Wikisocion - Romantic & Sexual Behavior of Quadra and Subtypes
Harmonization of Relations in Duality Pairs by V. Meged
Making Duality Work by V. Meged
Original article http://www.socioniko.net/en/articles/sexual.html
Sexual Compatibility in the Quadras by A. Boukalov
Disclaimer: these are only preliminary results based on questioning a small group of people whose socionic types were known to the author. Future experimental researches may confirm or disprove some of the facts presented here.
A unique program of interaction in intimate relationships characterizes each quadra. Quadra-mates are sexually the most compatible partners. We made a hypothesis that these programs correlate with the so-called perinatal matrices described by Stanislaw Grof.
The sexual program of Alpha Quadra is characterized by tender touches and caresses. In the dyad SEI-ILE, partners "love each other by their skin", as if dissolving in each other's embraces. The sensing types SEI and ESE enjoy being gently stroked on their skin. However, the ESE is much more emotional and passionate in his love manifestations, because he has to shake up and active his dual, the LII. The SEI, as an irrational type, shows more creativity and flexibility in comparison. Intuitive-logical types, LII and ILE, especially women, initially show less activity. Mirror relations between LII and ILE are characterized by a paucity of emotions and feelings, since both are logical and intuitive types. Mirror relations between ESE and SEI are accompanied by bright emotions and sensations, but there is often an accumulation of mutual subconscious dissatisfaction with each other. In general, mirror relations in marriage slowly "neuroticize" both partners. The ESE suffers more from this due to his rationality, while on irrational SEI this has a lesser effect.
In second, Beta quadra the nature of sexual program is of a very different kind. Here, tender touches and strokes leave partners indifferent. Instead they strive for an intense effect on each other's skin, which manifests in strong embraces, when partners squeeze and press each other. Both sensing type, SLE and LSI, are very jealous: one thought of their partner's infidelity may poison their life. It is not a mere accident that William Shakespeare, an EIE, describes how Othello (LSI) squeezes Desdemona when he is trying to kill her. Let us consider a real example: a married couple, students, an LSI (husband) and an EIE (wife), live in communal housing. Since the wife is a sociable extravert, her husband is often jealous of her contacts with their neighbors. The scenes resemble those of Shakespeare: "Whom have you been with?" the LSI husband asks and puts his hands on his wife's neck. She screams out, and he releases her out of fright. As for the SLE, he/she can in the moments of intercourse give accurate and decisive commands to the IEI. Mirror relations between SLE and LSI are quite complicated: in order to adapt to the partner, the SLE needs to constantly control himself, to keep himself in check. This tires him out, but if he doesn't do this, he "neuroticizes" the LSI by his sensory leading function, which is absent in the EIE. From EIE the LSI expects expressive dramatic feelings and support for his/her sensory initiatives. Meanwhile, the partners may adopt the most unbelievable positions.
It is interesting to note that when types from different quadra meet, they view each other's behavioral peculiarities as unusual, which includes sexual behavior. Thus, a female ESI was quite amazed by attempts of a male IEI to squeeze her – she had to "teach him anew".
The sexual program of the third, Gamma quadra is very dynamic and often characterized by acrobatic behaviors of the partners. In dual dyad SEE-ILI, the initiative is almost always in the hands of the SEE, who uses his sensory function to direct his ILI partner. The ILI submits even when he is simply decisively taken by the hand. One ILI said: "If I am taken by the hand and led, I would follow at once. I wouldn't resist it but submit to the partner's control." When it comes to the dual dyad ESI-LIE, here a frequent change of positions, high intensity of feelings, and high number of intercourses within short periods of time (for example, a couple of days) with subsequent long periods of cool down, relaxation and restoration of forces, are all characteristic. If the SEE cools down after the intercourse very quickly, the ESI might need one-two hours of strokes and caresses by his partner. Mirror relations between ESI and SEE resemble the mirror relations between LSI and SLE: ESI is also quite jealous.
It is interesting in this regard to compare the intimate relations of SEI and SEE. These are called "contrary" relations, or relations of complete opposites. This may result in partner quickly growing cold towards each other, especially the introvert, as they completely extinguish each other in sensory and emotional sense. In "contrary" couples IEI-IEE and ILI-ILE such extinguishment effect is weaker and slower to take place, because their sensing functions reside in unconscious perception of both partners.
