• On Waves of Aging and Renewal: Progress Orientation in Combination with Jungian Aspects by V. Gulenko

    On Waves of Aging and Renewal: Progress Orientation in Combination with Jungian Aspects

    We wanted to rebuild the world, wanted to do better,
    came out of humility and through this destroyed ourselves and the world.

    M.M. Speransky

    1. Two paths of development

    1.1. General philosophical interpretation

    In philosophy, the word development is taken to mean spiral-like progression from simple to more complex forms. Two vectors influence the trajectory of this development. The first vector is a horizontal one. It leads to cyclical repetition and is based on the internal rhythms of the system. The second vector is a vertical one. This vector ensures that there is no stagnation and overcycling within the system. Every turn stands above the previous one. Rhythm of the progression of these turns has a probabilistic factor.

    Development as ontogenesis is essentially a programmed unwinding of the existing potential. The Latin word evolution in its semantics represents this path of progress very well, consisting of unwinding, unpacking, of quantitative growth of the existing embryo.

    On the other hand, development as epigenesis is the very birth, the appearance of qualitatively new forms, sudden outbreak of a new life [1]. The Latin word involution conveys the essence of this process - it is the folding, the packaging, the build-up of a critical mass of energy.

    Thus, evolution unwinds the spiral of development into a straight line, while the involution, conversely, winds it back up, thereby creating new frontiers of growth within the system. If development is imagined not as a spiral but as a broken line stretching from left to right, then the break points and the areas that surround them represent epigenesis, involution.

    It is interesting to compare socionic connotation with mathematical meaning of these terms. The word evolution in mathematics denotes the operation of deriving the root; involution has the reverse influence - raising to the power. The meaning of these two mathematical operations closely approaches the interpretation of these two paths of progress in socionics.

    1.2. Biological interpretation

    Many researchers believe that the fundamental difference between living matter from the nonliving matter lies in the opposition of left and right forms or isomers [6, 9]. Right forms or isomers correspond to a circular, horizontal movement of matter and are responsible for the evolution of the organism. Left isomers are responsible for the movement in the vertical plane, thus enabling the process of involution. Combining the circular movement and the vertical movement creates a spiral.

    In biology there exists experimentally discovered by Charles Darwin law of natural selection. Mutations give rise to spontaneous changes in opposite directions, while the mechanisms of adaptation select out options that are nonviable and reinforce those that give the species greater survival advantage within its environment.

    This fully coincides with two directions of progress in socionics. The emergence of mutations is the process of involution, while the selection of most viable changes is evolution.

    Mutations play a key role in driving this process of selection, which guides the development of the species if its environmental conditions have changed. If the habitat does not change for a long time, then it is beneficial for the species to suppress mutations, in which case selection veers to the side of stabilization. This example demonstrates how closely the two paths of auto-development of systems are intertwined in real life.

    1.3. Development as a violation and restoration of homeostasis

    In nature, there exists a tendency for homeostasis, which is the maintenance of a stable balance between the internal parameters of an organism. A sociotype is exactly such a set of parameters or limits to the variation of psychological properties of a personality of a person, which make him or her a homeostatic system.

    It is easy to see that the disruption of the homeostasis is the role of the left types, while its restoration falls on the shoulders of the right types. Both of these extremes are dangerous on their own. An absolute victory of one path of progress leads to a certain death, only the types of these deaths will be different depending on the side that won.

    "Right" death comes from a gradual cooling and fading that occurs from an old age. "Left" death is of short duration - it comes from the harsh heat, the saturation of a body with energy, which leads to an explosion. This type of death can be formulated as a paradox: it comes from an excess of youth.

    In psychology, Freud has uncovered two existing trends: the earning towards life and towards death. Right types are more prone to suicide than left types. They simply lack the psychological energy to survive in difficult conditions and withstand the "scorching" conditions of this life. Left sociotypes tend to be more optimistic. They do not lose hope even when they have found themselves in a dead end.

