiency of use sotsionicheskikh data in system of psychotherapeutic treatment of patients with boundary psychopathology has affected also in reduction of terms of treatment.
1. Augustinavichyute And. About dual human nature. , MIS. 1997.
2. Vorobejchik Y.N., Litvakova G.I.thes of reports of VII congress of neuropathologists and psychiatrists Ukrainian SSR, a part 2. Vinnitsa. 1984. with. 45.
3. Ivanov N.V.core of a technique of collective psychotherapy of neurosises. // In sb.: Questions of psychotherapy. , 1958.
4. Libikh S.S.psychotherapy and psychology. // In kn.: the Management(Manual) on psychotherapy. Tashkent, "Medicine", UzSSR, 1985. With. 60.
5. Myasishchev V.N.psychotherapy as system of means of influence on mentality of the person with a view of restoration of its(his) health. // In kn.: Psychotherapy at nervous and mental diseases. , 1973. With. 720.
Approaches to diagnostics of depressions in view of a variety of their clinical displays, with presence of atypical forms, are a subject of disputes between representatives of various psychiatric schools. And in some cases (those exceptions which it is more, than rules) the semiology at the concrete patient does not keep within classical descriptions of a depressive syndrome, that any important part from infringements existing at it(him) as - as if "superfluous". Psychotherapists when the same technics(technical equipment) or identical reception "works" at one patient collide(face) with a similar problem also and does not give effect at another; for example, cases in which formula "relax" instead of feeling of rest causes alarm, etc. Here too it is a question not of funny things, and about often meeting difficulties in work, in view of "overlays" of one netipichnosti (clinical character), on another, connected with unusual therapeutic effect.Data of some publications give the basis to assume, that the variety of clinical displays at mental frustration can speak partly distinctions in the psychological types initially described by K.Yungom. Typology YUnga as it(he) specified, " not fiziognomiya and not anthropological classification, and the critical psychology dealing with the organization and delimitation of mental processes which are typical. " On YUngu, distinction between types - in distinction of " movement of mental energy " which is shown both in " installations of mentality ", and in " mental functions ". Mental functions 4: sensorika, intuition, logic and emotions; installations of mentality 2: ekstravertirovannaya and introvertirovannaya. In effect, it is various ways and ways of reception and processing of the information received by the person from the world (in which joins not only world around of subjects, people and the phenomena, but also a private world of the person - its(his) feelings, an idea, sensation, etc.). We shall stop on it(this) hardly more in detail.
ekstravertirovannaya installation is an inductive way of knowledge of the world, from the particular to the general and " from the world to itself ". Introvertirovannaya installation - a deductive method of knowledge - from the general to the particular and " from itself to the world ". YUng emphasizes, that, speaking about distinction of types, it(he) talks about " primary installation of consciousness ", i.e. about more often chosen, more convenient - but not an exclusive method. Each person uses both these(it) installations, but, depending on primary , is the introvert or the extrovert.If installation of consciousness is, so to say, the method of knowledge psychological function is actually a subject of knowledge, that area of the world, kotraya is learnt. If logiika and emotions is, in effect, areas clear sensorika and intuition, perhaps, require some decoding. Area sensoriki - an equipment of the world, intuition - its(his) non-material part. Each of psychological functions can exist as in introvertirovannom a variant (area of knowledge - ideas, feelings, mood, etc. subject of knowledge), and in eksravertirovannom (area of knowledge - phenomena of the objective world). YUng has named intuition and sensoriku functions irrational (on one of hypotheses, filogeneticheski more ancient), and logic and emotions rational (i.e., on the same hypothesis, filogeneticheski newer). The area of each function is described by the specific language, i.e. has own (as a whole - sufficient narrow) a semantic field. In Russian as, however, and in other European languages (I am at a loss to tell how it will be in other languages, and to tell more correctly, in languages of other cultures, with other valuable reference points), the semantic field, quantity(amount) of words for the description of rational functions is more, than irrational. If all world around to describe from the point of view of mental functions (already 8 since everyone exists in ekstra-and introvertirovannom a variant) it will turn out 8 of " information streams " which set gives us krtinu the world. Intensity of these streams, different for each person during any concrete moment of time, in general during a life is approximately identical. However ability to receive the information on the various parties(sides) of the world at people different. If to continue a metaphor 8 of " information streams " in mentality of each person there are 8 "channels" which diameter is distinguished(various) and, hence the information of one "stream" is perceived (YUng pocherkival: " at a level of consciousness ") in full, from another - in smaller (sometimes in some times) degrees. It(this) also differ the friend otdruga various psychological types - a degree osoznavaemosti the information, received by means of various mental functions. So, the psychological type, on YUngu, can be described by the set of primary installation of consciousness most realized, less realized and more or less unconscious mental functions, and also such concept as rationality-irrationality - depending on that is " the leader, the basic ", i.e. the most deduced(removed) in consciousness, mental function rational or irrational. At the description of type YUng considered(counted) as "basic", and "additional", i.e. " also presented enough in consciousness " function "strong enough". Depending on an arrangement of mental functions on an axis conscious-unconscious, i.e. from specificity of gathering and processing of the information, each of psychological types imee a number(line) of the certain features including, including, and a way of presentation of, a manner to keep, a way of the argument, etc. Here is how there will be vyglyadit " areas of research ", so to say, " zones of the responsibility " mental functions (them will be already 8, in pairs introvertirovannyj and ekstravertirovannyj variants).- Introvertirovannaya logic (Ti) , i.e. the course of reasonings, internal logic, in speech is shown by verbal turns(turnovers) of type: " I think; because..., owing to.... ", etc. People with strong Ti demonstratively, consistently argue, as though building the theory in occasion of with what collides(faces).- ekstravertirovannaya logic (Te), i.e. the external logic, rules, schemes(plans), tables, the facts, in speech is shown by verbal turns(turnovers) of type: " it is known, that...; takes place to be...; first- ..., secondly-..... ", etc. People with strong Te precisely describe, list(transfer), refer to known laws.- Introvertirovannye emotions (Fi), i.e. internal emotions, affects, in speech it is shown as an estimation (well - badly), epithets, actually nazyvanie experienced feelings (I love, I am angry, I sympathize, etc.). People with strong Fi brightly express the feelings, well understand both the feelings (emotions), and in feelings of others, slopes to estimate(appreciate) other people, event and subjects by a principle: " it is pleasant - it is not pleasant ".- ekstravertirovannye emotions (Fe), i.e. attitudes(relations) between people, nuances of mutual relations, in speech it is shown as the description of changes of attitudes(relations) occuring(happening) between people, "gossip". People with strong Fe easily come into contact to others, including and unfamiliar, people, are able "to be arranged" under the interlocutor, to look(appear) interested conversation, well understand various shades and nuances of attitudes(relations).- Introvertirovannaya sensorika (Si), i.e. sensations from own body (work of muscles, change of a condition of vessels, work of intestines, taste, a smell, touch, erotic experiences), in speech is shown not so brightly since to this aspect corresponds(meets) a few(a little,little bit) words, as a rule this description of sensations, invoices(textures). People with strong Si it is very good reflektiruyut and describe even the minimal sensations (including pains and parestezii), are very focused on the physical condition at motivation of any actions.- ekstravertirovannaya sensorika (Se), i.e. the external form, a line, movement as moving, will, energy, in speech is shown by verbs of action. The person with strong Se lovok, is vigorous, beautifully moves.- Introvertirovannaya intuition (Ni), i.e. an internal spirit, mood, associations, a melody, "spirituality". Verbal display of this aspect are metaphors, the adverbs, terminating on "about". People with strong Ni it is good reflektiruet thin nuances of mood, speak slowly, figuratively, indistinctly.- ekstravertirovannaya intuition (Ne), i.e. the perception(recognition) of time, potential opportunities of a situation, movement as process, rhythm, in speech is shown by rhythmic repetitions (" both there was an evening, and there was a morning, and there has come(stepped) day "). People with strong Ne well are guided in opportunities, easily represent the future, well plan.On YUngu, the structure of psychological type is those, that if the basic function introvertirovannaya, additional ekstravertirovannaya, if the basic rational additional irrational, the least realized function always will be opposite in pair the rational \irrational basic (the basic - the intuition least realized - sensorika; the basic logic - the least realized - emotions, etc.)Works YUnga on studying psychological types have been continued in the USA by its(his) schoolgirl Briggs and its(her) daughter Briggs-Majers, kotroraya has created a known questionnaire - MBTI. On the basis of ideas YUnga 16 psychological types have been described. The further works of the USA on yungianskoj basically have been directed to typology on the description of characteristic style of behaviour of the various types, obtained data were used, basically, for "vocational guidance" and, in much smaller degree, family kosultirovaniya. In England typology YUnga is used by терапевтими-analysts for more differentiated approach at analytical work with clients (including specificity of perception(recognition) arkhetipicheskikh images). In the USSR based(founded,established) on doctrine YUnga about types "sotsionika" also it is applied basically in vocational guidance and family consultation.But, if for each of psychological types it would be possible to reveal and describe a clinical picture of various mental diseases, that, it is reasonable to assume, that the part "atipy" would become, on the contrary, typical for the certain groups of patients, and it considerably would facilitate diagnostics. It is probable also, that various types on YUngu give some originality of clinical displays of mental diseases. It is a question not that one types are ill(sick) with one illnesses, and others - others, and that any, including mental, disease the person, i.e. the person having the features and, hence, specifically on this illness reacting suffers. The purpose of the present(true) research was check of the stated assumptions in cases of superficial depressive frustration. As at endogennykh depressions the person remains as a whole safe, and current of such depressions in gorazdno to a smaller degree, than at psychogenic diseases, depends on features actually persons, i.e. endogennye depressions "purest(cleanest)" by way of ease of division of symptoms actually illnesses, features of psychological type as structures konstitutsionalnoj, dolichnostinoj, and actually persons, such patients have been taken for the present(true) research.Work was spent on the basis of psychiatric day time hospital TMOP N2 S.-of Petersburg. As object of research served 350 sick (m-162, 188 average vozrast-39л.) With depressions, from headings МКБ-10: bipolar affective frustration (F 31.3, F 31,4), a depressive episode (F 32.0-F 32.2), recurrent depressive frustration (F 33.0-F 33.2), tsiklotimiya (F 34.0), distimiya (F 34.1) pristupoobraznaya paranoidnaya schizophrenia (F 20.01, F 20,02), remittiruyushchaya schizophrenia (F 20.03), postshizofrenicheskaya depression (F 20.04), simple schizophrenia (F 20.06), shizotipicheskoe frustration (F 21) shizoaffektivnyj a psychosis (F 25.1, F 25.2), organic (affective) frustration of mood, bipolar (F 06.31) and depressive (F 06.32), somatizirovannoe frustration (F 45.0). All described below conditions undoubtedly concerned to a spectrum of depressive frustration (" depressive a field " on Smulevichu). An accessory(a belonging) to psychological type it was defined(determined) by the subsequent summation of estimations received 3-мя independent experts(auditeurs) as whom 2 psychiatrists and 1 medical psychologist acted. They bore(took out) the conclusions on the basis of the descriptions resulted(brought) in the literature.In research following laws have noted been. At patients with the affective frustration, belonging to rational types, depressions carried long (i.e. duration more than 6 months) character, frequently initially were rezistentny to traditsionnonoj therapies in dozes usually recommended for a given condition; only in these cases the masked depressions in structure somatoformnykh frustration were marked(celebrated). At the same patients were marked(celebrated) geteronomnye ideas: attitudes(relations), prosecutions, эл-you of delirium Kotara. Obtained data, in effect, correspond(meet) to descriptions Krechmera (later researches have shown, that described at a time YUngom concepts rationality-irrationality and Krechmerom shizotimnost-циклотимность coincide), as well as that at sick of the schizophrenia, belonging to irrational types, current of disease had attributes of step-type behaviour: pristupoobraznoe, recurrent. Patients participated in the further inspection with depressions within the limits of headings МКБ-10 only: F3 and F06. 31-32, not had the expressed SETTLEMENT of All of such patients it has been surveyed 210 chel., on psychological types they were distributed(allocated) as follows (for a designation of type the basic and additional functions are used): NeTi 11SiFe 15TiNe 20FeSi 20TiSe 9FeNi 17SeTi 11NiFe 18NiTe 8SeFi 15TeNi 9FiSe 9FiNe 17TeSi 6SiTe 17NeFi 8 On nozologii patients were distributed(allocated): F 32.0-F 32.1 51 ch. 24,3 %
