• MBTI: Descriptions of cognitive functions from various sources




    MBTI: Descriptions of cognitive functions from various sources



    Related articles and topics:

    MBTI Tests and Resources
    Lenore Thomson's Descriptions of Cognitive Functions
    Jung's Theory of Psychological Type: Lenore Thomson Interview
    MBTI: Foundations and Personality Types
    MBTI: Experiencing Different Function-Attitudes
    MBTI: A Closer Examination of Feeling & Thinking
    MBTI: Functional Descriptions by J. H. van der Hoop
    Cognitive Processes and Epistemologic Parallels
    Psychological Types by C. G. Jung: Chapter X
    Individuation and Differentiation of Functions
    SolitaryWalker's NT Profiles
    SolitaryWalker's NF Profiles
    Simulatedworld's Profiles for Introverted Types
    Simulatedworld's Profiles for Extraverted Types
    Lenore Thomson's MBTI type profiles
    INFP vs. INFJ


    Introduction to MBTI functions by simulatedworld:

    Jung observed two types of general cognition:

    1. Perception – perceiving that something is there, that something exists
    2. and Judgment – assessing, evaluating, judging information

    He said that there are two styles of Perception - Sensing, which deals with tangible information, the physical, immediate, sensory, concrete; and Intuition, which deals with non-tangible information, generalizations, abstraction, hidden relationships between people, things, and concepts. There are also two styles of Judgment: Thinking, which deals with impersonal logic and structure; and Feeling, which deals with more personal kind of information.

    Furthermore, each of these four processes can be directed inwardly i.e. introverted, which means it's conceptualized subjectively in terms of the self; or externally i.e. extroverted, which means it's conceptualized objectively in terms of not-self. Introverts view the world in terms of what reflection external objects, people, and events evoke within themselves; they internally mirror the external. Thus their understanding is subjective but also attentive of implicit, inferential perspectives and judgements. Extroverts' perception isn't dependent on the point of view of observer, so their inner world is similar to the external world. Their perception is thus more objective, mirroring things as they are, but it is surface-based and thus more shallow. Extraverts attempt to see the world primarily as it is instead of paying attention to their inner personal reflections and judgments about it.

    In MBTI type codes, the first letter indicates Extraverted or Introverted attitude; the second letter indicates Sensing or Intuitive preference; the third letter indicates Feeling or Thinking preference; the last letter indicates Judger or Perceiver orientation of the type. All the other functions snap into their places once the first two have been specified. The E/I and P/J letters in Myers-Briggs types are not actually cognitive functions in themselves; they simply point out in which directions the other functions are oriented. I/E designates the orientation of the dominant function, whether it is introverted or extraverted. J/P indicates whether the highest order extraverted function is a judging (rational) or perceiving (irrational) one. For example, if your type is xxxP then your first extraverted function is a perceiving one.

    Short glossary:

    Pe – extraverted perception (Ne and Se)
    Perceive what exists externally to oneself. Responsible for gathering outside information: "what is out there" "what exists outside of me". Direct person's attention to the outside.

    Pi – introverted perception (Ni and Si)
    Perceive what exists internally within oneself. Responsible for perceiving internal states: "what exists within me". Direct person's attention inside.

    Je – extraverted judgement (Te and Fe)
    Gather external cause-effect relationships, progression of events A->B->C->D, and algorithms: "how something occurs" "what is the effect" "how to enable something". Direct person's attention outside to external causes and motivations.

    Ji – introverted jugement (Fi and Ti)
    Build internal organization frameworks. Responsible for perceiving internal relationships and motivational factors: "why is something" "why bother". Direct person's attention inside to internal causes and motivations.

    Each of these eight functions represents a complete worldview or attitude about life, the self, the outer world the relationship between them. As you learn you will start to see these value systems at work everywhere in everyone all the time, influencing all of their behaviors and ideas so profoundly that most people are entirely unaware of their own biases. Think of these as lenses that color your perceptions and judgments to a far greater extent than you may even realize.