    1.4. Cybernetic interpretation of the two paths of development

    Our topic is rather directly related such concepts in cybernetics as positive and negative feedback. The first leads to the immoderate exponential growth. The second - to stabilization within the limits of vital parameters. The process of approximation of the steady state occurs in accordance with the periodic law of extinguishing oscillation.

    It is clear that evolution, or the circular development, corresponds to negative feedback. Thus we will assign a negative sign to "right", evolutionary types. Right progress represents conservation, repeatability, a standing wave. It fades gradually over time; thus this trend is symbolic of gradual deterioration and aging. There is a loss of energy, but this path accumulates more and more information.

    • LSI - brings to automation, formalization, petrification.
    • SEI - promotes relaxation and a slow decay of passions.
    • SEE - manipulates with the existing emotions followed by a descent into apathy.
    • EIE - bursts with violent emotions followed by a retreat and philosophizing, turns away from life.
    • ILE - the same invention is spread and extended to all areas, until it becomes too common.
    • ILI - deactivates by extinguishing initiatives, then slowly sinks into contemplation.
    • LSE - overworks, exhausts the reserves of manpower through work, becomes fixated.
    • EII - follows humane ideals, leaving the struggle for survival for an artificial world of idealized relations.

    Involution, or deflecting component of development, corresponds to positive feedback. Thus we will assign a plus sign to the "left", involutionary types. It occurs as a sharp jolt or step change. In other words, the movement from old to new, rejuvenation, revitalization. It corresponds to a modulated wave i.e one that deviates from a circular path due to an influence by some oversystem. Involution coils the spiral, concentrating the energy needed for a push. This accumulation of energy is proportional to the loss of information resources. Left types ensure transition to the next turn of the helix.

    • LIE - survives despite rough and adverse conditions.
    • ESE - rarely despairs, doesn't fall into depression after making mistakes.
    • LII - makes systems and structures viable.
    • ESI - keeps and preserves his individuality even in midst of hostile attitude of others.
    • SLE - ensures victory in the most difficult and urgent situations.
    • IEE - finds new options and opportunities thereby inspiring others to try again.
    • IEI - inwardly apprehensive but belies in a positive resolution.
    • SLI - skillfully applies his ingenuity in situations of hardship and discomfort.

    2. Orientation of progress from four perspectives

    2.1. Physical level

    "Left", involutionary types can produce results while relying on poorly functioning process. They begin from large parts, and leave the smaller parts for the later. "Right", evolutionary types, on the contrary, are scrupulous in their work. They skillfully organize processes and thoroughly work through the material, while taking all the details into consideration.

    The question that is of primary concern to left types is "for what?" Teleology, as a philosophical doctrine of the end goals of development reflects precisely the involutionary aspect of progress. The question that is of primary concern to right types is "from what?" Etiology, as opposed to teleology, focuses on studying the original causes for development.

    Smooth and balanced development with a fixed goal characterizes the evolutionary, "right" approach. Involutionary, "left" approach is uneven: acceleration alternates with deceleration, advances are followed by retreats. Involution in this manner resembles cross-country running, where both speed and direction of movement are liable to change.

    2.2. Psychological level

    Right and left types differ in their approaches to interpersonal communication.

    Manifestations of negative personality traits when communication distances are large and positive traits at short distances are characteristic of involutionary, "left" types, while the reverse is true of "right" types. Left types thus more accommodating during close-range communication, while right types are more accommodating at a distance.

    Inner world of left types is arranged in a simpler manner than that of right types. It holds less contradictions within it and is thus more wholesome and harmonious. However, such a distribution of psychological "charge" in left types is counter-weighed by the properties of their environment that most often is complicated and ambiguous. The living conditions of left type are frequently unstable and unpredictable. Permanently residing in zones of conflict and frequent changes in priorities does not hamper left types; to the contrary, it is their preferred conditions for life. Right types can normally exist only if their environment is simple and unambiguous and prevents sudden changes.