F 31.3 37 ch. 17,6 %
F 33.0-33.1 31ч. 14,8 %
F 34.0 30 ch. 14,3 %
F34.1 5 ch. 2,4 %
F 06.31 8 ch. 3,8 %
F06.32 49 ch. 23,3 %
Other law was following: the originality of clinic of depression has appeared directly connected with additional function. Existence in a mode of this function for the person as much as possible naturally also demands the minimal expenses of forces and energy, it is an original mode of "autopilot". By results of the lead processing have been allocated (on the basis of what of psychological functions is on additional) following variants.1. Introvertirovannaya logic (Ti) . At depression at such-th (15 from 22 chel.) reflections something, including and own condition came nearer to a level navyazchivostej. Such patients complained of bad mood, how many monotonously not so much, bezemotsionalno spoke about " a bad condition... State of health ", long argued on the reasons of illnesses in general, about the vital difficulties, able to become the reason of illness, etc. as a whole, character of reasonings simulated displays rezonerstva. However, at EPO, were found out only some infringement of purposefulness of thinking (that often meets at depressions) and individual, mosaically scattered in various techniques, cases of actualization of latent properties (i.e. within the limits of norm(rate)), the infringements of thinking typical for schizophrenia, did not come to light.2. ekstravertirovannaya logic (Te). In depression such patients (21 from 25 chel.) were represented ipokhondrichnymi and it is detailed, being fixed on insignificant details, described occuring(happening) with them, appealing to clauses(articles) in honey. Magazines, to transfers TВ, radio. 3. Introvertirovannye emotions (Fi). At this variant (22 from 23 chel.) depressions differed brightness of experiences and a good reflection of nuances of an emotional condition. Patients spoke about grief, grief, melancholy, often cried. For this reason, these cases most of all resembled depressive frustration in classical understanding and the description.4. ekstravertirovannye emotions (Fe). In depression such patients (25 of 33 chel), in comparison with resulted(brought) in other variants, looked(appeared) the least suppressed, kept elements koketstva, demonstrativnosti in behaviour. Their clothes (especially at women) have not been deprived elegance, cosmetics - brightness. Quite often these depressive frustration (so-called " smiling depression ") externally reminded conditions dekompensatsii at isteroidnykh persons.5. Introvertirovannaya sensorika (Si). In depression this group of patients (18 from 26 chel.) showed weight of somatic complaints, at a question of the doctor " And on what complain? " Proceeded transfer of type: " And still sometimes burns down, but it is not strong, under lopatkoj on the right, and still a unpleasant itch in a nose in the mornings ", etc. the Expressed somatic fixing sounded in experiences, pull together these patients with cases from a heading ipokhondricheskikh frustration. They were inclined to the detailed description of the, sensations, that from time to time resembled the description of experiences of patients with senestopatiyami.6. ekstravertirovannaya sensorika (Se). In conditions of depression (14 from 18 chel.) such patients attracted attention expressive plastikoj, clearness and some "rigidity" of movements, each movement as theatrical gesture, in complaints phrases of type " sounded has appeared a barrier..., there is no brightness..., energy ". Made impression pretentious and even a little elaborate, that, in a combination to complaints depersonalizatsionnogo the plan, led to an idea on presence of schizophrenia. Thus, diazepamovyj the test which, according to Y.L.Nullera, is directed on revealing depersonalizatsii (at depersonalizatsii on greater(big) dozes diazepama in \in is not present sedative effect, but, in comparison with a condition of the patient up to an injection, it is marked(celebrated) bolsha brightness of perception(recognition)) was negative (i.e. already 2-4 ml diazepama in \in gave sedative effect), and data EPO did not confirm structural infringements of thinking.7. Introvertirovannaya intuition (Ni). In depression such patients (20 from 26 chel.) spoke it is extremely elaborate, with an abundance of symbols, metaphors, the original description of the condition similar to descriptions of meditative conditions. Their complaints looked(appeared) approximately so: " to Me so it is bad... (Sigh). It something not clear, vague that does not have the name... I do not have words... (Sigh). I as the leaf(sheet) turning in a gloom of uncertainty ". These patients, as well as in the previous variant, made impression sick of schizophrenia. However, distinctly expressed vitalnyj a component, absence of the expressed structural infringements at carrying out EPO during depression, disappearance of the above described features at only and \depressive therapies (3-cyclic and \ñÑ»ÓÑßßá¡Ôá¼¿), allowed to carry these patients to group depressive.8. ekstravertirovannaya intuition (Ne). In depression such patients (31 from 37 chel.) showed alarm in occasion of possible(probable) problems in the future, and the future, instead of the present looked(appeared) gloomy and lost sense. Made impression nevrotizirovannykh persons with presence leading psikhastenicheskogo a radical. At all patients, despite lacking classical components of a depressive triad, and at times and not characteristic for depressions of figure of behaviour, it was marked(celebrated) so-called vitalnyj a component: daily fluctuations, early prosypaniya, unpleasant sensations behind a brest, it is frequent - locks, increase of figures of arterial pressure. At carrying out of antidepressive therapy the condition of patients improved, all or the majority of the above described features, including and such as pretentiousness of speech or plastics, demonstrativnost, monotony, rezonerstvo - were exposed to recourse. Since leader, and, in effect, the basic syndrome, despite of a variety in complaints and behaviour of patients, was depressive, and actually depressive simptomatka caused patients of suffering, we cannot consider(count), that the given patients transferred(carried) depression in a combination with ipokhondricheskim, depersonalizatsionnym, senestopaticheskim, etc. syndromes.Thus, data obtained in work allow to reveal precise enough parity(ratio) between psychological type on YUngu and features of clinic of superficial depressions. It can facilitate diagnostics of depressions at the initial stage and avoid inadequate therapeutic influences. Certainly, there is a difficulty of diagnostics of psychological type of the patient with application of the allocated criteria as they do not establish(install) absolute distinctions, but, however, this position concerns(touches) also other applied diagnostic approaches. At least, the typological division offered by us gives one more opportunity to act on a precept noli nocere.
Sotsionika: from role game to the theory of attitudes(relations) between psychological types
The author of clause(article): Dmitry Aleksandrovich LYTOV The psychologist and the translator from St.-Petersburg, the editor " Sotsionicheskoj newspapers ". The author of a series of publications concerning comparative and experimental typology of the person.El. The address: firstname.lastname@example.org
© Lytov D.A., November - December 2002
© " the Siberian psychological magazine " - Vyp. 18. - 2003. - p. 32-38.
In clause(article) it is considered(examined) sotsionika the theory of forecasting of tendencies of interpersonal attitudes(relations) on the basis of the types of the person opened by Swiss psychiatrist K.G.Yungom. The brief sketch of development of this psychological theory is given. Its(her) basic achievements and difficulties are shined(covered), the reasons of some deviations(rejections) from the methods of research accepted in a science are considered(examined). Possible(probable) ways of the further development are shown.
Keywords: types of the person, interpersonal attitudes(relations), individual distinctions, sotsionika, psychology of the person, YUng.
1. A special niche sotsioniki.
Among set of theories of the person sotsionika takes a special place. For the first time the hypothesis about interrelation between types of the person (in sotsionike them 16) and interpersonal attitudes(relations) is offered. Till now in psychology it was accepted to consider(examine) them as the phenomena not connected among themselves. Having united types and attitudes(relations) in the general(common) object of research, sotsionika has borrowed(occupied) a special niche in the psychological science, till now empty. Earlier only shy attempts were undertaken: for example, hypothesis Ajzenka about attitudes(relations) between temperaments , or Wagner's hypothesis, tried to assimilate types of people to roles of animals in flight (the detailed comparative analysis various tipology persons is resulted(brought) in ). Such unique position has for a long time made sotsioniku impregnable for criticism, sometimes and from criticism quite proved.
In connection with incessant growth of the publications devoted given theory, the author considers necessary to raise the question about the status sotsioniki in psychology. What it kvazinauchnoe the error similar to an astrology, or the theory having under self the real bases? The author offers a sight on sotsioniku "from within" as itself more than 10 years actively participate in development sotsionicheskoj theories, but at the same time, acts and with criticism of its(her) separate positions . It is interesting, that given clause(article) is, probably, one of the first attempts of the critical analysis sotsioniki in the scientific periodical.
In a basis sotsioniki its(her) founder, Lithuanian sociologist Aushra Augusta (a pseudonym; the present(true) surname Augustinavichyute) has put typology of psychiatrist K.G.Yunga on the basis of which a number(line) of known tests Myers-Бриггс [11 is already created, 28], Kirsi [18, 33], etc. Except for them, exist and the "simplified" variants of typology YUnga "psikhogeometriya" S.Dellinger (5 types) , "temperaments" Ajzenka (4 variants) , etc.
Typology YUnga differs from other, first, that considers(examines) mutually compensating features of the person, i.e. such, that development of one means suppression of others. It allows to understand not only internal conflicts of the person, but also in general gives a key to information interchange and actions between people. Secondly, unlike of some others known in psychiatry tipology persons [5, 14, etc.], the types described YUngom, concerns not only to mentally sick or "aktsentuirovannym" to persons, but in an equal measure to healthy people, in its(her) basis classification of people on ways of perception(recognition) and ways of processing of the information .
Distinction of knacks of people and, hence, distinction of psychological types the fact conclusive. The person izmenchiva, is capable to develop and is subject to influence of an environment, but there are also limits up to which it(she) is capable to vary. Sotsionika does(makes) from here the important conclusion: in interhuman attitudes(relations) too there are the limits set by types of the person of participants. « Formulas of universal happiness », offered by some directions of practical psychology the same myth, as a philosophical stone.
On a distant psychological distance of the attitude(relation) can be any; however the more closely dialogue between two people, the cooperate congenital sotsionicheskie types of partners more strongly, to those are more precisely visible them intertipnye attitudes(relations).
Speech in this case goes not about property conflicts, collision of interests, a social inequality, etc. which are inevitable in any society, and more likely about « alarm systems » partners (similar themes that has opened I.P.Pavlov), about their ability adequately to react to signals each other in the form of words or actions.
In what the reason of what up to sotsioniki it was accepted to separate a problem of types of the person from a problem of interpersonal attitudes(relations)? First of all, that typology of the person have arisen not in psychology, and in psychiatry. In fact sereznye deviations(rejections) where are evident, than distinctions between « normal people » more noticeably. Therefore both types of the person, and tests are a heritage of psychiatry. Moreover, till now many of tests applied in psychology sin "psikhiatrizmom" they suggest the person to make a choice between some extreme displays. The healthy person is at all in the middle its(his) mentality is plastic enough, and to describe moving object much more difficultly, than to describe object fallen asleep, broken or gone in cycles on aktsentuatsii.