    Common beginner misconceptions of MBTI and MBTI types:

    1. Cognitive functions are not "tools", skillsets, or behaviors that can be improved or learned. They are passive perspectives through which one perceives and evaluates information about the external and internal world. Think of yourself as a "photographer" and your mind as a "camera". The functions could be seen as different "colored filters". Each type combines several of these colored filters (functions) to achieve a unique shade in which the world appears to the person of this type.

    2. There is no such thing as a borderline T/F or S/N, as these are not sliding scales (even though some MBTI tests misrepresent them as such). For each type that has N/S 'close together', the main difference between them is the extro-intro orientation of these functions. For example: the Feeling function of ENTPs is extroverted (Fe), while for ENFPs it is introverted (Fi). Thus it is not only functional 'strength' and order that determines the type, but primarily it is the E/I orientation of the Feeling and Thinking functions the differentiates an ENTP from an ENFP.

    It is easier to avoid mistakes such as this by learning to view types primarily in light of their cognitive functions rather than their four letter codes. The it becomes easy to see that the functions of each type have a specific orientation - they are either introverted or extraverted - and this is what distinguishes similar types. MBTI four letter codes are only secondary representations of the underlying order of cognitive functions. It is the cognitive functions that define and essence of each of the Jungian types, while the four-letter codes are merely shorthand designations.

    3. 'J' and 'P' letters do not represent any cognitive functions in themselves. They represent one of MBTI's main dichotomies: Judger / Perceiver. Whether the type is Judging or Perceiving is determined by its highest order extraverted function. All types that extravert a judging, rational function (Fe/Te) as their primary or secondary one, are assigned the letter J and called "judging" types. All types that extravert a perceiving, irrational function (Se/Ne) as their primary or secondary support, are assigned the letter P and called "perceiving" types.

    3.1 J/P letters do not operate on a sliding scale, thus "borderline J/P" types do not exist. If we take a look at the cognitive functions of types that differ only in last letter, we see that flipping the last letter changes the extro-intro orientation of all of their functions as well as their functional order. On example of INFx types: for INFJs cognitive functional line-up is {Ni,Fe,Ti,Se} while for INFPs it is {Fi,Ne,Si,Te}. Even though the four-letter code of these types differs only by a single letter, J/P, they share no functions in common and are thus very different in their perceptions and evaluations.

    In general, when studying MBTI, it is better to learn to conceptualize types in terms of underlying cognitive functional order rather than their four-letter codes.

    On the same note, any MBTI studies that ignore cognitive functional basis of types and instead use four-letter codes to collect their data are rather questionable. A study that groups all NF types together irrespective of whether they value Fi/Ne (xNFP) or Fe/Ni (xNFJ) is not going to yield meaningful results, because such a study has grouped types that are cognitively dissimilar. The four-letter codes are meaningless if they are taken and used out of context of the underlying functional order of types that they are supposed to represent.

    4. Percentages displayed on MBTI tests do not indicate the strength of a dichotomy. They represent the certainty level of the dichotomy. So if you get 100% Introvert, it doesn't mean you're necessarily more introverted than someone who gets a 80% - it just means you can be more certain of being introverted.


    Descriptions of MBTI functions from various sources:

    Extraverted Intuition


    Ne, Extroverted Intuition: Ne is a connector - when perceiving information, those using Ne are capable of constant connection from one item to the next, making them capable of creating and employing unique solutions in dealing with the world. Ne is a very present-oriented function, using the present as a lens for viewing the future. Those who use Ne may be viewed as 'hyper-active' or 'random', and may even trip up others in conversation, including fellow Ne users who may not follow their exact chain of thought. One classic example of how Ne perceives and connections information is the letter example. Assuming A is the beginning and Z is the conclusion to something, Ne follows a trail not unlike this: A-C-L-S-U-Z. As such, Ne users may be perceived as jumping around from wall to wall with nothing to anchor them. Ne corresponds with: Dominant (ENFP, ENTP), Supportive (INTP, INFP), Tertiary (ESTJ, ESFJ), and Inferior (ISFJ, ISTJ). If you determine Ne is your dominant or supportive function, you can then determine that you are an xNxP.