    Thus, we can assign plus and minus signs in the following manner. For "right", evolutionary types, at closer distances in communication we can assign a plus sign, and at greater distances - a minus sign: -/+. For "left", involutionary types minus sign can be assigned at closer distances, while at greater distances they can be assigned a minus sign: +/-.

    2.3. Social level

    At this level, the difference between left and right types can be described simply as "nature - civilization." Nature is uncivilized: it contains no formally upheld conventions, traditions, philosophies and religions. Civilization is not natural: legislative and moral codes enacted in a civilized society cannot be derived from the laws of nature, which can be traced down to the struggle for existence. Left types are closer to living and modeling such natural existence, while right type are closer to emulating life in a civilized society.

    • ESE - natural, simple, artless emotions.
    • EIE - artificial, crafted, playacting emotions.
    • LII - natural, basic logic; the logic of natural laws.
    • LSI - artificial logic, the logic of regulations and decrees created and adopted by people.
    • SLE - natural strength, which subordinates those who are weaker.
    • SEE - artificial strength, which allows to exert influence over those who are more powerful.
    • IEI - natural sense of time, the course of events unfolding into the future.
    • ILI - artificial sense of time, the course of events oriented at the past.
    • IEE - natural ideas, naturally possible prospects.
    • ILE - artificial ideas, alternatives of the impossible, of the hyperreality.
    • SLI - natural sensory experiences and comfort.
    • SEI - artificial sensing, created, crafted comfort.
    • LIE - natural benefit, attained by personal, individual enterprise.
    • LSE - artificial benefit, derived through organization of labor.
    • ESI - natural relations, dedicated and loving his own, rejecting of outsiders.
    • EII - artificial relations, forgives transgressions, treats outsides as his own.

    Due to the fact that on foreign territory involutionary "left" types tend to communicate negatively, it is difficult for them to unite into large groups. Negative attitude towards strangers does not allow them to form larger collectives. They are more inclined to work in small groups where informal communication is possible. By contrast, evolutionary "right" types work well within larger groups and organizations. Working in small groups is difficult for them because upon closing of the distance they become less tolerant in communication.

    In practice of psychology, we can find two formats for training courses. The first type of format aims to unite those attending into larger groups, which may be dangerous: when crowd gathers a negative charge, a need for a leader arises. Training courses of the second type allow the participants to work in small groups, in which case collectivism yields to individualism.

    2.4 Intellectual level

    In philosophy, there are two methods of processing of information. The first method is reification or concretization, when the flow of thought moves from the abstract, general, vague forms in the direction of greater specificity and concreteness. The second method is generalization or abstraction, when the reasoning flows from particulars and specifics towards generalized or abstracted conclusions, when understanding is broadened from details and distinct quanta of information into one connecting conclusion, statement, or theme.

    The flow of thought that progresses from generalities to particulars predominates among involutionary "left" types, while reasoning of evolutionary "right" types flows in the opposite direction - from particulars towards broader themes. In formal logic, these two approaches are called induction and deduction, respectively.

    This characteristic has noticeable influences on activities that require a person to process information, such as reading a book, writing an article, or delivering a public speech. Involutionary "left" types are inclined to start reading the end of the book in order to inspect the overall findings or final conclusion, and only then read the rest of the text to trace how the author arrived there. When an involutionary type states his thoughts, he is more comfortable doing the presentation by first stating the general principles, resulting findings, uncovered patterns, and only after proceeding to explain the particulars and supplying specific examples, relevant data, or anecdotes.

    Evolutionary "right" types are inclined to perceive and present information in exactly the opposite manner. They are more comfortable reading a book at it was written, without jumping ahead. When evolutionary type is presenting some material, he first provides the particulars, the starting axioms, the evidence at hand, and only then, towards the end he formulates generalizations and final conclusions.

