Notes: Only part 6 of this article titled "Philosophy of Types" has been translated.
6. Philosophy of Types
The problem of incentives is closely related to the problem of existential motifs. This is a deeper and more abstract category, which I, as a representative of intuitive thinker class, would like to address in conclusion of this article. Each sociotype has its own existential outlook - a philosophically-oriented generalized concept of the driving force that directs other people and the world at large. From this particular interpretation it will follow how a type chooses to solve the question of the primacy of the material and the ideal. Those sociotypes whose motivation is primarily of material nature, I will conditionally call "materialists". All sensing types fall under this category. The opposing group of types, whose inner motivations are predominantly idealistic in nature, I will call "idealists". This group is comprised of all of the intuitive types.
As is known in philosophy, idealism can be divided into two branches - objective idealism, which recognizes in one shape or form the idea of god - external supra-material instance that governs the world, and subjective idealism, which supposes that our notions of the world are that which gives rise to it.
According to Jung, objective-oriented types are extraverts, subjective-oriented types are introverts. Consequently objective idealism is the philosophy of intuitive extraverts while subjective idealism - of intuitive introverts. In analogous manner this can be applied to the "materialist" sensing group: sensing introverts are thus subjective materialists while sensing extraverts are objective materialists. Different philosophical schools of thoughts will be treated rather loosely here, however, I am doing this for one purpose - to systematize existing observations about motivation of behavior on 16 levels.
Note: One should not forget that what is discussed here concerns motivations of types rather than concrete individuals - representatives of different types can embrace any philosophy.
Lets proceed to examine each type:
1. Objective idealists (ENxx)
- The Mentor (EIE): god, fate, destiny rule the world. This type is one of the most oriented at mysticism and religion, honestly believing in its own messiahood, seeing itself as a missionary for forces cosmic or divine.
- The Inventor (ILE): the universe is ruled by a universal intelligence. This sociotype more than others believes in ability of human mind to comprehend the most complex phenomena, in intelligent design of the objective world, in that it can be explained from the point of view of precise laws of logic. ("God does not play dice" - Einstein)
- The Psychologist (IEE): world is governed by a feeling that is more powerful than the individual; this is one of the most altruistic types that is capable of helping people not asking for anything in return. This type has a strong predisposition for empathy.
- The Entrepreneur (LIE): the creator of everything is living nature. This sociotype animates nature, itself becoming a dualist i.e. recognizing in equal measures the material and the idealistic beginnings that unite in the natural realm.
2. Subjective idealists (INxx)
- The Analyst (LII): the world is governed by a thought («Cogito ergo sum» - Descartes). If people come to understand the systematized laws that govern the society, then society can be structured with fairness. The most constructive of all sociotypes, supposing that any phenomenon can be defined by universal prime elements (archetypes, Forms, a priori categories) and the connections between them.
- The Critic (ILI): the world is governed by chance. Objective measures do not exist. Everything is relative and determined by probability. This type is most predisposed towards agnosticism of the intellect ("I only know that I know nothing" - Socrates). Knowledge is possible only when one attains complete inner clality and tranquility that can be achieved via meditation.
- The Lyrisist (IEI): the world is governed by state, mood. This type possesses the most malleable type of psyche. It is strongly influenced by its own internal disposition. Because of this it is very easy to persuade this type in any issue if one is persistent enough. However, it will just as easily discard beliefs that were imposed on it.
- The Reconciler (EII): the world is ruled by kindness. The type that is most predisposed to compassion, even if its words and feelings are not realized as actions. This type has idealistic notions about kindness and fairness and that if everybody abides by these notions in everyday life this will lead towards a more humanitarian society. However, these have to come from the depths of individual's soul rather than be imposed from the outside.
3. Objective materialists (ESxx)
- The Marshall (SLE): the world is ruled by power and strength. Most resolute of all sociotypes. Will enter an engagement only when he is sure that he has advantage in force or has found a weakness in the enemy forces. Objective reality, given to this type via his senses – this is what he trusts. Everything else is an illusion.
- The Politician (SEE): world is governed by connections, fame and prestige. Most cautious one of all sociotypes, as it learns everything through mistakes that have been made. It moves forward exploring its way by touch and trusting only its senses. Words, concepts, ideas – all of these are only instruments for exerting influence on people.
- The Enthusiast (ESE): the world is ruled by impulse, fervor, attraction. The most emotive of all types capable of influencing the moods of others. This type can be considered to be part of idealist group, as it is able to do only that which it finds likable. However, its dependence on the emotional state of others is quite material.
- The Administrator (LSE): the world is governed by labor, by work. This type has the most materialistically directed type of psyche. It will base its argument only on existing knowledge and laws. Completely dependent on the process of work, subjugating its own plans to it. Will reject any theories or schemes if they are not presented in a form of already established methods.
4. Subjective materialists (ISxx)
- The Inspector (LSI): the world is governed by order and discipline. This type is most dependent on organization of its concrete environment, completely subjugating itself to its adopted system. Every major alternative is rejected since deviation from accepted and polished system is equivalent to losing foothold and descending into uncontrollable chaos.
- The Guardian (ESI): the world is governed morality and moral duty. This type of mentality more than any other depends on its internal moral attitudes. The individual is in the right to treat others as they deserve. The existing system of relations and moral values is protected from any impositions from outside. Even objectively provoked passion can be brought under control at will.
- The Mediator (SEI): the world is ruled by pleasure. This sociotype will only do work that is pleasant and not tiresome. Quite conforming in behavior, this type easily adapts to the others believing that people will positively reciprocate if only an atmosphere of comfort is created and something is offered that will improve the pleasantness of their lives.
- The Craftsman (SLI): the world is ruled by usefulness. In accordance with its philosophy this type will not do anything that it perceives as useless for itself and will never offer this to others. The principle of minimal action by which the physical world lives is its principle as well. As the most technologically-minded type, this type believes that the best argument is the one that appeals to the common sense of man.