Therefore many psychological directions in general have refused to study(investigate) types of the person. The accent(stress) is done(made) on other: on « harmonious development » persons, on not which the general(common) for all to a golden mean. Such method too is lawful, however the more we go deep into a problem of individual distinctions the it(he) gives more failures. Here psychologists start to rely on personal experience or on studying of the concrete person. People all different, everyone is in own way unique.
However the science that also differs from craft that is able to generalize repeating phenomena. Clearly, as the psychology is compelled(forced) to give more and more than attention not only to specific features, but also the general(common), repeating phenomena in structure and dynamics(changes) of development of the person.
2. Sotsionicheskie types and attitudes(relations)
The nature of distinction between any still not up to the end is clear to two of 16 types, though practice shows, that types during a life do not vary. The person is capable to simulate behaviour of other types, "to deform" own type, but no more; and each such imitation takes away from it(him) much more forces, than a life in native type. Similar problems well-known to psychologists: a choice not the calling during lives, a "improper" environment, etc.
Apparently, types of the person are caused by genetic factors. The instruction(indication) on it for the first time has been received in E.S.Filatovoj's researches, and sotsionika from St.-Petersburg which with 1991 collects photos of people, whose types it(she) has defined(determined) the psychologist. As a result she(it) had been found out the interesting fact series of doubles inside of each of 16 types .
However appearance only an environment, reflection of a genotype of the person. Only knowledge of a brain and the central nervous system can be an objective criterion of mental parameters. Therefore last years in sotsionike researches of interrelation between parameters of the central nervous system and psychological types [8, 23, 24] are actively conducted.
How in a view of these facts look(appear) intertipnye attitudes(relations)? We shall recollect, that else Sokrat it was asked by a question: what friend is better similar to me (that provides optimum mutual understanding) or distinct from me (that strengths of one supplemented weaknesses of another) . And today in psychology there are similar discussions, including among followers YUnga. In typology Myers-Бриггс Kirsi exists some mutually exclusive hypotheses about intertipnykh attitudes(relations) [compare 9, 18, 33, etc.], the majority of supporters of the given typology at all rejects their existence, assuming, that any type at desire can adapt to any .
In sotsionike the question on "greater" or "smaller" similarity loses sense and is put differently: similarity in what? Distinction in what? One features can be supplementing, others mutually exclusive. Apparently from Table 1, sotsionicheskie types are characterized from the different parties(sides): "temperament" installation on a kind of activity » from the point of view of their efficiency in those or other problems(tasks) describes types in dynamics(changes), and «. For example, "similar" types the intuitively-logic extrovert and the логико-intuitive extrovert very much differ on speed of reaction to irritation, on a degree of internal intensity; as a result it is complex(difficult) enough to them to coordinate(agreee) the actions with each other. At the same time, attitudes(relations) of the intuitively-logic extrovert with the сенсорно-logic introvert represent effective enough interaction at the decision of business problems(tasks). For different kinds of interaction different attitudes(relations) approach(suit).
In home life, according to(agree) sotsionike, the steadiest attitudes(relations) are considered supplementing, or dual (for example, the логико-intuitive extrovert the этико-touch introvert), and is supposed, that for any type exists dual to it(him) other type [4.] is indirect acknowledgement(confirmations) of a hypothesis on advantage of dual attitudes(relations) before the others. Kiev researchers Bukalov, Karpenko, CHikirisova surveyed a number(line) of the industrial enterprises of Kiev. Having reduced together results of testing of employees, they have found out, that many of them are married among themselves. Having investigated(researched) then married couples, they have found out, that the biggest percent(interest) of family attitudes(relations) (more) is necessary than third on a share dual . The independent research of family statistics lead Filatovoj, also has shown very high percent(interest) of dual pairs (17 %) in comparison with other attitudes(relations) .
3. "game" stage of development sotsioniki.
However we shall return in 1970 when Augusta for the first time has generalized the sights at interrelation of types and attitudes(relations) in work « About dual human nature » . It(she) went at once two ways. On the one hand, from compressed yungovskikh characteristics it(she) took the data, concerning(touching) mutual relations between types, their strong and weak fig. For the first time a hypothesis about the phenomena which it(she) has named duality (addition), has been presented still YUngom, as the mechanism of unconscious indemnification between mental functions of types . With another it(she) observed friends, trying to reveal in their behaviour of feature yungovskikh types. Soon around of it(her) there was a circle of adherents with which it(she) discussed the theories. And already then it became clear the theory mentions(touches) too many questions at once that it(she) was mastered by singles. Augusta has addressed for the help to psychologists, including in AN Lithuania. But it(she) has made it during very improper time.
Over those years in the Soviet psychology were dominated with the point of view of school of A.N.Leonteva: « the Person a product of the adaptation by Wednesday » . In works of some psychologists [6,13] such point of view has turned to absolutization of influence of an environment on the person, denying of a role of congenital character traits in formation of the person. The past per 1970-80 some psychological discussions under the theory of the person (it is detailed they are considered(examined) in ) have shown, that the official science quite supports(maintains) such point of view. Despite of it, owing to B.G.Ananeva's active position  and of some other researchers, it was possible to draw attention to close, but all not to an identical problem of individual distinctions. However a revenge of an official science was that the problem of " types of the person » still was considered as a problem of psychiatry, instead of psychologies. Interpersonal attitudes(relations) were considered(examined) in the Soviet psychology only and exclusively from the point of view of social factors .
Attitude(Relation) AN of Lithuania to works Augusty can be named rather liberal they have been deposited with library AN. There is an example for comparison: in 1979 to E.V.Chernosvitov and A.A.Zvorykin also have offered the typology of the person on the basis of yungovskikh types. Result: their researches have been forbidden, the methodical grant(manual) created by them  has got in the category « for service using », and the circulation of the book prepared by them has been destroyed. The reason: they had been mentioned(touched) a question on communication(connection) of types of the person with predisposition to criminal behaviour or to a management(manual). Clearly, as other researcher, concerned(touched) problems of types of the person, inevitably should mention(touch) questions of practical application of typology, i.e. enter into area of knowledge, which authority considered(counted) forbidden.
At such position scientific discussion with psychologists or experts from allied industries to take place simply not could: only incidentally supporters sotsioniki participated with reports in the scientific conferences, devoted to questions of family, the person, etc. the Theory was not completed, however for its(her) end Auguste and to its(her) supporters there was no either forces, or special knowledge, especially means. There was a real danger of that the idea mismatching a general line of the Soviet psychology, will be pushed, and through pair tens years is anew open already in a foreign science. Precedents in the Soviet science was enough.
Therefore Augusta and its(her) supporters have gone(send) on not trivial step. It(he) can be condemned, they can admire, but in that situation at them it was not simple a choice. Sotsionika has turned to fascinating role game, or role training. Types of the person have received easily remembered pseudonyms (Don Kikhot, Hamlet, Balzac, etc.). In fact such terms as the intuitively-logic extrovert, do not cause any associations; the pseudonym Don Kikhot causes a bright, alive image. In such kind materials on sotsionike have started to be published in popular editions (magazines and newspapers) since 1980 [31, etc.] . Here any more there was no risk of criticism or pressure from an official science: the word "game" was not perceived in it(her) vserez. On the other hand, such step has soon brought results: the charter from dry and dogmatic Soviet psychology, readers were willingly ready to accept « psychology with a human face », let even in such simplified kind, in the form of game. To not use in the beginning of 1990th at us such popularity there were casually translation works of Bern, Bendlera, Grindera, etc., offered, as a matter of fact, too not that other, as game methods.
At the first stage it was possible to formulate in general bases sotsionicheskoj theories. A number(line) of hypotheses (including about additional attributes of types « attributes Rejnina » [20 and references(links) there], about intertipnykh attitudes(relations), about model of types of the person so-called Model And ) has been formulated. Owing to a series of popular publications it was possible to draw attention of the big number of potential supporters those who has continued to develop sotsioniku already at the second stage.
4. Blossoming of the theory or « logic superstition »?
From the beginning of 1980th numbers(lines) of supporters sotsioniki constantly replenished with enthusiasts both in good, and in bad sense of this word. The majority of them psychologists were not more likely on the contrary, it were people, on a personal example realized, is how much complex(difficult) at times there is a problem of interpersonal attitudes(relations). They frequently did not imagine, what discussions stormed at that time in the Soviet psychology, and compensated it to that have introduced in sotsioniku methods of other branches of a science: mathematicians(mathematics), physicists(physics), biology. These methods were applied mostly by analogy.
In it(this) it is easy(light) to see only the negative party(side) if to forget about told in the beginning of clause(article): psychologies as air, strict formal methods were necessary. Not casually psychology as a science was generated only in XIX century before similar questions were completely in the competence of religion. Therefore even itself YUng on which typology of the person leans(bases) sotsionika, serezno doubted that methods of strict sciences primenimy of psychology. But already at its(his) life have occured(happened) sereznye changes: the psychology has started to pass from supervision and the description of psychological phenomena to revealing their biological nature, to studying nervous system of the person and a brain . Now problems of individual distinctions cannot be investigated(researched) in otryve from problems of psychophysiology [24, 25]. Therefore it is not casual from the middle of 50th Methods of the exact sciences are used in psychology all more often, not casually one of founders of experimental psychology of G.Y.Ajzenk (whose "temperaments" also are based(founded,established) on typology YUnga ) has come to psychology from physics.
Methods of the exact sciences have helped(assisted) sotsionike to generate its(her) terminology, its(her) language, its(her) conceptual system, have defined(determined) its(her) interrelation with other disciplines. But it was necessary and to pay off for it: in fact the analogy, as is known, proves nothing, it(she) only illustrates maloizuchennoe the phenomenon on an example of another, well-known. Without deep understanding of the phenomenon the analogy can not help(assist) to open it(him), and on the contrary to withdraw far aside.
Itself Augusta during this period in connection with illness gradually departs from active researches. Meanwhile, new adherents sotsioniki conduct active work on comparison of its(her) hypotheses by that has already been saved up(has already been collected) in a science: both in psychology, and in allied industries. Ignorance of specificity of work of the psychologist has resulted(brought) the some people in deceptive sensation that it is necessary to introduce only in sotsionicheskuyu the theory methods of the exact sciences as all other psychology becomes simply unnecessary.
It is possible to consider(count) as the basic result of the given period logic development of all stated in sotsionike hypotheses, and also research of their compatibility among themselves, and also with other known psychological theories (V.V.Gulenko's works , etc. last has created A.V.Bukalova in Kiev the International institute sotsioniki). A number(line) of far-reaching hypotheses has been put forward: for example, about an opportunity to describe in terms of typology of the person not only people, but also a macrogroup (the nation, political movements). Groups of supporters sotsioniki arise in all large cities USSR (later the CIS).
Underside of such blossoming sotsionicheskoj it has appeared theories its(her) almost full otryv from practice, from experiments: the hypotheses offered everything, there was nobody to check them and there is no time. In itself logic harmony of idea (sometimes imaginary) already was for the author its(her) best proof. The most widespread tendency of that time consisted in substitution of terms "hypothesis" or "concept" terms "theory", "opening" or even "law" that else itself YUng named « intellectual superstition » . It is characteristic, that else in the end of 1980th about disturbing tendencies of development sotsioniki its(her) known theorist G.A.Shulman  warned.
From the beginning of 1990th sotsioniki start to teach the theory and to be engaged in consultation. Carry of methods of the exact sciences to psychology has resulted(brought) Augustu and a number(line) of other researchers in belief, that sotsionika at all has no attitude(relation) to psychology is « a separate science », with the paradigm, the object of research [4, 9]. In the further such sight had also a material reason: not possessing psychological formation(education), sotsioniki could not conduct psychological consultation: for this purpose also it was required to present sotsioniku as something other.