    Let us stop here and examine the word deductive. It has multiple meanings. For example, does Sherlock Holmes, the protagonist of detective novels of A. Conan Doyle use deductive methods? The answer is both "yes" and "no". It depends on what is meant by "deductive". No, because he draws his conclusions building upon many small details and observations, and this way of making inferences is inductive. Yes, because in publications deduction usually implies rationality - discursive method of reasoning barring any free associations. Deductive reasoning is considered to be the kind of reasoning where from one statement or proposition, consecutively and basing on explicit set of axioms, rules, or facts, another statement or proposition is deduced.

    Another example of a deduction in the second meaning of this word are Aristotelian syllogisms. These are logical arguments in which from two or more initial propositions (premises) some concluding statement or proposition is made by means of a set logical rules. Classical example of such deductive reasoning: "All men are mortal. Plato is a man. Therefore, Plato is mortal."

    This is an example of "right", correct logic. It is appropriate in jurisprudence, in conducting investigations, in management of governments, etc. In natural life, where many "left" involutionary phenomena can be encountered, such syllogisms are of little help.

    3. We speak in different languages

    Process and Result types have difficulty having constructive exchanges of information. Their differing preferred modes of information exchange are one of the sources of misunderstandings in social interaction; these differences create an informational barrier between left and right types. How does this occur?

    Communicative transactions are complementary between types on the same side of socioprogess. This means that one's communication will be received adequately: to a question an answer will be provided, any idea that has been proposed will be either be developed further or receive a critique. When two types from different sides of socioprogress interact, there is a tendency to answer a question with a question, or to respond to one assertion with another assertion that has little relevance to the first one. Types from different rings of socioprogress seemingly develop the same idea in different ways. Thus, in exchanges of left and right types many orthogonal translations arise in their communication.

    Additionally, manifestations of negative personality traits when communication distances are large and positive traits at short distances are characteristic of involutionary, left types, while the reverse is true of "right" types. Left types thus more accommodating during close-range communication, while right types are more accommodating at a distance. If someone of Process type speaks amiably on the phone with a stranger, for his Result type partner this is surprising because he would have done the opposite and been colder in his manner. These differences become manifest when two people close the distance, such as when they get married. Suddenly they find out that the partner who was seeking intimacy has become more critical and aloof, while the other partner who seemed more estranged initially has becomes much bolder. Question arises: "Am I being misled?"

    Here is one such interesting historical example. Ivan the Terrible, as documented chroniclers, demonstrated right type style of relating. If a person close to him was being nice and accommodating, this caused his suspicions and made him question the sincerity of the person. He could accept accommodating behavior only after coercion.

    Left type, to the contrary, would suspect that something is wrong if someone treated him emphatically in a cold manner. If you are close to me then why are you so unfriendly and aloof? Perhaps you are only pretending that you're voluntarily staying with me?

    Right and left types also differ in how they engage in scientific development. Right type of researcher will carefully collect facts about some problem that is of concern, processes them, derive a system, and formulate the resulting findings. Such path of formal or "correct" research meets the academic requirements for science. Unfortunately the probability of obtaining fundamentally new knowledge in this way is low. Left "informal" science is organized quite differently. It is based on putting forward hypotheses and schemes of a general nature that attempt to explain the nature of phenomenon that is under investigation in an informal setting without much consideration of accepted academic canons. Then the hypothesis or crude scheme is compared to the actual phenomenon. If it works, then it is accepted as a working model and made to undergo further revision. If the hypothesis proves to be unsuitable, then it is simply discarded as unreasonable. It is best when two-three models are developed side-by-side by "left" methods, and as a result of competition the one that is most viable wins.

    Most of the results of socionics have been derived by left methods. It is understandable that the right formal academic science treats socionics with much skepticism. Socionics offers the finished product, but where is the process of lengthy and detailed research and studies? The solution of this problem is, of course, supplementing the quick but unreliable left approach to knowledge with the knowledge and research of the right approach - which is the only one that earns credibility in formal circles.

