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Model A - a model of human information processing, consisting of 8 functions, 4 strong and 4 weak. The model is named in honor of Aushra Augustinavichiute.
Structure of the Model A
The model is a set of eight mental functions distributed across 4 levels, or horizontal blocks, filled with eight aspects of information metabolism. This model is a development on Jungian model.
It was based on Freud's model of the psyche, consisting of three components: conscious (Ego, "I"), supra-conscious (Super-ego, "supra-I") and subconscious (Id, "it"). Id from the Freud's model is divided into two blocks in the Model A: a strong vital block, that retained a Freudian name - Id, and a weak vital block - Super-id.
1, 3, 5, 7 - accepting functions; 2, 4, 6, 8 - producing functions
arrows next to dimension show the sign of the function:
← denotes plus in asking types and minus in declaring types
→ denotes plus in declaring types and minus in asking types.
|4-dimensional ←||3-dimensional →||creative block|
|painful (PoLR)||regulatory||non-verbal||"I should"|
|1-dimensional →||2-dimensional ←||block of social control|
|2-dimensional ←||1-dimensional →||block of individual activities|
|3-dimensional →||4-dimensional ←||block of individual control|
||Communication with the outside world|
Binary signs of the functions of model A
Commonly, each of the 8 functions is characterized by three orthogonal binary features:
1. strong - weak;
2. mental - vital;
3. accepting - producing.
All functions of the model A can be distinguished by the following dichotomies:
- Strong (control) functions are located in blocks of Ego and Id. This is the zone of one's abilities. They are presented confidently and independently, able to operate continuously and efficiently. Here, one's own point of view is more important than any other; it is to be propagated into the surrounding environment.
- Weak (executive) functions are in located in blocks of Super-ego and Super-id. These are anti-conscience and conscience of man; the adjustment to the society happens via these functions. This is a zone of perpetual oscillations and uncertainty. One's own view is either absent or weak, so that one can easily be persuaded to another's point of view.
- Mental functions - belonging to to the mental (active) ring of Model A. These functions are controlled by consciousness. The world and self is seen through these functions as if from outside, striving for objectivity and universality. The given information is impersonal, manifested in verbal form, on level of 2-signal system.
- Vital functions - belonging to the vital (passive) ring of Model A. These functions are subconscious and subject to little conscious control. The world becomes known through own feelings and experiences, through a projection inside. The vital functions are characterized by subjectivity, idiosyncratic representation. The result is usually embodied in actions, through 1-signal system. The arguments are made from first-person.
- Accepting functions - These function as means of learning about the surrounding world. These are the first functions in the model to receive information from the outside. Their task is to obtain a model of reality, their goal - to understand what is transpiring.
- Producing functions - These function as means of changing the reality. Being located in the model after the accepting functions, producing functions find solutions to the tasks set before them. Thus, they do not merely reflect the reality, as accepting functions do, but generate an altered, imagined picture of the world, which serves as a solution of their tasks.
- Inert (reference) functions - These functions are rather rigid in their functioning; they are almost immune to internal changes. They require an external impulse of sufficient strength so that something in them changes. They are characterized by fairly long response, and often a fixate on the state to which the external impact has led. Thus they tend towards relative permanence.
- Contact functions - These functions are very mobile and able to manage their state well. It is through these functions that a primary reaction to an outside impact is developed. They produce an initial processing of information received, they also generate final decisions. Thus, their activity is determined by what's transpiring around or current tasks, among which they can easily switch.
- Verbal (discursive) functions (or overvalued) belong to clusters of ego and super-Id. They provide the active exchange of information between people. Information on these functions is interesting, and easily discussed. They tend to self-development.
- Non-verbal (working, cooperative) functions belong to the blocks of super-ego and id. Aspects of these functions are not negotiable, prefer to receive help through action, deeds. Activity is limited to immediate needs and demands of society.
- Evaluative functions - These are inert functions of mental ring and contact functions of vital ring. Through them, a individual evaluates another (mental inert functions) and awaits the evaluation of him/herself from others (vital contact functions). These estimates are only weakly susceptible to changes.
- Situational functions - These are contact functions of the mental ring and inert functions of the vital ring. These functions are characterized by adjustment to the current situation and avoidance of evaluations of another. Estimates are given only to specific actions.
- Exterior (permanent) - These are accepting functions of the mental ring and producing functions of the vital ring. Functions that contain aspects of one color - black for extroverts and white for introverts. It is characteristic for them to consider certain aspects to be part of an invariable essence of the world, and strive to leave them in the form in which they are. External changes are perceived as something inevitable but not characteristic.
- Interior (variable) - These are producing functions of the mental ring and accepting functions of the vital ring. These functions tend to see in their aspects elements that should be changed in the first place. They are either actively influencing the world or passively expecting changes from it.
The dimensionality of the functions of the Model A
The notion of dimensionality of functions was introduced by A. V. Bukalov in 1989 by analogy with the dimension of functions in mathematics, then this concept was used by Yermak, Vladimir Davidovich. According to him, the manifestations of the functions of model A correspond to experience, norms, situations and time.
|1||Program||4||experience, the norm, the situation, time|
|2||Creative||3||experience, the norm, the situation|
|3||Role||2||experience, the norm|
|6||Activation||2||experience, the norm|
|7||Observation||3||experience, the norm, the situation|
|8||Demonstrative||4||experience, the norm, the situation, time|
1 - Ex (Eng. Experience) All functions can accumulate and use one's own life experience. Functions owning only experience (painful, suggestive) often issue an inadequate response to the situation, if the situation is unfamiliar through experience. Vera Novikova introduced the concept of mode of perception of information. Perception of information on these functions is transpiring in the mode of the past. Reaction on these functions is often inadequate to the current situation. Understanding of the situation comes later, often a while later when the relevance is lost.