The reality, however, spoke about other: sotsionika investigated(researched) for a long time known problems in psychology, simply solved their unknown earlier methods. Therefore already from the beginning of 1990th attempts of rapproachement with classical psychology, and this time much more successful renew. Sotsionika admits a direction psychology [6, 25], instead of « a separate science ». As a result of active counter interest it has appeared possible(probable) to begin development of a question on scientific verification of some sotsionicheskikh hypotheses, in particular about intertipnykh attitudes(relations) . Nevertheless, for the majority sotsionikov « the second wave » it has appeared excessive to execute unique (and quite justified!) the requirement of psychologists: to carry on dialogue with us, familiarize with our language, our problems, do not try to sweep aside as useless everything, that by us it has been created till now. Representation about sotsionike as to " a separate science » has appeared the convenient form of leaving(care) from discussion with psychologists.
In 1984 in the USSR for the first time has been published a sketch about the American typology Myers-Бриггс . Not having created as it was specified above, the uniform concept mezhtipnykh attitudes(relations), American tipovedy, nevertheless, have achieved a national recognition of their typology (to the beginning of 1990th the test Myers-Бриггс has passed(has taken place) more than 3 million person), have far promoted in research of behaviour of types of the person and conflicts between them. At the first impression the American typology has seemed almost "double" sotsioniki in a number of sotsionicheskikh publications [26, etc.] the American designations are used in parallel with sotsionicheskimi. However, since the middle of 1990th everyone are more often marked(celebrated) divergences between two theories, both theoretical, and practical character down to different representations about, apparently, " same" types [9,16, etc.]. At last, per 2001 has been lead experiment with the purpose to measure a difference between both theories .
In general, the second stage can be characterized as a stage of creation of the hypotheses not always supported by the facts, and it is frequent and " mutually confirming" each other. On the other hand, researchers "have groped" potential sotsioniki, have outlined limits of its(her) competence and have created uniform terminology, however development of potential only has begun: many simply did not know, how. At the same time, there was a risk of disintegration uniform sotsionicheskoj theories on a number(line) of the directions partially denying results each other . Disputes between them in what did not result(bring): how it is possible to criticize ideas which cannot be proved or denied which are based(founded,established) only on personal opinions of their authors?
Owing to inflow of supporters in sotsioniku the actual knowledge base about types of the person, more truly, about their representatives grew also. At the same time, all sights at types at different authors that reduces value, at least, parts of the saved up(the saved) data more differ.
From the beginning of 1990th the quantity(amount) of publications on sotsionike accrues(increases) avalanchely. Last years the sections devoted sotsionicheskoj of typology, are included in a number(line) of textbooks of psychology for high schools [21, 22, etc.]. To sotsionike and interest grows in foreign psychology [34, 35]. But together with admiration because, that methods sotsioniki everyone are more perfected and improved, that its(her) terminology all more becomes complicated, the disappointment grows in their environment(Wednesday) isolation sotsionicheskikh concepts from the facts also, and it is even more sereznymi disagreements between sotsionicheskimi directions. The main thing, that the uniform, conventional technique of definition sotsionicheskikh types during this period and have not developed, that is why results of different directions frequently contradicted each other.
As the protest against isolation sotsionicheskoj theories from practice in sotsionike there was also its(her) "household", nobody written down, but a version having wide circulation with a lot(plenty) of stereotypes and myths. The basic features « household sotsioniki »:
Collateral factors (appearance, predisposition to the certain sort of activity) cover the psychological maintenance(contents) of types since are "visible", well appreciable and remembered;
Carry of one bright, remembered feature on all type or even on group of types (for example, emotsionalnost it is treated by others as exclusive feature of type the этико-intuitive extrovert);
Abusing a hypothesis about "subtypes" and "masks" for the justification of doubtful results of definition of types;
Carry of concept « sotsionichesky type » on any character trait of the person;
« sotsionizatsiya realities »: attempt to see action of laws sotsioniki practically in any phenomenon of a human life. Carry of methods of other sciences to psychological researches has returned a boomerang: if it is possible so, means, it is possible and on the contrary!
Perfectly realizing all imperfection sotsionicheskoj theories, psychologists, nevertheless, understood, that the problem of interrelation of individual distinctions and interpersonal attitudes(relations) should be solved . Those have joined them from sotsionikov who on a personal practice of consultation was convinced of necessity of deep mastering by the psychological theory and practice also. Some of them, still yesterday assured(confident) that application of mathematical and physical methods the mortgage of the decision of psychological problems, subsequently have received the second, psychological formation(education), and even have protected dissertations on psychology.
So the third stage sotsioniki a stage of experimental researches has begun. However, a number(line) of known researchers-социоников and until now are on the second or even the first stage.
5. Transition to experimental researches.
As it was already spoken, sotsionicheskaya the theory has put at once too much sereznykh questions. The small group of researchers was capable "to grope" only ways to their decision, but to not solve. Therefore its(her) division into a number(line) of the problems connected with each other has begun with the beginning of 1990th and assumptions, each of which demanded independent research.
First a problem of the nature of types of the person. Despite of a number(line) of the facts which as though speak well for the genetic nature sotsionicheskikh types, only large-scale experimental check will help(assist) to establish(install) finally: whether types are stable and constant, whether can vary eventually; whether types are set by structure of nervous system, whether impressions of the person, its(his) education, its(his) experience.
Secondly a problem of criteria of definition of types of the person. Harmonous with a kind sotsionicheskaya the model of type becomes vulnerable when speech comes about the nature yungovskikh attributes. Only hypothetically each of them divides set of types strictly in two. Studying really existing in sotsionike representations about types and attributes gives a little bit other picture: sotsionicheskie types are the areas which have been snatched out from set of all possible(probable) character traits; and these areas can hook partly each other, cross each other, and can and be from each other so far, that between them there are also empty places which to one type you will not carry. Attributes of types is as it is artificial the poles chosen in this set, and in relation to them different types can be "more close" or "further". Besides, there is a problem of types, is equally far being from both poles.
Differently, in practice sotsionika can serezno recede from logically harmonous model offered Augustoj. Necessity of entering « amendments on practice » frightens what representations were late at the second stage.
Thirdly, a problem of the nature mezhtipnykh attitudes(relations). In many respects it(she) is connected with a problem "unconscious" which is investigated(researched) in psychology is not better at all, despite of prevalence of the given term.
There is also a set of other problems, but main from them (and for any theory of psychological types, and not just for sotsioniki) there is that different psychologists "see" the same types a little differently. When the psychologist defines(determines) psychological type of the client by means of the test(dough) or interview, its(his) work reminds something work of the doctor; but the doctor, as a rule, well imagines a structure of internal bodies of the patient, the psychologist cannot open a cranium of the client and glance inside; but even if will glance is to it(him) will tell nothing about psikhotipe the client. The psychologist, unlike the doctor, does not have unequivocal material criteria of branch of one type from another. For this reason any theory of psychological types can be accused of subjectivity; did not become exception and sotsionika.
Clearly, that the further development sotsioniki was possible(probable) only under condition of introduction in it(her) of experimental methods of research. It was necessary to subject to check of a hypothesis and the concepts created at the first and second stages; besides it was necessary and to save up(collect) enough of data that from guesses to pass to the facts.
Let's bring preliminary results. It is already possible to do(make) the confident assumptions about genetic zadannosti sotsionicheskikh types, and also about real existence mezhtipnykh attitudes(relations) between them. Researches which should confirm or deny stability or variability of various characteristics of the person, and also their communication(connection) with sotsionicheskimi types are conducted. In 2001 V.L.Talanov has offered the test, which purpose to check up, whether is valid yungovskie attributes (sensorika intuition, ekstraversiya introversiya, etc.) are bipolar oppositions, or each of poles can exist independently . On the other hand, it is necessary to recognize: the methodology of scientific research in sotsionike still is not fulfilled up to perfection.
It is not necessary to forget and about one problem: theoretically, the theory mezhtipnykh attitudes(relations) can be constructed and on the basis of others, not yungovskikh types. If under this other typology there will be a sufficient theoretical and actual base, it(she) can supersede sotsioniku for ever.
St.-Petersburg, 4.11.2002 5.12.2002.
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TRAININGS of PERSONAL GROWTH ON THE BASIS OF SOTSIONIKI
(On materials of the report at XIX International conference on sotsionike)
In clause(article) results of carrying out of trainings of personal growth on the basis of sotsioniki " In a mirror sotsioniki " which took place in 2003 in club of practical psychology the Tuning fork, Kiev are described in the form of the report. Also some conclusions and hypotheses on practical application sotsioniki for the decision of various psychological problems(tasks), and also the further plans on development applied sotsioniki are presented.
First of all, it would be desirable to rise on protection of psychology. Sometimes in социоников environment the idea that psychologists know nothing sounds in this or that form and are not able, and their methods are inefficient in a counterbalance to the powerful mathematical device sotsioniki. Not belittling merits sotsioniki, all the same it would be desirable to remind that, first, sotsionika itself has arisen on the basis of psychology, in particular on empirical data of psychoanalyst K.G.Yunga. And secondly, now in psychology there are many efficient techniques which use for the real help to people, especially in new directions of psychological practice. Applications(statements) for inability of present psychology to solve speak real problems(tasks) more likely about some lack of information of authors of such applications(statements).
One of such effective methods are trainings personal growth which for today are spent practically in everyone more or less large city. For short term trainings allow to make oshchutimyj jump in personal development. First of all it occurs(happens) because in trainings there is an opportunity to include styles of work of participants and their interactions on ALL aspects of the information (unlike usual rates where the logic of systems prevails). Such multidimensional influence allows to understand and accept the information from the trainer practically to any participant, irrespective of it(him) TIMa.
Why sotsioniku, as a rule, till now teach classically, all in the same traditional aspect of white logic? This question began to spend in a basis of idea sotsionicheskie trainings. One of a variant of trainings such managed author's training personal growth " In a mirror sotsioniki ", for the first time lead in March-June, 2003 in a Kiev, in Club of practical psychology the Tuning fork. About it(him), and also about other ideas sotsionicheskikh trainings also it will be told below.
By the basic purpose of training " In a mirror sotsioniki " it is put not only, and not how many studying sotsioniki, how many the decision of those or other personal problems(tasks) by means of sotsioniki in the form of training.
Therefore the accent(stress) is done(made) on that information, and those methods sotsioniki which can really help(assist).
Problems(Tasks) which thus can be solved on training:
· Knowledge of, strong and weaknesses, the opportunities and restrictions, and ways them to bypass;
· The sanction of internal contradictions and purchase of integrity, the coordination of values inside of itself and with world around;
· Vocational guidance, choice of work;
· Understanding of the reasons of occurrence of conflicts between people and, as consequence(investigation), reduction of conflicts or their successful sanction;
· The choice of the partner in life, skill to distinguish(recognize) dual signals to cooperate,
· And others.
Training consists of 12 employment(occupations) for 4 hours which are spent weekly. The theoretical information the minimum is given, thus whenever possible special terms are replaced with most close analogues, clear to participants. Everything, that is possible(probable), moves in the form of practical exercises on which participants can check up offered statements. For example:
· First four employment(occupations) is a studying aspects as those or other conditions of a body and mentality (the basic ideas are taken from );
· Premise(Room) of participants in small groups according to their hypothesis TIMa (kvadry, groups of brain storm, reviznye rings, dual or disputed pairs and so on);
· The task of game situations in which ways of behaviour of participants as much as possible brightly reveal;
· Modelling of possible(probable) variants of change of a life of participants, and check all over again within the limits of training, and then in a life.