Playful behavior, laughing, tender pinches of the partner, etc. are descriptive of the sexual program of the fourth, Delta quadra. The LSE shows more energy, though less creativity, in order to "wind up" his shy dual EII, and therefore he holds back less compared to the SLI. The SLI reserves his energies instead but shows more creativity with his dual the IEE; for both of them the approach is alike a high form of art. Female IEEs are characterized by wriggling, coquettish, cat-like movements. This dyad is strongly affected by external stimuli: movies, writing, lyrics, pictures, literature. A weak spot of IEE is pity or sympathy: a partner can be successful by telling stories of his sufferings and misfortunes. In this situation, the IEE becomes gentle and tender, and feels an urgent need to provide some relief. Incidentally, another epithet for IEE is "Don Juan": he can successfully court a woman, but in the last moment evade physical closeness. In this, IEE's dual SLI and activator LSE take the initiative into their own hands.
Erotic Programs of the Quadras
Excerpt from the article http://socionic.info/ru/t/valia-501.html
Love does not consist of gazing at each other, but in looking outward together in the same direction.
— Antoine de Saint-Exupéry
Achieving a sense of harmony in relationships largely depends on the emotional and sexual programs of the quadras, which each include certain dual pairs. Each quadra, consisting of four personality types, has a specific social mission in society. Within these groups are attitudes and values that unite such seemingly different people under a common program of action. Each personality type has its own role, but in the end, each is still subject to the problems of their respective quadras. The same happens with the emotional-sexual program of each of the quadras. A shared psycho-emotional and erotic spirit is inherent to the members of each quadra, superimposed on the individual characteristics of each type. These emotional and erotic patterns can be considered as common to the members of each quadra.
First Quadra, Alpha
Types: SEI, ILE, LII, ESE
Motto: "To reflect and enjoy"
This quadra is characterized by a general, prevailing attitude to establish pleasant relationships without any problems, which may appear to have a "superficial" character. Mutual demands are satisfied through compromise. Grievances are quickly forgotten. They value having a sense of humor and responsiveness to erotic stimuli. Common interests that are shared in an atmosphere of light, positive emotional experiences helps to strengthen their relationships. In sexual relations, they value freedom and openness. Partners are attuned to seek perfection and intensity in their sexual experiences. They are characterized not so much by their responsiveness to verbal stimuli, but to touches and caresses. They are invigorated by fun, entertainment, and delicious food.
Second Quadra, Beta
Types: LSI, EIE, IEI, SLE
Motto: "To endure and conquer"
Types in this quadra are characterized by a desire to test the strength of their feelings. Feelings of mistrust give rise to their tendency for strong relationships with jealous and possessive sentiments. When there is a lack of trust - deep, strong, and often dramatic experiences contribute to frequent quarrels followed by successive reconciliations. Such volatile emotional states are full of contradictions. A balance is achieved through suppression and submission of partners. Their sexuality is characterized by a mood of seriousness and passion. Often, one partner will behave in the opposite way of what the other expects, resulting in contrasting behaviors and sudden, unexpected emotional effects. For types in this quadra, coercive and defensive behavioral tendencies are sexually stimulating.
Third Quadra, Gamma
Types: ILI, SEE, ESI, LIE
Motto: "To collaborate and acquire"
This quadra's awareness and understanding of financial issues is dictated by an attitude towards mutual, material benefit between partners. They find a special significance in acquiring gifts and assistance in resolving business matters. This creates a favorable atmosphere and is also one of their erotic stimuli. However, in a quadra that is generally inclined towards stable relationships, problems of mutual understanding, frequent doubts, contradictions, and instability of emotions gives rise to crises and unexpected turns. The inherent emotional endurance of this quadra, combined with their rationality and practicality, helps them to cope with these issues. Between partners, volatile sexual patterns are the norm - from complete spiritual and physical mergers to estrangement. They are excited by light acts of resistance in a variety of settings.
Fourth Quadra, Delta
Types: EII, LSE, SLI, IEE
Motto: "To protect and help"
The spirit of this quadra is characterized by an aggravated reaction to mental and physical discomfort. Therefore, a desire for harmony in all aspects of life is of special importance to them. They are stimulated by the combination of a beautiful and comfortable environment, delicious food, sincerity, and trust. It is necessary for them to care for the mental and physical comfort of their partners, as well as having safety and security in their relationships. For them, deep feelings imply a full understanding of, sensitivity to, and consideration for their partner's problems. They value mutual assistance in all things. Without this kind of responsiveness, harmonious sex can be problematic. The slightest faux pas or misunderstanding in a relationship can have an oppressive effect on their sex lives.