    Ne - Extraverted Intuition scans the external world to explore new ideas, new people, and emergent possibilities. The Extraverted Intuitive mind is imaginative, inventive, and innovative - seeing and describing ways things can be reshaped, altered, or improved. It naturally energizes people and engages action towards a vision of what could be . . . of future possibilities.

    Ne is perceiving abstract patterns and connections in response to stimuli (either in the external world or in the mind). Ne generates new information starting from something existing. Ne focuses on future possibilities.

    Ne: Extraverted Intuition - Ne immediately converts "What is" into "What could possibly be", interpreting meanings and interconnections, recognizing synthesis between ideas and using new information for new and multiple simultaneous possibilities which coexist.

    Ne – Extraverted Intuition – Sees possibilities, multiple strands of possibility, seeing hidden meanings, seeing may representations of reality at once. Entertain multiple ideas, beliefs, realities and seeing how they can all work together and be true. Seeing connections when there aren’t any. Lateral thinking. Creativity, strategy and concepts emerge in the here and now not as a whole beforehand. Brainstorming and trust what emerges. Enjoy imagination, play with ideas and multiple possibilities. Liking change and differences. When Ne walks into a room they could see many ways the room could be and be used.

    Ne Extraverted iNtuiting: Interpreting situations and relationships; picking up meanings and interconnections; being drawn to change “what is” for “what could possibly be”; noticing what is not said and threads of meaning emerging across multiple contexts. Noticing the possible meanings of what you might wear: “Wearing this might communicate…”

    Ne - This process is primarily obsessed with Possibility. Ne perceives the environment wanting to find stimulation, energy, and most importantly: Innovation. It thrives on finding alternatives, and is a catalyst for Change. Note that the things Ne comes up with aren't necessarily logical - they're actually quite wacky. Essentially, Ne has little embarrassment, and no idea is a bad idea -- some ideas are just better than others. It enjoys being silly, expressive and playful without shame.

    Extraverted iNtuiting involves noticing hidden meanings and interpreting them, often entertaining a wealth of possible interpretations from just one idea or interpreting what someone's behavior really means. It also involves seeing things "as if," with various possible representations of reality. Using this process, we can juggle many different ideas, thoughts, beliefs, and meanings in our mind at once with the possibility that they are all true. This is like weaving themes and threads together. We don't know the weave until a thought thread appears or is drawn out in the interaction of thoughts, often brought in from other contexts. Thus a strategy or concept often emerges from the here-and-now interactions, not appearing as a whole beforehand. Using this process we can really appreciate brainstorming and trust what emerges, enjoying imaginative play with scenarios and combining possibilities, using a kind of cross-contextual thinking. Extraverted iNtuiting also can involve catalyzing people and extemporaneously shaping situations, spreading an atmosphere of change through emergent leadership.

    Ne, or extroverted iNtuition, is dominant for ENxP, secondary for INxP, tertiary for ESxJ and inferior for ISxJ. It is an outwardly exploratory attitude that encourages us to change, reinvent and experiment with the external world in order to find new and interesting combinations and patterns. Ne looks for novel outcomes and imagines how the things around you could be changed into other, more interesting things. Ne sees new information as part of a larger, emerging, as of yet unseen pattern that extends far beyond the self, and whose meaning will continue to change as the context grows and we discover more of the all-encompassing pattern. Rather than directly confront an issue, Ne will often broaden the context until the issue seems insignificant by comparison to the much bigger and more expansive ideas it imagines.

    As with all extroverted functions, Ne needs to be validated by external/objective information to have meaning. So Ne users will often have many ideas very quickly but not know if they're good until they hear other people's reactions to them, or have a chance to experiment and see what happens. Ne wants very badly to be understood and appreciated by others. Note that Ne songwriters (e.g. Brandon Boyd, ENFP) will typically write enough context clues and such into their work that you can put the pieces together and infer what they were thinking when they wrote it. They want others to put the pieces together and get it.