As a matter of fact, on training the small model of a society, with set of various situations in which participants can see own reactions is created. " In a mirror sotsioniki " to understand their true reasons, to find optimum decisions of tasks in view, and then to apply in the present(true) life.
Some words about definition TIMa.
For a basis V.D.Ermaka's  consisting of two steps the approach has been taken:
1. Construction of a hypothesis about model TIMa observable.
2. Verification (check) of a hypothesis.
Thus the basic attention is given the second step to verification of a hypothesis. If on construction of a hypothesis the maximum of 3-4 employment(occupations), on its(her) check all remained training is given. Participants are trained to concern closely(attentively) and cautiously to definition TIMa, in fact at times it can turn(turn over) to the person its(his) all life. Criterion of true in this case becomes that, how much received variant TIMa helps(assists) the person with the decision of those or other real problems(tasks), how much(as far as) the person becomes more complete and happy to what "unscientific" it seemed sotsionikam-логикам.
As exercises for creation of those or other situations exercises from the ß¿¡Ô«¡-program , NLP , databases of psychological exercises (development of club the Tuning fork), from experience Bukalova and Karpenko, and also from own experience have been taken. The given exercises were used or as situational problems(tasks) with the subsequent sotsionicheskim the analysis, or, after the certain adaptation, as direct training sotsionicheskikh aspects or "prorolling" of energy on functions of model And.
On training figures, potokovye records are widely used, game situations, and also a video shooting that allows is volumetric to look at many problems(tasks). One of the most successful exercises for the decision of vital problems(tasks) is " the Alive model ", adapted under sotsioniku from exercise "Sculpture" . Here participants become the friend for the friend " alive model ", evidently showing "author" work of its(his) mentality. Complex(difficult) mechanisms of work of associations and subconsciousness therefore exercise works even for skeptically nastroenykh participants are involved in exercise, surprising them by a seeming mysticism. However, thin work always seems mysticism to those who is not familiar with the laws laying in its(her) basis.
As a rule, participants already on 3-4-ое employment(occupation) define(determine) the TIM, in the further the hypothesis varies seldom. It is reached(achieved) because on the first employment(occupations) aspects of the information are very deeply studied(investigated), not only and it is not so much in the form of the theory, how many in practice, through a body, emotions. In this case participants can estimate(appreciate) and compare the reaction to influence of different aspects, and from here up to a conclusion on values and force of functions one step (see the description of a method ).
Quite often conclusions on TIMu surprise participants. For example, one of participants ESI (m.), has informed the following: " I did not think, that at me strong ethics. Has decided to try(taste) in situations on a life to operate(work) through ethics of attitudes(relations) it has turned out easily. "
Some participants start to reflect on correctness of a choice of a trade. For example, representative TIMa ESE works as the bookkeeper, on employment(occupation) on vocational guidance with simplification has recognized, that it never was pleasant to it(her), it(she) with pleasure would work in show business. Have played in " the Big business " where each participant chose and worked in favourite business. Who knows, maybe, we still we shall see our heroine on a stage!
Pleases, when after passage of training people concern to and another's "lacks", simply having recognized them as features of the person more easy. Even disputed and reviznye attitudes(relations) smooth out, when people start to consider specificity of attitudes(relations) in interaction.
Certainly, on training there are also complexities. On employment(occupation) on logic of systems (during sketches of various tables) has on the sly started to become ripe the conflict when participant ESI tried to find out, " what for this all is necessary ". All became complicated TIMom the leader ILE. Fortunately, the leader managed to make impossible to convince the konfliktera. For this purpose it was necessary " to rise in literal sense on a head ", carefully selecting words on business logic and strong-willed sensorike (and then some days to restore the lost energy). But the result was impressing for all group, evidently shown to an opportunity sotsioniki.
And toward the end some examples of interesting statements of participants:
EIE (.): " To kill all enemies, and then to introduce humanism ".
IEI (.), in exercise when were formed kvadry, after visiting of I-th kvadry: " to Me have told, that there was a natural selection, and I have left ".
LIE (.): " Certainly, divorce is impossible, but that absolutely it is impossible... "
SEI (m.), to the konflikteru in exercise where the joint trip on island was discussed: " If we with you also shall go together to have a rest, on different islands ".
Practice has shown, that within a week of a condition-aspects are a little forgotten, and to compare them among themselves already difficultly. Therefore these employment(occupations) will be spent in the form of intensiva (Saturday and Sunday for 8-10 hours). The second purpose of carrying out of employment(occupations) in the form of intensiva is to enable nonresident to take part(participate) in training, in fact to arrive to Kiev on target once a month much easier, than to go every week at 4 o'clock. For nonresident participants there will be an opportunity to pass(take place) all training in the form of intensivov.
The second supervision sotsionicheskie is practically unreal to spend exercises in groups less than 12-16 person.
For attraction of the people far from sotsioniki, training " I it I is spent! Or how to be happy ". It(he) also is constructed on the basis of sotsioniki, but the theory in it(him) practically is not present. On the termination(ending) of training participants can go on sotsionicheskie trainings (and also to study(investigate) sotsioniku under books, on rates and other) already osoznanno.
THE LIST OF THE LITERATURE
1. Gulenko V.V.structurally functional sotsionika: Development of a method of combination theory polyarnostej. K.: transport of Ukraine, 1999.
2. Ermak V.D.classification?.. Typology
Identification!.. Dnepropetrovsk:: Sotsionicheskie readings, №10 (31) 1999
3. N.I.base's goats training (Синтон-2000, the first учебно-training rate) . M.: Sinton, 2000.
4. Lyubimov A.Masterstvo kommunikatsii.-M.: Sinton, 1997.
5. Vasilchishin I.N.methodical of the recommendation on carrying out of training "Transformation", club the Tuning fork, 2003.
6. Careful N.V.Sotsionika in prostokvashino. K.: Sotsionika, mentologiya and psychology of the person, №2, 2003
SO-CALLED PROKOFIEV, A. E. KNYAZEV
Administrative consultation and the sotsionicheskiy analysis of the associations
Control of personnel as the special form of administrative activity at the given moment survives explosion. The increasing requirements for the personnel lead to the fact that the companies are given to the cadre services, to their formation, instruction, to equipment increasingly more attention and means. And in this situation it is very important to draw those means, which can give contemporary scientific knowledge, in particular, sotsionika for achievement of the stated goals.
Sotsionika in recent years finds increasing use with selection and arrangement of personnel. From the simple determination of sotsionicheskikh types it goes deeply into the analysis of the structure of the association, are conducted practical works and studies on the introduction of sotsionicheskogo analysis into the cadre management. The knowledge of the typological special features of man makes possible for leader to psychologically competently lead the association, charging to each colleague that work, in the fulfillment by which it is most effective. Sotsionicheskiy analysis makes it possible to also consider interactions between the colleagues - intertipnye relations, which give the possibility to previously foresee the trends of development of interrelations in the association and to avoid the growth of conflicts. Sotsionika gives also great advantage with the use of procedures of the construction of effective commands.
The existing methods of sotsionicheskogo analysis make it possible to determine the integral type of the association, and it means its potential predisposition to the solution of various problems. Taking this into account it is possible to select the most effective operating mode for the association, to isolate communicative special features. Naturally, having these data for the real association, it is possible on the basis of analysis to give out practical recommendations relative to that, how this a association it corresponds to its purposes, what actions must be produced so that it would most effectively accomplish the tasks assigned to it. In this case start the solutions, to leave the association in the constant composition, to reorganize its, after redistributing responsibilities, to accept into the association of new colleagues, to transfer the existing colleagues into other subdivisions, and it can be, necessary to reseat some colleagues into the different accomodations so that they would less traumatize each other in the case of unfavorable intertipnykh relations.
The school of sotsioniki in Moscow conducts work on administrative consultation, beginning from 1996. For the basis for developing the procedure the data were undertaken from the book v. V. gulenko "management of the coordinated command" [ [ 1 ] ]. With processing of results on the operation the need for finishing these procedures, improving appeared. We introduced additions into the procedure, being oriented toward the wishes of the leaders of companies, they exerted efforts for its optimization so that our work would be more effective, and its results were intelligible and accessible for the client.
Three ago procedure acquired that form, which it has at present, and under it was developed the computer program system, which makes possible for us to rapidly and error-free accomplish those calculations, which earlier we made by hand. This system it developed in. V. Prokofiev. Program makes possible for us to calculate the psychological climate of the association taking into account intertipnykh relations, its attitude to the process or to the result, the internal atmosphere and the relation to the external environment, ideological values, motivation to the activity, the style of contact, orientation to the form of activity, stressoustoychivost', integral type and so on. I.e., all those basic moments, which must be considered with the management by the association.
At the output of the work of program we obtain a number of tables with the data of the produced calculations, which we then analyze. In this case we correlate design data with those tasks, which stand before the division or before the subdivision, we make conclusions about the correspondence of the association to stated problems.
If the association corresponds to its tasks, then we give recommendation as it to more effectively govern, as it is better to stimulate it to the activity, to justify colleagues, in what style with it to interact. As to refine the tasks of the association, if this does be required, is expedient to enlarge it, it is necessary to seat apart colleagues on the different rooms - such can be, if the association as a whole is good, but some intertipnye relations introduce stress or they interfere with work.
But if we see that the association, does not approach for solution of problem, then we look, what recommendations it would be expedient to give to the leader: it can be someone to add into the association, to look still colleagues perhaps someone to transfer into another division - if colleague in principle arranges, but he does not approach under the tasks of precisely this association.
Now and then it is, that the effective solution, prompted by sotsionicheskim analysis, requires practically no expenditures and easily it is implemented. For example, sometimes in practice are encountered the cases, when two introvertov they plant at the tables opposite each other. And had they the most favorable relations, for the people this is simple catastrophe, and people complain, simply nearly they cry, that it is intolerably on eight hour daily to look to each other into the person. In that case it is possible to advise, for example, to transpose furniture to differently or partition room by cabinet.
Each time further recommendations go already along the place taking into account those data, which we obtained.
This article is dedicated to the procedure of sotsionicheskogo analysis based on the example of our work in one of the bank organizations: During the first stage was carry ouied sotsionicheskaya diagnostics of all colleagues of organization. Then divisions as a whole are analyzed and detailed report was written for each division. Report includes both the analysis of the state of the association from the point of view of sotsioniki and conclusions and recommendations, directed toward an increase in the effectiveness in the work of division. In this article let us examine as examples our reports about the sotsionicheskom analysis of two divisions: "division from the work with the clients" and the "division of currency control".
"division from the work with the clients"
Into the tasks of this subdivision enter sale of bank products, negotiating, attraction of clients, the skill to speak, to associate, to convince client of the fact that this product is necessary to client, and is natural, the skill to sell this product.
Table 1 gives initial data subdivisions with the indication of their sotsionicheskikh types for the calculations in the form of the list of colleagues. Further all tables are the results of computer processing of these data.
Table 2 presents the intertipnye relations between the colleagues, in Table 3 they are grouped according to the degree of comfort.