Sexual Behavior of the Subtypes
Excerpts from descriptions on Wikisocion
'''ILE-Ne''': May show little initiative, but once he is assured of reciprocity of feelings he becomes kind, affectionate, and agreeable. Not inclined to hurry, likes extended preparations. Strives towards new impressions, but tries to be diplomatic to avoid conflicts. His sexual interest is periodic in its nature. With him it is necessary to show patience, modesty, and restraint. First of all, one must evoke his respect and confidence in one's feelings, and then lightly and diplomatically nudge him towards showing some initiative in physical enjoyment, as a great source of health, happiness and pleasure.
'''ILE-Ti''': Somewhat distrustful of feelings and may be tactless. But if he is certain of love, he shows initiative, becomes kind, tries to do something enjoyable and pleasing for his partner, improves sexual techniques. Needs a decisive, emotional, and sexual partner, who is able to quickly convince him of his feelings and evoke reciprocity in him. With him it is necessary to constantly use emotional stimuli: quips and jokes, coquetry and jealousy.
'''SEI-Si''': Very sexual, creative, and diverse in intimate sense. Softly but persistently takes initiative in getting close. Diplomatic and careful, knows how to persuade. Likes stability in relations and doesn't easily forgive betrayal. Inclined to emotional involvements, but doesn't always follow the call of his feelings. In need of someone who can evoke his respect and admiration by their own extraordinary capabilities. This helps to keep his interest for a long time, on the condition that this person needs his care and doesn't push him away by asserting independence.
'''SEI-Fe''': Romantic in love, emotional, a good speaker. Pleasant and yielding, yet also sensitive and easily offended. Subject to sharp fluctuations in feelings. May be impatient and try to hurry the events. Values frequent sexual contacts. Inclined to deeply feel his affections. Frequently, he is inconstant and unstable in his feelings, but very attentive towards those whom he loves. He needs to be teased a bit by uncertainty, to be intrigued and captivated, then shown initiative when reciprocity in feelings is evident. When his interest wanes, it can help to evoke light jealousy.
'''LII-Ti''': Doesn't feel himself confident in the sphere of feelings, secretive and mistrustful. Desires relations that are constant and stable. With difficulty takes initiative in making contacts, does this only when he is sure of reciprocity in feelings. Often reserved in expression of feelings. He is a loyal partner. It is needed to do pleasant things for him, to prepare a nice meal, to care for his physical tension, to take sexual initiative, to fulfill his requests. He is undemanding in his needs, but doesn't like it when his rules and principles are transgressed.
'''LII-Ne''': Attentive and internally emotional partner. Easily responds to sexual initiatives, but himself doesn't make them very often. Careful and farsighted. Inclined to sharp changes in moods, can be inconsistent in his feelings. Erotically affectionate and tender, seeks new impressions. In intimate sense one needs to show him warmth, trust, and sincere care, to introduce more variety into sex, to raise his mood. Being intrusive and limiting his freedom is not recommended.
'''ESE-Fe''': Very emotional, can idealize the object of his love. Strives for stable relations, is mistrustful and wary. Tries to maintain an interest in himself. It is necessary to pay attention to the problems of such partner, otherwise there is a risk of disappointing him. It is also needed to not give him any grounds for jealousy, to be tolerant, to behave correctly, calmly and evenly. This will help to keep stable and trusting relations, of which he is truly in need.
'''ESE-Si''': Often shows initiative in sex, attentive and caring, and knows how to give pleasure. Diplomatic and sincere in communication. Very demanding partner. Gravitates towards new impressions, curious in sex and willingly experiments. Poorly foresees the consequences of his actions, rash and impulsive in his decisions. In a relationship with him one needs to show responsiveness in feelings and creativity, and avoid routine and overloading him with everyday chores and problems.