    Orientation within the rings of progress is one of the most fundamental difference between people, as well as between male and female traits in biology.

    Male and female as general biological categories have been thoroughly analyzed in past in work of Geodakyan. From this analysis it follows that behavior which is described as a search as search, capture, change, corresponds to male origin, while behavior that corresponds to consolidation, preservation, stabilization, corresponds to female origins. The middle of this distribution is held by women, while men tend to fall as outliers away from the center. For example, in school boys are more prone to misbehave and be disorganized, but some achieve very high results. Girls are more compliant and organized, while their performance gravitates towards average. These processes are very similar to the progress of rings of evolution (feminine origin) and involution (masculine origin).

    The situation is quite similar among adults. Men social groups are together based on power, but internally they are brought together by friendship. Women's groups at first glance seem more unified and empathetic, but inwardly they are permeated by a negative emotional field.

    When right and left types communicate, they keep each other under certain stain. Communication between them is more energetic rather than informational in its nature. This type of communication does not relax but, to the contrary, they activate one another.

    An example: a pair consisting of a right type and a left type returns home from a social event. The left partner softens, while the right partner becomes harder and starts looking for flaws. The left partner in a joking manner notices that the light was left on in the kitchen. Right partner is outraged by this comment, since she is feeling very tired after putting on the best face the whole evening. Left partner is puzzled as to why he was so misunderstood. It doesn't occur to him how could anyone arrive at such a conclusion.

    The right and left orientation has a significant impact on the exchange of information, possibly as much as any of the Jungian traits. Conflicts can arise on the ground of information distortion that occurs between left and right types.

    For example, often misunderstandings between extraverts and introverts are attributed to the fact that the former prefer to think out loud while the later prefer to think over their actions to themselves. However, left-right orientation has a significant effect on communication of introverts and extraverts. Right types gravitate more towards lengthy debates, discussions, and verbal clarifications. In relationships, they prefer talking out their problems. Left types are much less reliant on verbal communication. They trust words less than concrete actions. In this respect, left types are more masculine in nature than right types.

    The cause of misunderstanding between sensing and intuitive types is often said to be that sensing types focus on details while intuitive types are likely to omit them. However, this isn't so. Attention to detail is characteristic of right types while left "result" types see the end result. Details are of much less importance to the left types who see an overall vision, a generalized picture of a problem or a situation.

    Misunderstanding between logical and ethical types is attributes to emotional callousness of the former and heightened sensitivity of the later. Within the left-right dichotomy, responsiveness and heightened sensitivity are characteristic of right types. Left types suffer less from compounded problems and more calmly endure through disagreements than right types. Freud's theory of repressed aggression in reality works only for evolutionary types.

    Miscommunication between rational and irrational types are said to be based on the different levels of categorization, where rationals are described as more emphatic and assertive in decision-making, while irrationals are said to waver and put off making a decision until later. According to left-right dichotomy, right types are more inclined to make firm categorical judgments while left types aren't not directed at any solid goal. Left, involutionary types more easily change their path because they are more adept at controlling their internal stimuli. Firm and categorical attitudes awaken in them only in extreme situations.

    '''Summary of trait correlations:'''
    * Left types: sensing, logic, extraversion, irrationality
    * Right types: intuition, ethics, introversion, rationality

    4. Project groups

    Projection is attribution of subject's properties and states to external objects. It requires first of all understanding of the problem and setting of goals. Compilation of projects as the next step in this process means development of course of action.

    In practical psychology there are so-called projective tests that are usually made up of pictures. Traits that are most projective are intuition and sensing as well as left-ness and right-ness. Intuition shows itself in the measure of unconventionality of the picture of the subject, while right process manifests itself in selection of important details.