Table 1. Composition of the association
в Post TIM
1 Department head Iee
2 Substitutes head of the department ILE
3 Chief for administration for work with the clients SEI
4 Substitutes head cont. from the work with the clients - head of the division of sales Iee
5 Substitutes head cont. from the work with the clients OR
6 Specialist of the division of sales SLI
7 Division head of tracking the clients ESE
8 Substitutes head of the division of tracking the clients ESE
9 The key personnel of the division of tracking the clients LEAHS
Table 2. Intertipnye relations in the association
TIM ILE SEI ESE ESE LEAHS OR Iee Iee SLI
ILE # D Ak Ak Ze Pp Rho Rho PD
SEI # Ze Ze Ak Se PD PD Rho
ESE # T D K > Z > Z > k
ESE # D K > Z > Z > k
LEAHS # Kt > k > k > Z
OR # M M De
Iee # T D
Iee # D
Table 3. Quantity of the intertipnykh relations
Comfortable Quantity Neutral Quantity Stressed Quantity
Identity of (T) 2 Order В (> H) 5 Control В (> k) 4
Dual В of (D) 5 Business В (De) 1 Conflict В (k) 2
Activation В (Ak) 3 Mirage В (m) 2 Superego В (Se) 1
Specular В (Ze) 3 Pay-off В (Pp) 1
Poludual'nye В (PD) 3 Quasi-identity В (Kt) 1
Related (Rho) 3
Altogether 36, of them: 16 13 7
In the association predominate the favorable intertipnye relations (relation in kvadre and poludual'nye, in all - 16), which lead to a good mutual understanding, the mutual backing, the invigoration of the activities, the exchange of ideas. Psychologically unfavorable relations are the small percentage (conflict, control, superego, in all - 7).
Conclusion: Predominance in the association of favorable and neutral relations well affects the work of the association. In the association there are no colleagues, in whom there would be chiefly negative relations. Thus the association is well selected by the intertipnym relations, in it they be absent the pole of tension.
Table 4 presents the calculation of psychological climate. Different psychological climate is suitable for the different purposes of the associations.
Table 4. Psychological climate in the association
Attitude of the association Formulas for the calculation Marks
The rescue party De+Pd+(Z+Of k)/2 8,5
Research command T+Ze+Pp+Kt 7
Warm company D+Ak+K+Se 11
Educational association Ro+M+(Z+Of k)/2 9,5
As can be seen from table the association first of all is "warm company" (11 marks) in which must be added the comfortable psychological atmosphere, preferable for the division from the work with the clients. It is good for creating the favorable climate both for the colleagues and for the clients. Coming into the "warm company", client feels himself comfortably and comfortably, he wants to come here still and still. In this case this association - this is not simple the company, which does not work, is not carried out job, but tea drinks. "warm company" is disposed to the contact - not only between themselves, but also to the contact with the client. Even relations of conflict in this case here do not interfere, since these are the socially significant relations: "warm company" is oriented to that in order to represent face of its company before the client in the social plan, which is especially valuable.
Second on the significance attitude of the association (9,5 marks) - the "educational association" (9,5 marks). Under the action of educational relations occur the personal growth of man, the training, the making of a personality. This association rather is suitable for the educator, educational associations. But when adult people, colleagues, educate each other - this is the heavy atmosphere. For the school, kindergarten or treningovoy company, directed toward the personal increase, this must be well, while - it is not completely necessary for the client division: if colleagues undertake to educate client, it simply will leave from them. But if not they are educate client, then they will begin to educate each other, that it does not contribute to favorable atmosphere in the association.
Other two attitude are represented more weakly, they compose 8,5 and 7 marks. This is the respectively "rescue party", which best anything is suitable for direct work, for the production process, and the "research command", which is suitable for developing the new ideas, for the consideration, for a brainstorm.
Conclusion: That is positive factor, in the association predominates attitude to the "warm company", this helps to support favorable atmosphere for the clients, that also is the first priority task of this division. By track go two attitude: the "educational association" and "rescue party". Desirably so that in this association on the second on the significance there would be attitude to the "rescue party", but not to the "educational association". The difference in the marks between these two attitude is small, so that this does not render large negative effect. The fact that in the association attitude to the "research command" occupies last place, is also positive factor, since from this association it does not be required any serious improvements of the style of work, planning and development, search for new forms.
From the parameters indicated this division in essence corresponds to those expectations, which are laid on it.
Table 5 presents the orientation of the association in the form of activity.
Table 5. Orientation to the form of activity (sotsionicheskiye clubs)
Forms of the activity Marks
the Productive- administrative sphere of the activity 1
Scientific research sphere of the activity 3
Communicative sphere of the activity 2
Social sphere of the activity 3
In this division: 3 sotsiala, 2 communicators, 3 researchers even one controller.
For a division from the work with the clients best anything be suitable ethics i.e. social and communicative directivity, since work in essence assumes contact with the people. It is desirable so that these would be sotsialy: for sotsialam it is possible and it is necessary to charge work on the creation of comfortable conditions for the clients, concern about holding them. Sotsialy wonderfully feel the daily needs of people, they are democratic, attentive to the current situation, and it is also hardy physically. It is desirable so that sotsialov in the association it would be still more, but even in this version the association appears well. Together with this sotsialy (as sensory types) more worry about the specific wage, than communicators - this fact must be considered to leader during planning of the composition of division and expenditures for the remuneration for its labor.
Attitude to the social sphere of activity, strengthens attitude to the "warm company", described above, uniting the capability to worry about the client and to manifest warm attitude for it.
The association is also disposed to the research sphere of activity, that it is not completely compulsory for the solution of its problems.
Let us recall to our respected readers that attitude of the association to the research sphere of activity is obtained from the calculation of the typological club preferences of the colleagues of the association. At the same time attitude of the association to the research command is obtained from the calculation of intertipnykh relations. Since these data are not connected with each other, the association can be disposed to the research sphere of activity and in this case not be research command.
Some percentage of each club is required in any association, but that that the communicators with sotsialami together present more than logical clubs - this good. It is possible to draw the conclusionthat in this composition the association it is completely operational, disposed both to the search for clients and to the maintenance of contacts with them.
Table 6 depicts the analysis of strong and weak functions in the association. A similar analysis makes it possible to see the strong sides of the association for functions, in what it can manifest creation, according to what functions it it is possible to make responsible result, in what regions the association can come out as expert. The last column of table shows, in what functions the problems can arise.
Table 6. Strong and weak functions of the association
Functions Base Creative TNS
Ethics of the relations 0 2 1
Logic of the actions 0 2 1
Intuition of the time 1 0 2
Volitional sensorika 0 0 1
Sensorika of the sensations 2 2 0
Intuition of the possibilities 3 1 0
Logic of the relations 1 1 2
Ethics of the emotions 2 1 2
We see with the analysis of the strong functions of the association (base and creative) that it is maximally strongly expressed the intuition of possibilities (3 + 1) and sensorika of sensations (2 + 2). According to these functions it is possible to impose maximum requirements on the association and to expect positive results. And the main thing - at painful points these functions are not represented entirely, actions on them no one of the colleagues strain not will be i.e. this actually of the functions, on which it is possible to rest with the loads, the zone of maximum endurance and maximum return.
This speaks, that the association is capable to track the possibilities of clients, to foresee situations and to check; to develop the new ways of the attraction of clients. Redundant information, obscure prospects, and also situation "and suddenly?" - not they will catch colleagues - the intuition of possibilities answers for this. Sensorika of sensations answers for the creation of the comfortable and comfortable atmosphere both for itself and for its clients, attention to the details, the concrete facts and the trifles.
In the fourth column the painful points of the association are reflected. As can be seen from table, the clearly expressed painful point the association does not have, two marks have the ethics of emotions, the intuition of time and the logic of relations. How this it is possible to consider so that the association would not experience excess difficulties and failures?
In the association there are SLI and OR with the painful ethics of emotions, and client naturally can once and emotsionirovat', once be agitated. It means, these two colleagues at this moment must be sent to smoke or tea to drink. And to grant will manage the situation to remaining colleagues. That that two Iee do not manage the formal documents, for example, with the instructions - first, this greatly does not be required, in the second place, it is possible simply not to request them to be occupied by these functions, due to another colleague of the association. I two ESE do not manage the planning - remaining colleagues manage it, i.e., it is possible to competently and accurately redistribute responsibilities. I.e. all the remaining representatives of the association draw out by these or other methods and help to manage each situation. There is no clearly expressed painful function, which would be as sore point for entire association - here, this very well.
Program makes it possible on the basis of Young's basis to calculate the integral type of the association (table 7).
Table 7. Given for calculating the integral type of the association
In this case integral type is clearly expressed - Intuitive- ethical ekstravert (Iee). When the association has the expressed integral type, this very well, since he has the clearly expressed nature, also, with this association it is possible to work as with the one-piece formation.
Integral type gives to the association the following features, characteristic of the type: sociability and emotionalism, the ability to find approach to any client, tendency to make to people pleasant. But at the same time, a certain lack of organization and impracticality. This association can not manage to make that outlined for the period, since it is inclined to be distracted to the secondary matters.
In the association can be observed the tendency to give advice to each other, to discuss the intricate ethical situations. However, present psychological proximity in this association it does not appear, each hopes itself for itself. In this association the participants act by similar methods, although pursue the different purposes. Nonformal, friendly connections are cultivated. With that surrounding sotsiumom are established, the competing relations, with the frequent change of sympathies and gravities. It does not love regulation and strict rules, which trouble its independence.
Conclusion: As a whole the association is suitable well for the search for clients and much smaller degree for their retention. The association is capable and unconstrainedly to come well into contact with the clients, to rapidly find new clients, to see prospects and possibilities of new contacts. For the retention of clients and maintenance of prolonged relations with them, into the association should be added the people of introvertnykh types.
But which does occur in the case, when on some by dikhotomi signs were divided equally, for example, on extraversion - intro-version (5/5)? Then the type of the association seemingly crawls, he does not have clearly expressed "face". It turns out that already as if association in the mask: today it has some features, tomorrow others, you do not know how to be turned to this association. But when type is washed away, i.e., sensation some of unreliability, this the same as men in the mask, with which it is not very easy, because never you know how it to you will turn itself - by true type or by mask. But but if it is washed away on two dichotomies and more, then this already crowd, each by itself, in this association the disagreement is expected. It is necessary to make something with this association, to search for ways for its reformation.
When the washed away type is obtained, it is possible to attempt to reveal the true type of this association for strong functions. For example, if in the examined by us association was washed away the scale extraversion - intro-version and it was necessary to select between Iee and IEI, then according to the strong functions it were obtained By iee since in this case as the strong they were presented four intuitions of possibilities, and the intuition of time painful, which means, type IEI - mask. It is possible to assume that this association encounters everyday problems .
Further we look attitude of the association at the process or result (table 8):
Table 8. Attitude of the association to the process or to the result
In this case, the association of division is disposed to the eventual result in the work (6 marks), but not to the adjustment of process with sufficient- after all the explicit advantage. Even to this it is possible to add that integral type itself Iee is disposed to the result, it seemingly also adds its contribution. This association will try faster to dostich' the stated goals, but not to sharpen form and method of operations.
It is possible to assume that this association is not inclined to the retention of long-term cooperation with the clients, more worrying about the current result of work. In actuality, by the way, conversation with the leader confirmed that the colleagues of the association do not conduct the client: they find, interest, but they do not support further contacts in the necessary measure.
This deficiency escapes from the hardness of relationship 6:3. To this association it is good to be disposed to the result, since the colleagues of the association work with the clients, and therefore it is important so that the client would bring money, but it is necessary that the relationship would be somewhat soft. It is necessary that someone of the colleagues division would not forget the process of maintaining the fixed contacts with the clients.
Let us further examine the distribution of the association for kvadram (table 9). This is also sufficiently important index. It shows, what values in this association be present. If many representatives some of kvadry, then they begin they are united and is created as if nucleus of the association, influence thus the remaining association.
Table 9. Ideological (kvadral'nye) values
1 Kvadra 5
2 Kvadra 0
3 Kvadra 1
4 Kvadra 3
In the association predominate the representatives of first kvadry, and in the second place is represented fourth kvadra. In also the time integral type (Intuitive- ethical ekstravert) enters into fourth kvadru, which strengthens the atmosphere of fourth kvadry. Thus to the association they are characteristic of value of both these kvadr, namely: humanism, reasonableness, undeliberateness, nonviolent, humane approach to the matter. At the same time it is possible to assume a certain opposition of world views inside the association in those questions, where first kvadra and the fourth do not converge.