'''EIE-Fe''': Not confident in himself, subject to doubts and fluctuations. Erotically does not take initiative. Inclined to analyze behavior of his partner. Quite sentimental, a romantic in his soul. With those whom he loves he is sensitive and caring. Tires quickly from routine. Strives for stable relations, constant in his attachments, discerning of his connections. Very impressionable, does not forgive rudeness and incorrect behavior. He needs a serious, imperturbable, correct and self-controlled partner. He is impressed by hardworking, knowledgeable, knowing what they want and capable of dissuading any doubts people.
'''EIE-Ni''': Strongly feels his attractions and often dramatizes events. Inclined to idealize the object of his love. Even if he is sure of reciprocity in feelings, at times he is contradictory and unpredictable in how he acts. In intimate life can be original, passionate, and sexual, then suddenly display haughtiness, coldness, inclination to inconstancy. Very sensitive, emotional, easily offended, and jealous. Expressive by various tints of emotion. Inclined to internally accumulate feelings and needs to periodically discharge them through communication, quarrels, reconciliations, etc. He is impressed by caring, persistent, emotional in measure, initiative-taking partner who can calm him down, encourage him, and reassure and instill confidence in own feelings.
'''LSI-Ti''': Strives towards clarity and certainty, restrained in expression of his feelings, aims for stable relations, poorly tolerates quarrels. Inclined to experience doubts and mistrust. With his partner shows care, does small pleasant things, gives gifts. Needs a sensitive and delicate partner, because he is rather linear and simple in sexual interaction and quite constrained in expression of his emotions, both positive and negative ones. In need of an attentive and caring partner who won't try to impose his will on him. This should be a person who is amenable to his persuasions and who fulfills all of his requirements.
'''LSI-Se''': Thoughtful, attentive, and initiative-taking in courtship, but rather monotonous in the erotic sense. Knows how to give compliments and establish close contacts with people. Emotional, hot tempered, decisive, at time sharp and blunt. Persistent and obstinate, knows how to attain a goal by any means possible. Needs a sexual, emotional, romantic partner with whom he won't get bored. He needs someone who is a flexible diplomat, who knows how to discharge emotions, how to forgive and not keep resentments.
'''SLE-Se''': Demonstrative and unpredictable in his behavior. Persistent and sexually daring. Animated in communication, possesses a sense of humor. Very emotional and inclined to ignore the feelings and relationships of others and not take their interests into account. Sexual and diverse in both his moods and erotic reactions. Possessive and demanding as a partner, but can be caring and affectionate. Jealous and unrestrained. A gourmand, strives towards variety in sensations. Appreciates originality in everything. Needs a sensitive, caring partner. He is impressed by an attentive, loyal, dependable partner, who fully yields initiative to him, and who shares his drive for order and industriousness in keeping the household.
'''SLE-Ti''': For a long time doubts feelings of his partner, tends to occupy a "wait and see" position. Somewhat restrained in displaying his feelings and emotions, waits for initiative from others, but does so in extreme cases. Then, he becomes tender and attentive, strives towards improvements in sexual techniques. In his soul, he is sentimental. Private, remembers offenses for a long time. He needs a person who is agreeable, flexible and diplomatic. Someone who is affectionate, attractive, merry and optimistic.
'''IEI-Ni''': Takes little initiative, is patient and somewhat shy. Romantic, elevated in his feelings, dreams of great love for all time. Yielding in everyday matters, tries to be practical and industrious if his partner demands it. Not brave in sex, but strives for sexual harmony and reaching both spiritual and physical perfection. Somewhat unsure of himself. He needs a volitional, decisive, active and energetic partner, who possesses a sense of humor and knows how to instill faith and confidence in a positive outcome.
'''IEI-Fe''': Very emotional. Expresses his emotions easily and artistically. Coquettish, charming, enticing, dresses with taste. Aesthete in relations, values good manners. Knows how to provoke activity and initiative from a partner who is attractive to him. Diplomatic, but at times capricious, demanding, easily offended, and indignant for any minor reason, although does not hold resentments for long. Likes sexual games, prolonged preparations. Needs a strong, loyal, practical, sensitive and initiative-taking partner who would be a solid support in life.
'''SEE-Se''': Very contradictory in his behavior: at times sharp and pushy, other times affectionate, considerate, and diplomatic. Emotional, dramatically shows his emotions by gestures, gaze, and behavior. Characterized by unpredictable reactions. Quite impatient, strives towards physical realization of his emotions. He likes promising but somewhat unset in their desires partners. Inventive in the erotic. Easily takes offense, vulnerable, and capricious. Appreciates care, kindness, and tact. His search for an ideal partner may go on for a long time. Needs a wise, patient, yielding person, who knows how to forgive and fulfill most of his requirements, who is critical to a measure and not boring.