    Left + intuition = general results (emotivism)
    Left + sensing = concrete results (constructivism)
    Right + intuition = ideational processes (constructivism)
    Right + sensing = concrete processes (emotivism)

    Right sensing types: SEE, SEI, LSE, LSI - groups of concrete processes

    The most detail-oriented types who often have a superior ability in precise handwork. Such orientation leads them to assimilate information in small doses, as if in form of crumbs. The group includes managers and socialites who concern for the good of specific individuals. Their style of management is socially-oriented. The nature of this group carries elements of social justice and charity. SEI and LSE due to their innate nurturing capacity provide social assistance directly, while SEE and LSI promote and control charitable donations, subsidies and scarce resources.

    Left intuitive types: LIE, LII, IEE, IEI - group of general results

    This group is a complete opposite of the previous group. These types are the most "coarse" in their approach to information - they assimilate it in large blocks and are averse to getting into details. The style of this group are projects of training and education. The junction of scientism and humanitarianism. Approximation is characteristic of these types - sequential approach from a vague contour to a more specific result.

    LIE and IEI pick out ripe but easy problems that can be quickly solved with elements of play and optimism. IEE and LII are inclined to take on complicated, difficult problems that may require changes at level of foundation.

    Right intuitives: ILE, ILI, EIE, EII - group of ideational processes

    This group carries out translation of specific observations into overall theory. Generalists and synthesists. This group is inclined towards philosophical and religious conceptions. Often they have goals of synthesizing religion and science, rationalism and mysticism. Among their favorite topics are bioenergetics and extrasensory perception. This group works on the crossroads of scientism and humanitarianism.

    EIE and ILI are inclined to set unreal, impossible, idealized goals. ILE and EII gravitate more towards theories that have a chance of being implemented.

    Left sensing types: ESE, ESI, SLI, SLE - group of concrete results

    This group carries out implementation of generalized plans into something concrete. They never wait long and are only interested in projects that can be quickly implemented. They specialize in construction and habitation. They work on the interface of societal and managerial issues.

    ESE and SLI create comfortable conditions. SLE and ESI organize and protect newly created "oasis".

    5. Implementation groups

    Jung's dichotomy Logic-Ethics describes, on the one hand, the rational side of actions, the systematic work to promote innovation, and, on the other hand, the feminine and masculine origins in human psychology. Implementing, introducing, forcing through is the male role, while developing the right conditions, assimilating, stabilizing in the society as a whole is the female role.

    Left process + Logic = SLE, SLI, LII, LIE (strategy)
    Left process + Ethics = IEI, IEE, ESE, ESI (tactics)
    Right process + Logic = LSE, LSI, ILI, ILE (tactics)
    Right process + Ethics = EII, EIE, SEE, SEI (strategy)

    Left logical types: SLE, SLI, LII, LIE - most masculine types, left process and logical disposition are united within them

    Act bravely without looking back. Their field of activity lies at the junction of management and scientism. Localized introduction of promising ideas and developments into production. This brings the greatest violation of homeostasis.

    SLE and LIE are the best promoters i.e. managers of risky projects. SLI and LII are effective in the development of technological support.

    Right ethical types: EII, EIE, SEE, SEI - most feminine types, right process and ethical disposition are united within them

    They maintain that which has been established and is traditionally accepted. At times they fix new, more unusual customs if prompted. They operate at the intersection of social and humanitarian spheres - mass ideology, advertising companies, show business.

    SEE and EIE are advertisers, propagandists, entertainers, show agents. EII and SEI prompt movement towards new stereotypes.

    Left ethical types: IEI, IEE, ESE, ESI - intermediary types, transition of masculine to feminine, still masculine origins predominate in them

    Their spheres of activity are humanitarian and social. They undermine and destroy that which is routine and established, may take on traditionally male responsibilities. They bring localized focused implementation of humanitarian ideas. From large groups they transfer to small teams.

    ESE and IEE are enthusiasts and inspirers, shaking the foundations of the humdrum of life. IEI and ESI serve as internal motivators, deeply penetrating into the psyche.