    Introverted Intuition


    Ni, Introverted Intuition: Ni perceives information and looks for patterns in the outer world, relating the perceived info to the inner world. Much like Ne, Ni has an eye for the future, but in the reverse sense of how Ne functions: Ni uses the future as a means of looking at and perceiving the present. Ni is a very unconscious function, and as such, those who use Ni may be perceived as relying on their 'gut feeling' too much, as they often have a hard time explaining how they arrived to a certain conclusion. One classic example of how Ni perceives information is the letter example. Assuming A is the beginning and Z is the conclusion to something, Ni follows a trail like this: A-C-L-S... Z! Instead of the conscious connections that Ne makes, Ni is more of a quiet analyzer, coming to a sudden conclusion all at once, skipping ahead as the pieces all fall into place. This can be thought of as an 'ah-ha!' moment, but not quite so dramatic. Ni corresponds with: Dominant (INTJ, INFJ), Supportive (ENFJ, ENTJ), Tertiary (ISFP, ISTP), and Inferior (ESTP, ESFP). If you determine Ni is your dominant or supportive function, you can then determine that you are an xNxJ.

    Ni - Introverted Intuition reflects on patterns, relationships, symbols, meanings, and perspectives on matters from complex phenomena to magical connections to practical problems. The Introverted Intuitive mind typically creates a unique vision and arrives at unique insights about things, phenomena, or people. It strives to discover the essence of things and fill in the missing pieces of a puzzle. Introverted Intuitive types frequently will have complex visions or perspectives that they are unable to explain with clarity to others.

    Ni is the creation of mental imagery independent of outer stimuli. Ni generates abstract structural images of a given problem domain that a person can view from different points of view at will. Ni focuses on the structure of things from a timeless point of view.

    Ni: Introverted Intuition - Ni immediately converts "What is" into "What will be". Ni perceives symbolic gestures, "rules", and generalizations, comparing new data to known information to perceive new probabilities.

    Ni – Introverted Intuition – Deep vision and understanding. Can make sense of what others see as paradoxical, capricious and contradictory. Has deepest conceptual understanding. Often peridime shifting moments that float from the subconscious. Will often see at a new level, beyond and above what first appears rational. The mind is vortexed in to the subconscious, as if the brain is using processing and a “Eureka” moment ensues. The sense of the future gives confidence and seems to assist those with Ni keep on track and not get discouraged. They see the light at the end of the tunnel and can then do what it takes to get there. Others with out this vision will get discouraged. Developed and use symbols only known to the user of Ni that are compacted packets of massive data, like matrixes.

    Ni Introverted iNtuiting: Foreseeing implications and likely effects without external data; realizing “what will be”; conceptualizing new ways of seeing things; envisioning transformations; getting an image of profound meaning or far-reaching symbols. Envisioning yourself in an outfit or maybe envisioning yourself being a certain way.

    Ni - This process is primarily obsessed with The Unknown. When Ni perceives it is looking to identify "what is missing from this picture" by referencing the patterns-based-worldview it knows. Ni goes about reality trying to identify the underlying themes/patterns that define how it all ticks together. Unlike Si, who bases "how reality ticks" on it's own personal exposures, Ni bases "how reality ticks" on the themes of the experience it undergoes -- which are not specific to them as much as a universal thing.

    Introverted iNtuiting involves synthesizing the seemingly paradoxical or contradictory, which takes understanding to a new level. Using this process, we can have moments when completely new, unimagined realizations come to us. A disengagement from interactions in the room occurs, followed by a sudden "Aha!" or "That's it!" The sense of the future and the realizations that come from introverted iNtuiting have a sureness and an imperative quality that seem to demand action and help us stay focused on fulfilling our vision or dream of how things will be in the future. Using this process, we might rely on a focal device or symbolic action to predict, enlighten, or transform. We could find ourselves laying out how the future will unfold based on unseen trends and telling signs. This process can involve working out complex concepts or systems of thinking or conceiving of symbolic or novel ways to understand things that are universal. It can lead to creating transcendent experiences or solutions.