'''SEE-Fi''': Soft yet persistent partner. Always knows what he wants and knows how to reach it. Appreciates politeness, aesthetics, and good manners. Can take initiative in sex, but might also await for it from another. Dislikes it when someone imposes feelings on him that he doesn't share. Inclined to family life, even though he tends towards leadership. Likes calm and order, that his partner needs to introduce into his life. Strives towards coziness, comfort, is sufficiently industrious and active, willingly travels. Needs a sober-minded, reasonable, hard-working partner, who knows how to provide for the family and evoke respect. Of the rest he will take care himself.
'''ILI-Ni''': Internally sensitive, inclined to doubts and fluctuations. Lenient towards weaknesses of others, rarely loses control of himself. Strives towards calm, harmonious relations. Somewhat unsure in the erotic, mistrustful and cautious. Needs prolonged courtship or sexual preparation and other signs of love. Not against "tormenting" a bit the object of his love in order to achieve a greater peak of emotions. Requires understanding and respect. Needs an optimistic and diplomatic partner, who knows how to persuade and who is capable of dispelling all his doubts. In the erotic, waits for the initiative from another, which can lead to misunderstandings if his partner is not inclined to show it.
'''ILI-Te''': Values activity, decisiveness, and enterprise. Sensible, reliable, and constant in his feelings. Attributes much significance to material and soulful comfort, order, and economic management of the household. Gives a certain measure of freedom to his partner, but dislikes extremes and tries to stabilize relations. Likes emotional preparation and high level of sexual technique. Needs a partner who would encourage him in his own initiatives. He is impressed by willful and practical people, who strengthen the family/household’s prosperity and welfare. Builds relations with such a person on basis of reasonable compromises.
'''LIE-Te''': His attitude towards sex is somewhat conservative and rational. Values high ethical qualities, strives for stable and long relations. Tries to lead a simple healthy sexual life, primarily with one partner, whose pleasure and satisfaction is important for him. Easily takes offense, inclined to jealousy and possessive attitudes. Needs a diplomatic, sensitive, responsive partner. Likes serious, emotional within measure people who can understanding him. His partner needs to demonstrate leniency, and at the same time be able to diversify erotic impressions.
'''LIE-Ni''': Independent and romantic, with unexpected reactions. Inclined to frequent changes of impressions and of partners. Impatient, hurries events, prone to hurry sexual relations setting them an accelerated pace. Affectionate, tender, considerate. Possesses a sense of humor. Expresses his emotions in a humorous, joking form. Daring, readily takes initiative, values reciprocity. Easily takes offense, impulsive. If he is unsure of reciprocal feelings, may seek closeness with other partners. In need of a volitional person, who would be able to keep a hold on him. Finds support in an industrious, sexual, and reliable partner.
'''ESI-Fi''': Tends to stability, constancy, and sincerity in relations. Expresses his attitudes by gaze, words, and care. Attentive to detail, cautious, wary. In need of a partner who is not very demanding. This must be an industrious person, interested in creating and maintaining order, comfort, and prosperity. His partner must be inclined to enjoyment to a measure, but loyal in his sentiments and attachments. Otherwise, he may break up relations and ignore any persuasions and compromises.
'''ESI-Se''': Emotional, usually restrained in his feeling, but capable of taking initiative if he feels that his partner finds it difficult, however, does so only when he is sure of reciprocity in feelings. Has many hidden complexes. It is difficult for him to loosen up and become uninhibited. Due to this may seem cold in erotic sense. Needs both romantic and practical proofs of love and affection, and a partner who takes initiative and is confident in his feelings. He is impressed by flexible, dynamic people, who can jokingly remove tension or suspicions, and instill confidence in a positive outcome of events.
'''LSE-Te''': Proud and restrained. Not inclined to doubt feelings. Stable and constant, does not forgive betrayals. Straightforward, uncontrived, and persistent in relations. Simple and linear in the erotic. Dislikes indeterminacy, coquetry, verbal expressions of feelings, and frivolousness in behavior. Often puts matters above feelings, capable of demonstrating coldness, and thus needs a patient, self-controlled partner. Discerning and picky in his contacts. He is in need of an agreeable, amiable, industrious, diligent partner who likes order in everything.