    Right logical types: LSE, LSI, ILI, ILE - intermediary types, transition from feminine to masculine, still feminine origins predominate in them

    Main focus on this group is the junction of management and scientism, generalization of the practical experience in management. These types are inventors, rationalizers, creators of laws. They enable mass implementation of technologies.

    ILE and LSE make good inventors and innovators. ILI and LSI finalizers and explotationists.

    In real life ideals of femininity and masculinity gravitate towards the center. Extremely feminine manifestation (EII) as well as extremely masculine (SLE) are not considered harmonious.

    6. Stress tolerance of the groups

    Left and right types differ in their tolerance for stress. Certainty and clarity of the situation is favorable for the rational and right types. Vagueness, potential for development of some events gives the advantages to irrational and left types.

    Left + Rationality = mobilized by stress (democratic)
    Left + Irrationality = resistant to stress (aristocratic)
    Right + Rationality = vulnerable to stress (aristocratic)
    Right + Irrationality = frozen by stress (democratic)

    Right rational types: EIE, EII, LSE, LSI - vulnerable to stress

    This groups is the most unstable in conditions of prolonged stress. They are monolithic, but fragile. When they stick together they can successfully oppose hardships but separately they are easily scattered and taken out as their resistance drops sharply.

    Taking into account that rationality is related to the orientation in time (planning, order) as well as to speech as communication forms, and that the right progress is much more rational than the left in nature, we conclude that this group of types is strongly dependent on the time factor and verbal signals.

    In dealing with these types one can observe that they have as if anchors in time, easily developed habits to do this or that action at specific points in time. Their second dependency is related to the speech stream. EIE and LSI, for example, need a continuous supply of signals to their auditory system.

    Left irrational types: SLE, IEI, SLI, IEE - resistant to stress

    These types are elastic, springy. They are resilient against immediate stress loads. SLE and IEI maneuver and evade sudden blows. SLI and IEE wait the storm out in a safe location.

    These types have anchors in space - developed habits to do this or that actions in a certain location. For SLEs this is often their home, their territory. For SLIs this is their workplace where he feels relaxed and emboldened.

    Right irrational types: ILE, SEI, ILI, SEE - halted, frozen by stress

    These types try to avoid stress. They are viscous. Their communicative environment is similar to a sticky mass. They have a tendency to lose their resistance to stress over time. At first they react vigorously to a stimulus, but then subside.

    These types like the irrational types are more inclined to develop habits that are anchored in space. However due to their right-ness they emphasize such anchors less. Significant to them are kinesthetic sensations and reflexes, touch, smell, taste.

    Left rational types: ESE, LII, ESI, LIE - mobilized, trained by stress

    These types easily withstand small amounts of stress. They are stopped only by very fundamental shocks and even then only for a short while. Life is constantly training these types, making them more hardened (ESE, LIE) or more tolerant (ESI, LII). This is especially evident with the optimists LIE and ESE, who may find themselves re-starting their lives from complete zero.

    How do these types build anchors? To develop a stable habit a single tie to a specific moment in time is not enough for them. For additional stability they use visual anchors. These types are convinced not only by orderly process of events in time, but also by visual signals. ESE and ESI for example when they see disorder or an unkempt, sick person take measures immediately. LII and LIE start acting if they see signals of emotional response.

    7. Groups of inflation, or rings of benefit

    These groups are demonstratively of energetic character. Latin word iflatio means "bulging, swelling". With the use of these groups, socion is filled with energy. This is why these groups are unstable, short-lived. They overfill quickly if there isn't an outside force capable of containing the spill of energy.

    Mechanism of relations of social order (benefit) has a lot in common with the act of hypnosis - the act of benefactor on the subconscious of the beneficiary. Energy is transferred directly only if benefactor (sender) is able to somehow relax the beneficiary (receiver) and predispose him to the benefactor.