    Ni, or introverted iNtuition, is dominant for INxJ, secondary for ENxJ, tertiary for ISxP and inferior for ESxP. It is an inward sense of abstract perceptual shift. Rather than imagine different ways we could change the outside world, Ni acknowledges many different ways we could change the subjective meaning of things to ourselves by looking at them from different angles. Rather than directly confront an issue, Ni will often solve problems by simply looking at them from a different angle. Doing a bunch of community service sucks? Just think of it as an opportunity to get lots of exercise! Note that Ni doesn't think about how to change the outer world the way Ne does; it only thinks about how to change *the way we interpret* the outer world. Ni leads you to try and see "through the smoke and mirrors" to what is REALLY going on below the surface, that other people are not perceptive enough to pick up on...so in its unhealthy form, it turns into conspiracy theories, a la Dale Gribble from King of the Hill.

    Strong Ni users like being the person behind the scenes who pulls all the strings (even better if most people don't even realize it) and understands the dynamics of everything on a deeper level than everyone else. They are threatened by the idea that there might be any perspective or angle they cannot see, and as such they sometimes overestimate their own ability to fully grasp and work around the attitudes of others.

    As with all introverted functions, Ni doesn't pay attention to external conditions outside the self so it doesn't care if anyone else grasps the ideas the same way the Ni user does. To Ni, I get the significance and that's all that matters. Ni songwriters (e.g. Thom Yorke, INFJ) will often write lyrics that could not possibly make any sense to other people without a direct explanation from the writer, but they don't really care because Ni considers intuition such a personal thing that it can't make its perspective/ideas clear to others very easily at all, and frequently doesn't even bother trying.

    For another example, Isaac Newton (INFJ) invented calculus and didn't bother telling anyone about it for 20 years. Ne would have been out showing the idea to others and changing it based on their reactions--but not Ni!

    As a result Ne is typically much better at putting its abstract ideas into terms that others will understand than Ni.

    On a side note: Ni appreciates definitional freedom (and thus is often annoyed by Ti) in the same way Ne appreciates freedom to change its plan of action abruptly (and thus is often annoyed by Te.) Ti users will tend to frame debates by first assigning precise definitions to terms, but Ni often objects to this by wondering: "How are we unconsciously limiting our understanding by assigning such rigid definitions in the first place?" Ni always seeks to escape the unconscious assumptions that limit its understanding of as many different conceptual viewpoints as possible.


    Extraverted Sensing


    Se, Extroverted Sensing: Se is often misconstrued as the function that always needs excitement, always involved in some zany activity or another. This is not usually the case, but can be in more extreme situations. Se, as a perceiving function, perceives the present 'as is', and can actually be energized by taking in information that way. Se also seeks stimulation to keep perceiving, which may lead those using Se to involve themselves in risky or at least odd activities. With Ti as a partner, Se may seek stimulation through such objective experiences (or anything interesting), or with Fi as a partner, may seek stimulation through connections with others. Se corresponds with: Dominant (ESTP, ESFP), Supportive (ISFP, ISTP), Tertiary (ENTJ, ENFJ), and Inferior (INTJ, INFJ). If you determine Se is your dominant or supportive function, you can determine that you are an xSxP.

    Se - Extraverted Sensing is about seizing the moment, becoming immersed in the here and now, pleasurably and spontaneously interacting with people, things, and situations of interest. It is being aware of, fully tuned into, and energized by the options and impulses of the moment. It is making “work” into play, learning by doing, and enjoying the creative process. It is being attuned to the variety, quality, and esthetic appeal of sensory experiences. Extraverted Sensing notices tangible realities and relates to them in a pragmatic fashion.

    Se is indiscriminant awareness of the physical environment. Se prefers to indulge in that which exists in the present moment.

    Se: Extraverted Sensing - Se Experiences the immediate context, noticing changes and opportunities for action, being drawn to act on the physical world, eager for experiences, scanning visible reactions and recognizing "what is".