The opposition can consist in the fact that first kvadra is disposed to be in the dreams, in the fantasies, in the ideas, are somewhat torn from the earth, and fourth kvadra is nearer to the earth, landed, concrete. Kvadry differ in the signs "merry- serious" and "aristocrat- Democrats". In this case they compensate each other: somewhere it is possible to joke with the client, while somewhere aristokratichno, it is serious itself to present.
These contradictions are not irreconcilable, but disputes on such themes are possible. Should be, knowing previously about the danger, thought over the approach, which considers and soglasuyushchiy both points of view.
Following table 10 - this is stimulus for the activity - than it is possible this association to justify. There is the association, and it is necessary to understand, which approach - with the ruble, of course, is good to it, but rubles are not infinite, it is necessary to know, as still it is possible to stimulate the association to the work.
Table 10. Stimuli for the activity
Stimulus for the activity Quantity
Interest in the work 2
It is evident that the association sufficiently exactly was distributed on the stimuli. It should be noted that its contribution also introduces the integral type, disposed to the uniqueness, which strengthens overall attitude. How in this case can be stimulated the uniqueness of the association? By the presence of the new and nonstandard methods of the search for clients and by unusualness, by the prospect of task with the expanding circle of contacts, the intellectual complexity and the fascination, the sensation of the fact that they are not similar on others - it is possible to this association even money to pay less, saying: "what you remarkable colleagues, not on whom they are similar, others similar simply no in the light!". To this association it is better to work in the nontraditional or constantly being renewed spheres of activity with the expanding circle of contacts.
This does not abolish that one must take into account attitude of each colleague, and if we plant colleague disposed for example to the welfare under the window on the draft, on the passage, or let us give to it inconvenient chair, then it is natural, it there sit not will be. If entire association feels, that uniqueness - this is healthy, then that disposed to the welfare, thinks - well, they would plant me poudobneye, only they would a little more give wage well and I will stay, then to be, for the company unique.
Table 11. Goal setting
Goal setting Quantity
1 the external purpose 2
1 the internal purpose 1
Many external purposes 3
Many internal purposes 3
In as can be seen from given in the Table 11 data in the association does predominate attitude to many external purposes (3 marks) (it is strengthened by the integral type Iee, also disposed to many external purposes) about which to us it can this describe? The association can easily change the degree of its energetic nature. When there is the appropriate desire, they behave energetically and decisively. But when there is no mood, they sharply decrease revolutions, they are removed from the active interference in the life, they do not hold purpose, they approach constant changes and switchings. By them it is difficult to be occupied by one and the same matter for a long time. Monotony suppresses them. The unforeseen disruption of graph whips this association, increases their energy and activates thought.
The association in question is also disposed to many internal purposes (also 3 marks).
The predominance of these two installations speaks, that the association possesses grow prettier by switching capacity from one purpose to another. As a whole the association is disposed to the external peace (3 + 2), but not to himself. For the work with the clients this attitude is preferable, since are constantly necessary new clients, they renew, extraversion is respectively desirable. The difference is not very large from other side so as to indicate, that the association is disposed only to the external purposes, i.e., in this case - sufficient- after all acceptable combination and that and, etc. If the association was disposed to the internal purposes more, then he has permanent clients, they in essence were occupied with them: "there is in me client, 4 with it I associate, I maintain relations, and new me and search for- that unwillingness".
Conclusion: Predominance in the association of attitude to many external purposes is good for the search for new clients and establishment of contacts. In this case in the association there are those, who are capable to retain these clients. As a whole we switch well the association due to the irrationality, but weakly holds purpose.
Following table 12 reflects stressoustoychivost' of the association.
Table 12. Stressoustoychivost' of the association
In this association flat distribution came out, the absence of stressoneustoychivykh types only is noticeable which is good for this association. Still stressoustoychivosti add integral type, i.e., the association is inclined well to transfer the short stress situations, which continually can appear with the contact with the clients, not zavyazaya in them.
The distribution of colleagues by the styles of contact is presented to table 13.
Table 13. Styles of the contact
Style of the contact Quantity
Exchange of the emotions 4
Exchange of the information 3
Proposal of the business collaboration 1
Exchange of the signs of the sincere attachment 1
To four representatives of the association is characteristic style the exchange of emotions, of three - exchange of information, and on one - proposal of business collaboration and the exchange of the signs of sincere attachment. Hence it follows that this association understands contact first of all as the exchange of emotions (4 marks, it is strengthened by integral type) and exchange of information (3 marks). What it is possible to say about this association?
Passionate style (exchange of emotions) - this attraction of clients, their start in emotional contact, i.e., for initial contacts with the people this style very well be suitable.
Style the exchange of information (cold-blooded) also here approaches well - the formulation of documents, the calculation of lawful finesses, conclusion of a treaty, for which the representatives of cold-blooded style be suitable well.
It is here small the signs of sincere attachment - possibly, with this is connected the fact that the association rather is disposed to the search, than to the retention of clients.
With the contact with this association it is possible to call them to the larger enthusiasm in the work, to propose actively to participate as in the advertising activity. The at the same time simply transmitted information will be also perceived properly and will meet understanding.
Conclusions and proposal as a whole on the division from the work with the clients:
The association as a whole is suitable sufficiently well for work on search and attraction of clients, development of the new forms of work with them, the vision of possibilities and prospects, to the preventive maintenance of no return it is debt. Special contradictions with those purposes and tasks, which are set before the association, with the data analysis it is not discovered. I.e., the association as a whole is well suited under the purposes and the problems, stated before it.
In the association sufficiently comfortable situation. To this contribute the favorable relations, which predominate in it, attitude to the warm company which makes it possible to create in the association the benevolent atmosphere, necessary with the work with the people. Also to this contributes integral type Intuitive- ethical ekstravert (Iee). In the association there are no colleagues in which would be chiefly unfavorable relations. Thus the association is well selected by the intertipnym relations, in it they be absent the pole of tension. In this case would be well colleagues OR and SLI take away from neposredstvenny of work with the client, and plant them in other accomodation, after charging to them conclusion and formulation of agreements.
It is evident with the analysis of strong functions that the association must manage well the search of new clients, the tracking of their possibilities, foresight and prochityvaniya of the situations, connected with the recovery of credits, etc., and also with the tasks of developing the new ways of the attraction of clients, the creation of the comfortable and comfortable atmosphere for the clients and the attention to the details - concrete facts, the trifles.
The infusion of the association to the social and communicative spheres of activity is suitable well for the tasks of the association, helping to establish contacts, to support them, to create the pleasant psychological atmosphere.
Predominance in the association of attitude to many external purposes is a good condition for the search for new clients and establishment of contacts. In this case in the association is colleagues, disposed the retention of clients.
Uniqueness is stimulus for the activity for this association. This association better works in the constantly being renewed spheres of activity with the expanding circle of contacts, the intellectual complexity and the fascination of tasks, the far reaching and scale consequences of the proposed projects in the case of their realization. This association must be activated, emphasizing unusualness and nonstandardness of their activity, prospect, intellectual complexity and the fascination of the decided tasks, to direct to the development of the new nonstandard methods of the search for clients, etc.
Grow prettier to work with the clients they must contribute the styles of contact, represented in this association, namely the exchange of emotions and the exchange of information. With the contact with this association it is possible to call them to the larger enthusiasm in the work, to propose actively to participate in the advertising activity. The at the same time simply transmitted information will be also perceived properly and will meet understanding.
The association is capable to transfer well short stress situations.
Increasingly above aforesaid makes it possible to say that the association is capable to manage well the tasks assigned to it.
Type of an information metabolism
Poet Sergey Yesenin
M.M.Gut, 1997, Gomel.
Now in sotsionicheskoj to the literature it is considered something by itself understood, that poet Sergey Yesenin was the intuitively-ethical introvert (IEI, INFP). However till now to the author any researches which authentically could confirm the given point of view are unknown. The analysis of verses of S.Esenina lead by the author, and also biographic memoirs of the people well known S.Esenina, has allowed to draw a conclusion, that the statement that TIM S.Esenina IEI (INFP), is erroneous. What true TIM S.Esenina? To learn(find out) it, we shall start the analysis of its(his) creativity and biographic materials.
The information analysis of verses of S.Esenina.
When you start to read S.Esenina's verses the first, that is evident, it is oversaturation of verses masterful figurative descriptions of pictures of the nature, a country life, village, people. Descriptions very beautiful, externally visible, mainly static, it is possible to tell landscape. As is known in sotsionike, externally visible static descriptions of objects it is information concern to infoaspektu black sensoriki (an external statics of a body). We shall result(bring) a quantity of citations from S.Esenina's well illustrating the aforesaid the verses.
There, where cabbage beds
With red water waters rising,
Olenenochek small to a uterus
The green udder sucks.
For mountains, for yellow dolami
The track of villages was stretched.
I see a wood and evening polymya,
And the wattle fence twisted by a nettle.
There since morning above church chapters(heads)
Heavenly sand turns blue,
Also rings roadside grasses
From lakes a water breeze.
It was again stretched uzorno
Above a white field a crimson dye,
Also it is filled in fervently
Nizhniy Novgorod bubenets.
Under zatumanennoyu dymkoj
You kazhesh maiden beauty,
Also pulls out(frays) a wind under a kerchief
You poila a horse from handfuls in an occasion,
Being reflected, birches broke in a pond.
I looked from a window at a dark blue scarf,
Curls black zmejno were pulled out(frayed) with a breeze.
The bird cherry a snow strews,
Greens in color and dew.
In a floor(field), tending to runaways,
Rooks in a strip go.
Evening has smoked, the cat on a bar dozes,
Someone has prayed: My God Isuse .
Blaze zori, fogs are smoked,
Above a carved window a curtain crimson.
Webs with gold poveti are twisted,
Somewhere the mouse skrebetsya in shut kleti...
At a wood glade in svyaslakh kopny breads,
Fur-trees as if(as) spears, have rested against the sky.
Zakadili a smoke under rosoyu groves...
In heart rest silence and power.
Smells friable drachenami,
At a threshold in dezhke kvass,
Above small stoves tochenymi
Cockroaches climb in a groove.
Soot above zaslonkoyu is twisted,
In an oven of a thread popelits,
And on a bench for solonkoyu
Peel of crude eggs.
Melted clay dries,
On sugoryakh decay a honey agaric.
The wind on plains dances,
Red tender oslenok.
Smells as a willow and smoloyu.
Sin that dozes, sighs.
At wood analoya
The sparrow psaltyr reads.
Last year's leaf(sheet) in a ravine
Among bushes as lots of copper.
Someone in solar sermyage
On oslenke red goes.
Edge(Territory) you my thrown,
Edge(Territory) you mine, waste ground.
Wood yes a monastery.
Log huts zabochenilis,
And and all five.
Their roofs have begun to foam
In zarevuyu a corduroy road.
Wind a mould grey
With the sun has sprinkled.
Under a red elm a porch and a court yard,
The moon above a roof, as zlat bugor.
At dark blue windows the face is dropped:
The gray-haired old man goes on a cloud.
The similar citations showing domination in verses of S.Esenina infoaspekta black sensoriki , at desire it would be possible to result(bring) in tens times more. But it has no special sense as any interested person can take in hands tomik S.Esenina's verses and be convinced independently, that its(his) verses are through impregnated by externally-descriptive pictures of the nature, a life and people. In the resulted(brought) citations as rare impregnations meet lines, is information concerning to infoaspektu white sensoriki (external dynamics(changes) of a field). These are following expressions: smells friable drachenami; the wind on plains dances; smells as a willow and smoloyu; curls were pulled out(frayed) with a breeze.