    With consciously critical attitude on the part of the beneficiary, the energy impulse is not transmitted. It is either blocked or even reversed, bringing into effect reverse order - a destructive process when emotional get heated causing a breakdown in the system. Information in this system undergoes inflation - it is devalued if not put into circulation immediately.

    The basis of the differences between inflation (benefit) rings lies in the way energy and information get used. Energy corresponds to extraversion, but also left progress. Similarly, information is tied with introversion, but also with the right progress.

    Left + Asking = recombinators, generators of information (introversion)
    Left + Declaring = transformators, energy carriers (extraversion)
    Right + Asking = combinators, generators of energy (extraversion)
    Right + Declaring = restorators, accumulators of information (introversion)

    Left extraverts: SLE, IEE, LIE, ESE - energy carriers

    These types are the most saturated with energy in the socion. They suffer from lack of fundamentally new information. Energizers of small groups. To be good at management and coordination, they have to break up large groups into small groups and then control these smaller groups.

    SLE and ESE solve concrete, immediate problems. IEE and LIE unite on basis of romanticism, they are captivated by more daring ideas.

    Right introverts: LSI, EII, ILI, SEI - accumulators of information

    ILI accumulates scientific or philosophical information, LSI accumulates operational or managerial information (both of these types make for the best collectors), EII - humanitarian information, SEI - social information (prices, services, events and holidays). They suffer from lack of energy. Specialize in informatics of large groups.

    LSI and SEI engage in solving immediate concrete problems at work or at home. ILI and EII cooperate on basis of philosophical, scientific, and spiritual topics.

    Left introverts: IEI, SLI, ESI, LII - generators of information

    These types translate energy into information. They function as stabilizers in socion. Suffer from weak ability to energetically impact their environment. They specialize in informatics of small groups and feel good in small groups of similar-minded individuals.

    IEI and LII capable of uniting a small group on the basis of some novel interesting information. SLI and ESI engage in solving problems relating to survival and well-being.

    Right extroverts: EIE, LSE, SEE, ILE - energy generators

    These types translate information into energy. They bring about energy processes in their environment. EIE and SEE with their words and actions evoke strong emotional reactions in others (for this reason they also make for the best actors).

    They specialize in energetics of large groups and for this reason realize themselves in such conditions. They have a tendency to unite small groups into larger groups. These are the most inflationary types, that start up energy chain reactions in the society.

    ILE and EIE are innovators and fighters for an idea. SEE and LSE draw in people for collective effects.

    8. Quadral structure of socion

    There are many possible configurations in socion, depending on which internal structure of small groups it operates. There exists a very large number of such structures. Only a few of these have been examined: temperamental-installational, perceptual-communicative, stimulative-argumentative [8].

    On the other hand, there exist functionally complete small groups and, above all, the quadra. Complementary to the quadra are rings of benefit. Lets recall that in each quadra there are four fixed roles - Gatekeeper, Culminator, Stabilizer, Finalist. Within each quadra, representatives of each ring of benefit play the same role. Intersection of quadra and rings of benefit (inflationary rings) give yet another structure of socion.

    Request/Quadra Gatekeepers Culminators Stabilizers Finalists
    Preparers SEI ILE LII ESE
    Creators LSI EIE IEI SLE
    Vibrators ILI SEE ESI LIE
    Perfectors EII LSE SLI IEE

    Due to rings of benefit that accomplish energy transfers, quadra mobilize each other in such a way that the previous one launches the following one [7]. This is the mechanism of quadra progression in historical development.

    Groups of progress introduce significant correction to the rational (ontogenic) course of development, serve as a factor that introduces disturbances. Thanks to them, in history there is no determinism (predestination). Events are first accelerated, then slowed down, then change direction in accordance to the subjective will of individuals, especially if these individuals are working together in a group with same progress orientation.

    Original article: http://socionics.kiev.ua/articles/fe...nd-group/wave/