    Se – Extraverted Sensing – Being aware of the here and now. Seeing, feeling touching, smelling the physical world as it is. Physical perception. Can now see what is going on and its direct result. Drawn to immediate cause and effect. Notice relevant facts and occurrences in a see of data that others may will miss. Processing what is going on and pulling out the most relevant facts. Seeks more input to get whole picture until Se can see the entire picture or something else captures attention. Se is operating when we freely follow exciting physical impulses or instincts as they flow from the back of the mind. At peace, at Zen in the action and movement of the present moment. This Zen, this oneness occurs when we become absorbed in what we do, move, touch, sense around us. The biggest thrill comes when we can instinctively read and react to cues to see how far we can push things in the situation and get what we want.

    Se Extraverted Sensing: Experiencing the immediate context; taking action in the physical world; noticing changes and opportunities for action; accumulating experiences; scanning for visible reactions and relevant data; recognizing “what is.” Noticing what was available, trying on different items, and seeing how they look.

    Se - This process is primarily obsessed with The Sensual. Se vividly perceives it's surroundings and takes them in as they are. Unlike Ne who glances once at it's surroundings, then begins to hop around to different places in it's head - Se stays on the tangible moment and lingers in it. It is also motivated toward stimulation and enjoys thrills, excitement, aesthete, aroma, taste, sex, etc.

    Extraverted Sensing occurs when we become aware of what is in the physical world in rich detail. We may be drawn to act on what we experience to get an immediate result. We notice relevant facts and occurrences in a sea of data and experiences, learning all the facts we can about the immediate context or area of focus and what goes on in that context. An active seeking of more and more input to get the whole picture may occur until all sources of input have been exhausted or something else captures our attention. Extraverted Sensing is operating when we freely follow exciting physical impulses or instincts as they come up and enjoy the thrill of action in the present moment. A oneness with the physical world and a total absorption may exist as we move, touch, and sense what is around us. The process involves instantly reading cues to see how far we can go in a situation and still get the impact we want or respond to the situation with presence.

    Se, or extroverted Sensing, is dominant for ESxP, secondary for ISxP, tertiary for ENxJ and inferior for INxJ. It is the attitude that what is directly apparent in our immediate physical surroundings is the most important thing to go by. Se leads you to follow your gut instincts, pay very close attention to what's going on around you, and respond to things in the moment in whatever way will make the strongest and most immediate guttural, sensory impact on others. Se users are so present-focused that they're often on the cutting edge of new trends because they place so much emphasis on what is current and new. They like to learn things via a hands-on, figure-it-out-by-experimenting-as-you-go, direct experiential approach (in this way they are similar to Ne) but they are more focused on what is immediately tangible than on what their surroundings might be changed into. They usually pay a lot of attention to their physical appearance and are very good with reading body language and using it to immediately size up a person or a situation and respond instinctively. They can be quite impulsive and prone to overindulgence in sensory pleasures, but they also know how to work a crowd and they tend to make themselves into reflections of current popular trends--whatever will make an impact.

    Se is the opposite of Ni because it intentionally focuses on the literal surface meaning of exactly what is going on right in front of you right now, whereas Ni tries to ignore that and see the hidden meaning in what is not directly apparent.


    Introverted Sensing


    Si, Introverted Sensing: Si is, at its basics, associated with past memory and recollection. Si does not actually correspond to memory, however. Si perceives information in the present through a 'lens', one of that of the past. What that means is that Si is always situated in the past, and uses those experiences to perceive and draw information from what is going on in the present. This can give those who use Si a 'worn' feel to others, in that they seem to focus too much on the past instead of what's going on right now. That is how Si naturally functions, however, so it ought not be discouraged. Si corresponds with: Dominant (ISTJ, ISFJ), Supportive (ESFJ, ESTJ), Tertiary (INTP, INFP), and Inferior (ENTP, ENFP). If you determine Si is your dominant or supportive function, then you can determine that you are an xSxJ.

    Si - The Introverted Sensing mind attends to, enjoys acquiring, and relying upon an internal library of detailed personal knowledge, facts, feelings, sensations, and information gleaned from experiences. Information and impressions from present experiences are archived in an orderly way into memory - which is typically a vast internal storehouse of data, details and impressions. The Introverted Sensing mind seeks rhythm, reliability, and order in its internal library and in its relationships with people and the outside world.