'''LSE-Si''': Very erotic, sentimental in his soul, but about feelings prefers to talk in a joking manner. Inclined to jealousy, mistrust, exaggerations, may easily takes offense. Emotional and energetic. In erotic sense is initiative-taking and sexual partner. Very much appreciates pleasant sensations of any kind: great food, convenience, aesthetics, good manners. Demonstrates diplomacy in the interests of business and predisposes people towards trust. Values friendship and love, always ready to come to aid. He needs a sufficiently teasing and flirtatious, romantic partner, who readily responds to erotic initiatives. He is best matched by a modest, reliable, self-controlled, but emotionally variable person.
'''EII-Fi''': Trusting, loyal, an idealist in his soul. Internally emotional but outwardly tries to control his feelings. A reliable partner disposed to stable relations. Kind and soft, however, demanding and stubborn in relations, and does not forgive betrayals. Strives towards aesthetics, harmony, and perfection in sex. Vulnerable, and very dependent on the emotional state of those whom he loves. Requires proofs of love. Needs a an optimistic, confident in himself and his feelings partner. In sexual life he is a follower and yields to the requirements of his partner. He is attracted by initiative-taking, emotional people.
'''EII-Ne''': Self-controlled, inclined to indeterminacy and having doubts, vacillates in making decisions, indecisive. Unsure of his feelings. Principled and uncompromising in the questions of loyalty and honor. In erotic sense he is yielding and somewhat shy, waits for initiative from another. At times unpredictable, inclined to have fantasies. Likes to improve and perfect sexual relations. Somewhat reserved and talks of his worries with people close to him. In need of an active, industrious, practical partner who is accurate and concrete in his words and intentions. He is attracted by honest, specific, clear and set in their wishes and desires people with strong character and a sense of duty.
'''IEE-Ne''': Strives for novelty in sensations, cannot tolerate routine in feelings. Seeks reciprocity and harmony in sexual relations. Internally impressionable and easily offended, which makes his behavior at times sharp and unpredictable. An idealist and a romantic, searches for perfection in love. Distrustful, is constantly analyzing his own feelings and those of his partner. Aims for mutual sincerity. Dislikes indeterminacy. He is somewhat unsure of himself and not inclined to independently take on decisions. Values care and concern of another, which makes him serene and yielding. Blooms next to a sensual and attentive person, capable of encouraging him and freeing him from doubts.
'''IEE-Fi''': Emotional and affectionate, optimistic, and initiative-taking. Inclined to unique expressions of his feelings. Inventive in the erotic sense when he sees that his partner appreciates this. When angry loses self-control, thus needs a level-headed and patient partner. Then he becomes sincere, natural, unaffected and spontaneous in his emotional expression. Need someone who intrigues by his secretiveness and seems unsure in him/herself. Likes being the leader in relations and masterfully builds reciprocity. In need of a person who is active, hard-working, energetic, reliable, who would know how to explain things to him and grant stability to these relations.
'''SLI-Si''': Knows how to intrigue a partner. Not hurried in enjoyments. Very caring and thoughtful, and strives to achieve the highest level of harmony. Inventive and sexual in the erotic sense. Values beauty and aesthetics. Does not tolerate monotony. Knows how to introduce an element of a game into relations. Very sensitive, predisposed to apathy. Any monotony in relations lowers the vitality of his feelings. He is attracted to a moderately agreeable and lenient partner, with a rich imagination, and variable in his behavior. At the same time, he gets irritated by those who are too initiative-taking and commanding by their nature.
'''SLI-Te''': Unsure of his feelings, but brave and initiative-taking in the erotic sense. Thinks more about the satisfaction and sensations of his partner, and later about his own. Strives towards high sexual technique. At times sharp, blunt, and impatient. Not sentimental, tries of talk of his feelings in a joking form. Jealous and mistrustful, but hides this under the mask of imperturbability. Inclined to stable relations with one partner. Characterized by abrupt changes in his moods, often feels skeptical. Internally vulnerable, inclined to despair and depression. Needs an optimistically oriented person, who knows how to encourage and interest him by interesting prospects and proposals.