The second, that is evident at S.Esenina's recitation, it very often meeting expression of the subjective attitude(relation) of the author (mainly love and admiration) to described beauty of the nature, village, the Native land, people. It is information concerns to infoaspektu white ethics (an internal statics of a field). We shall illustrate it by means of characteristic citations where in the obvious image indissoluble communication(connection) of the information at once on two infoaspektam black sensorike and is visible to white ethics .
Edge(Territory) favourite! To heart it is removed(is taken off,dream)
Skirdy the sun in waters lonnykh.
I would like to get lost
In zelenyakh yours stozvonnykh.
Goj you, Russia, washing native,
Huts in copes of an image...
Not vidat the end and edge(territory)
Only sin sucks eyes.
Black, then become permeated with the smell to howl!
How to me you to not caress, to not love?
I shall leave on lake in a dark blue corduroy road,
The good fortune clings to heart evening.
About the party(side) kovylnoj dense forests,
You flatness are close to heart,
But also in yours it is concealled more densely
And you, as I, in sad trebe,
Having forgotten, who the friend to you and the enemy,
About pink you grieve the sky
And pigeon clouds.
I again here, in family native,
My edge(territory), thoughtful and gentle!
Curly twilight behind mountain
Rukoyu mashet snow-white.
About Russia a crimson field
And sin, fallen in the river,
I love up to pleasure and a pain
Your lake melancholy.
The spring is not similar to pleasure,
And not from the sun sand is yellow.
Your exposed to the wind leather(skin)
Luchila a buckwheat down.
At a blue watering place
On shishkoperoj a swan
We have sworn, that we shall be two
And not rasstanemsya anywhere.
Censers tem, and a wind lean
svivalsya in a fiery groove,
I spent you up to a grove,
To your parental log hut.
And long-long in a sleepiness unsteady
I could not tear off the person(face),
When you with a tender smile
Waved to me shapkoyu from a porch.
Thus, the information analysis of verses of S.Esenina shows overwhelming prevalence in them to the information corresponding(meeting) infoaspektam black sensoriki and white ethics , with domination of the information on black sensorike. It allows to assume, that TIM S.Esenina the сенсорно-ethical extrovert (SEE, ESFP).
The analysis of biographic memoirs of contemporaries
About Sergey Yesenin.
All contemporaries unanimously describe S.Esenina as very sociable, cheerful, cocky, and at times and the pugnacious person, that as a whole speaks about its(his) strongly pronounced ekstraversii.
From E.A.Eseninoj's memoirs, , с.89:
It(He) was the person very sociable, loved people. Liked to share with the close ideas, new verses.
Around of Sergey always reigned revival. All lived with it(him) one interests. If it is a campaign in theatre or cinema there are everyone who during this moment is present if it is a party everyone have fun if it is business conversation everyone who is take part(participate) in it(him)
From N.P.Kalinkina's memoirs, , с.97:
Yesenin already then was allocated among us. And teachers and we, pupils, loved it(him) for frankness and cheerful nature. There was it(he) the first ringleader, mischievous and pugnacious, as the cock. It it(he), truly, wrote about itself(himself) later in verses:
Thin and undersized,
Among boys always the hero,
Often, often with the broken nose
I came to myself home .
From D.N.Semenovskogo's memoirs, , с.139:
Yesenin's charm involved in it(him,them) the most various people. Wherever there was this nice, presented young man, everywhere it(he) caused at surrounding attention and interest to. For it(him) otrocheski the gentle exterior felt ardent, strong-willed character, the big sincere riches were guessed.
From E.M.Khitrova's memoirs, , с.100:
At school was always cheerful and it is cheerful, and it(this) was pleasant. However, same also annoyed: in a class during lessons will not sit quietly, constantly peresmeivaetsya, exchanges glances, and hardly that will sniff on all class and will burst in the most uncontrollable laughter. Was pleasant also that went always pure(clean), tidy. It did not like to be cut only. With a view of hygiene we demanded from the pupils of a hairstyle nagolo. Yesenin with greater(big) displeasure submitted to necessity to leave the curls. Played with comrades extremely roughly, not sparing neither, nor the clothes .
A lot of contemporaries mark(celebrate), that S.Esenin loved cleanliness and neatness in clothes, was close(attentive) to the appearance and to the order around of itself, that in general speaks well strong black sensoriki . We shall result(bring) some characteristic memoirs.
From E.A.Eseninoj's memoirs, , с.91:
Sergey was the tidy person. In the mornings it was long rinsed in bathing and very often washed a head. Liked to put on well, and it(he) could not be found carelessly dressed at any time. The same feature it(he) loved and in other people, especially in surrounding it(him).
On a table it(he) did not love the disorder and superfluous things and if it was lunch on a pure(clean) cloth laid only papers, its(his) manuscript, pencils and an ashtray .
Was able S.Esenin to show in relation to close people quite concrete help and care, that too testifies in favour of strong sensoriki.
From E.A.Eseninoj's memoirs, , с.41:
Once Sergey has come at an inopportune time and has found me behind game in dolls. I am fast sgrebla dolls from a table, but was late. Sergey has smiled:
You still play dolls?
Yes, I have answered, do not speak, please, to the father.
And what you read?
I do not have books, and I read nothing, I have answered.
In day Sergey has brought to me the whole unit of rags for dolls. Loskutya were all colors(flowers); both silk, and a lace, and a velvet all was there. And still it(he) has brought the wonderful book Fairy tales of brothers the Grimm .
From E.A.Eseninoj's memoirs, , с.30:
It(He) spun to sister Shure suits from colors(flowers) (it(he) was able from colors(flowers) with long stalks to do(make) dresses and different styles of a hat) and brought it(her) home all in colors(flowers) .
From A.R.Izryadnovoj's memoirs, , с.118:
In the end of December at me the son was born. Yesenin had to dawdle much with me (we lived only together). It was necessary to send me in hospital, to care of an apartment. When I have come back home, it(he) had a perfect order: everywhere it is washed up, furnaces istopleny and even a dinner the cake is ready and bought(purchased), waited .
In favour of that at S.Esenina dominating infoaspektom was black sensorika , speaks also that it(he) was capable to estimate(appreciate) very precisely and confidently the poetic work in money. I.V.Evdokimov in the memoirs results(brings) the text of the following application(statement) of S.Esenina which conditions almost have been completely accepted, , с.424:
In the Literary department of the State publishing house from Sergey Yesenin.
I suggest a literary department to publish assembly of my poems in quantity(amount) of 10000 lines, on rouble for a line, with lumpsum delivery in 2000 roubles and the others with monthly delivery on 1000 rbl., since August, 1st, 1925 on April, 1st, 1926, for editions for 2 years, circulation not более10000. My assembly of poems and poems was never published. Sergey Yesenin. 17/6.25.
On the basis of Rejnina aristocraticness democratic character TIM IEI (INFP) is "aristocratical", and TIM SEE (ESFP) "democratic". "Democratic character" in creativity and S.Esenina's lives abundantly clear, is so indissoluble at it(him) communication(connection) with a rural life and a country life. It is illustrated brightly I.V.Gruzinova's with memoirs, , с.274:
I all over again theorize. Then Yesenin. It(he) develops following ideas.
In poetry it is necessary to act the same as our people acts, creating proverbs and sayings.
The image for it(him), as well as for people, is concrete.
The image for it(him), as well as for people, is utilitarian; it is utilitarian in special, best sense of this word .
About strongly pronounced "democratism" of verses of S.Esenina speaks also that they with understanding and heat were perceived by simple people. It(this) recollects B.A.Sorokin, , с.130-131:
I read slyshannye me in Moscow verses, but here, in foggy Polesye, in a dugout similar to the wolf hole, among the simple people torn off from native families and favourite since the childhood of villages, these verses somehow in a new fashion entered into soul and brought heat and pleasure in monotony of foggy days...
As though it is simple and budnichno a poem In a hut but when I have started to read:
Smells friable drachenami,
At a threshold in dezhke kvass,
Above small stoves tochenymi
Cockroaches climb in a groove,
Soldier's persons(faces) have joyfully quickened and have become warmer.
In the form of the original manifest shows S.Esenin's "democratism" in a poem I go a valley. On a nape kepi... :
To hell I remove the suit English.
That, give kosu, I shall show you
Whether I to you friendly, whether I to you relatives,
I l do not value memory of village.
For many сенсорно-ethical extroverts aspiration to glory, popularity, the desire to be the focus of attention is a characteristic typological attribute. For achievement of this purpose SEE (ESFP) can and is able is masterful to build the attitudes(relations) with the people necessary to it(him). These qualities were very brightly shown by S.Esenin, frankly having told A.B.Mariengofu about the skill to manipulate attitudes(relations), , с.247:
You know, how I to Parnassus ascended?..
And Yesenin cheerfully, in a boyish way, has laughed loudly.
Here, the brother, business was necessary to a message artfully. Let, I think, everyone considers(counts): I have entered it(him) into the Russian literature. It(him) it is pleasant, and me to spit. Gorodetsky has entered? Has entered. Klyuyev has entered? Has entered. Sologub with CHebotarevskoj have entered? Have entered. In a word: and Merezhkovsky with Gippiusikhoj, and the Block, and Ryurik Ivnev... To it(him,them) I, the truth, have approached(suited) first of poets it(he) has cut on me, I remember, the lorgnette, and was not in time I still a rhyme in twelve lines prohonour, and it(he) thin such golosochkom: Ah, as it is remarkable! Ah, as ingeniously! Ah... And, having seized me under the handle, has dragged me from a celebrity to a celebrity, the "akhi" wasting thin goloskom. I modest, it is possible to tell, more modestly. From each praise I redden, as the girl, and in eyes to anybody from shyness I do not look. A fun!
Yesenin has smiled. Has looked at the shnurovannyj the American boot (for ever it(he) by then has had time to leave with poddevkoj, a shirt embroidered as the towel, with tops in an accordion) and in an amicable way, it it is frank (instead of with forced frankness on which too there was a master) has told:
You know, and I never in a life such red carried a boot and poddevki such zadripannoj, in what before them predstal. Spoke them, that I go to Riga flanks to roll. There is nothing to guzzle supposedly. And to Petersburg on denek, on two while the party(set) washing loaders will steal up. And what there flanks behind world(global) glory to St.-Petersburg has arrived, behind a bronze monument...
Magnificent example of display of strong creative white ethics!
On it(this) the author finishes the analysis of creativity and S.Esenina's biography and hopes, that it is quite enough resulted(brought) materials to draw quite certain conclusion.
Both creative features of poetry of S.Esenina, and numerous biographic data testify in favour of that type of an information metabolism of S.Esenina SEE (ESFP). Moreover, it is possible to approve(confirm), that S.Esenin was very strongly pronounced сенсорно-ethical extrovert.
The author hopes, that the given work will relieve sotsionikov of surprisingly proof myth that TIM S.Esenina IEI (INFP), and also would will serve as additional argument in favour of refusal of use in names TIMov whose that was names or pseudonyms.
The author will be grateful for responses, remarks and wishes which it is possible to direct to the address of:
246038, Gomel-38, p.o. 7, Gut Michael Mikhajlovich, ph. 8-0232-72-66-16.
The list of the used literature
1. S.A.Esenin, the Selected(Elected) compositions, "Fiction", 1983.
2. Memoirs on Sergey Yesenin, the Moscow worker , 1975.