2 - Nr (Eng. Norm) Norms apply to all functions except painful and suggestive. Norms include societal norms - social rules (etiquette), guidelines, laws, another's experience. The dimensionality [measure] of norm determines the susceptibility of the function to how others are acting in the situation. According to Novikova, the mode of perception is a static present - reaction to the current situation, without taking into account possible consequences.
3 - St (Eng. Situation) Situation is applicable to all the strong functions. They are capable of developing new relations, effectively using the exceptions to the rules, generalizing information into patterns - of generating new knowledge and experience. According to Novikova, the mode of perception is the dynamic present - reactions to the situation accounting for trends and possible developments.
4 - Tm. (Eng. Time) Time is attributable only to base and demonstrative functions. Reaction is linked to time: reaction to a similar situation at a different time may have been different, estimates will vary. According to Novikova, the mode of perception is the future - predictions of the situation, actions aimed at getting ahead, at future prospects, ability to think in a virtual time scale.
Signs of functions of model A
The concept of sign functions is widely used by Yermak, although Victor Gulenko introduced them. According to Yermak, signs define "quality", "scale" "orientation" and "distance" of functions.
Signs of the functions define the following four properties of functions:
- "+" Maximizing the positive. Competence only in the field of positive properties. Avoidance, fear of negative.
- "-" Priority to leave [move away from] the negative. Competence in both positive and negative fields.
- "+" Close Up, locality, the detail in the limited area of competence.
- "-" The general plan, globality, universality.
- "+" Inside, into the area of responsibility. Protecting yours.
- "-" Outside, capturing of new, influence.
- "+" Close psychological distance.
- "-" Large psychological distance.
Mental ring contains the functions responsible for social activity. These manifest consciously.
Also called a creative block, or block "I know", or "adult" block. Most of social activity manifests through this block. This is a strong block, thus the person is sure in its functioning and ready to defend own views and interests. This is the block on which the person meets the needs of society.
- 1st: a program - mental strong accepting;
- 2nd: creative - mental strong producing.
Also known as block of social control, block of "must" or "should". " Weak block, the social unit presents its own demands to the individual on this block, who is forced to comply with these requirements. Since the functions are of perceived weakness, the person attaches great importance to its development and fulfillment.
- 3rd: role - mental weak accepting;
- 4th: painful - mental weak producing.
Vital ring consists of the functions responsible for the individual needs of man. They appear usually unconsciously.
Also called a block of individual activity, block of "I want". Through this block people present their demands to society. This block is weak and unconscious, so it can be easily manipulated by others. An individual can manifest activity of this block, but to do so productively and at length is difficult. The block also lends itself to filling, so from aside may look as a strong block.
- 5th: suggestive - vital weak accepting;
- 6th: activation - vital weak producing.
... or the individual block of control, block of "I can". Also meets the needs of the individual, but those that one can provide for oneself, as this is a relatively strong unit. Individual can show activity in this block for prolonged period of time, and usually in silence and alone, without seeking to exchange information.
- 7th: observation - vital strong accepting;
- 8th: background - vital strong producing.
Completing the Model A
Model A is filled with eight aspects of the information metabolism:
1. internal static body - Ne black intuition, intuition of opportunities;
2. external static body - Se black sensing, volitional sensing;
3. external dynamics of the body - Te black logic, business logic;
4. internal dynamics of the body - Fe black ethics, ethics of emotions;
5. internal dynamics of the field - Ni white intuition, the intuition of time;
6. external dynamics of the field - Si white sensing, sensing sensations; (?)
7. external static field - Ti white logic, the structural logic;
8. internal static field - Fi white ethics, ethics of relations.
Principles of Model A
1. The principle of displacement. Functions that differ only on characteristic vital-mental contain aspects that differ only in aspect body-field. (Function in the mental ring displaces a similar function with a different color into the vital ring.)
2. Principle of complementarity. Functions that differ only in characteristic accepting-producing, complement each other. (perceiving-judging)
3. The principle of homogeneity. Functions that differ only by strength, differ only on the basis of form-content aspects.
Model A for each TIM (TIM - Type of Information Metabolism)
Structure of the Model A for each of TIM, the signs of the functions specified by Yermak. [Mental and vital ring elements have reversed signs within each quadra.]
For example, for ILE:
Structure of the Model A for each of the TIM, signs are shown on the work Tsypina "Encyclopedia of relations." [What is known on this forum as "+/- quadra elements".]
Work of Model A
The order of the functions of the model A is a consensus among socionists. To some extent, the standard is described in the works of Augustinavichiute diagram showing the transfer of information on the rings (the mental and vital) consecutively in the order 1 → 2 → 3 → 4 → 1 and 5 → 6 → 7 → 8 → 5. Accordingly, the main entry point for incoming information are role-playing and suggestive functions, exit points - creative and background, that is, information exchange with the outside world "meets" all the contact function.