    Si is awareness of concrete forms and categories of sensory perception. Si interprets stimuli in terms of the past. Si stores and recalls facts, figures and past situations.

    Si: Introverted Sensing - Si immediately converts "What is" into "What was", Si wants to explain or evaluate new information based on the past, based on what is known and the way things have always been.

    Si – Introverted Sensing – Memory and relating past cause and effect to the present. Stores vast amount of data and feelings and comparing them to the present situation. Words, smells, sights sounds each relate in to past experiences. Noticing little details of difference from times long ago to the present. Often people will touch off plethora of memories. Feelings become permanent attachment to objects and past events. Memories can be so strong that the body physically reacts. As memories come into our mind we can see their linier progression of recall like a video in fast forward or rewind. With Si, there is a great attention to detail. And getting a clear picture of goals and objectives of what is about to happen. There can be a oneness with customs and traditions that seem to allow us to recall past experiences and feelings from generations ago. Si wants to protect what is known and long lasting even if new things may be more efferent or practical. What is new can sever Si’s connections.

    Si Introverted Sensing: Reviewing past experiences; “what is” evoking “what was”; seeking detailed information and links to what is known; recalling stored impressions; accumulating data; recognizing the way things have always been. Remembering the last time you wore a particular item or the last time you were at a similar event—maybe even remembering how you felt then.

    Si - This process is primarily obsessed with The Familiar. Introverted Sensing internalizes experiences in their concrete form and uses them as anchors for future reference. That which is not familiar is observed and absorbed and added to it's internal database. These stored sensations act as a type of map the Si user follows when in new situations. If the experiences stored into Si are pleasant, Si will also seek to recreate those experiences in the present. Hence, Si is deeply associated with Nostalgia.

    Introverted Sensing often involves storing data and information, then comparing and contrasting the current situation with similar ones. The immediate experience or words are instantly linked with the prior experiences, and we register a similarity or a difference—for example, noticing that some food doesn't taste the same or is saltier than it usually is. Introverted Sensing is also operating when we see someone who reminds us of someone else. Sometimes a feeling associated with the recalled image comes into our awareness along with the information itself. Then the image can be so strong, our body responds as if reliving the experience. The process also involves reviewing the past to draw on the lessons of history, hindsight, and experience. With introverted Sensing, there is often great attention to detail and getting a clear picture of goals and objectives and what is to happen. There can be a oneness with ageless customs that help sustain civilization and culture and protect what is known and long-lasting, even while what is reliable changes.

    Si, or introverted Sensing, is dominant for ISxJ, secondary for ESxJ, tertiary for INxP and inferior for ENxP. It's related to Se in that it deals with sensory experience, but rather than constantly scan for everything about what's going on now, it relies on internalizing those experiences into an extremely detailed internal map of highly vivid *memories* of those past sensory experiences. This dependence on reliving past experience and using it as a guide for the present leads to an extremely good memory for detail, and a general attitude that going with what we know for sure from having experienced it before is usually best.

    Si is the opposite of Ne because rather than relate new information to some larger external, constantly changing pattern, it tries to relate all new information to something it already knows, some sensory data that it's absorbed from its past experiences. This leads to the classic Ne vs. Si battle: Ne wants to try something new just for the sake of doing something different and finding something interesting; Si wants to stick to what we've done before because its vivid memories of direct experience allow us to relate the new information to that past information we've already absorbed.

    It's a common misconception that Si users are traditionalists on principle. In my experience, many older Si users (xSxJ types have Si as dom/secondary) are traditionalists because the only source of information they had was their parents and the traditions they were raised with, but these days many younger SJs are much less traditionalist in nature because information is so much more freely available than it was just a few generations ago. Si is not into tradition just for the sake of tradition; it just likes to relate new information to something it already knows. Rules and traditions can be a convenient way to do this, but it's a mistake to believe that Si always leads to traditionalism for its own sake.

    Si also does some really cool stuff like perfect pitch...I have one ISFJ friend (Si dominant) who can tap into his past sensations of what a particular note sounded like and use it to identify some note he hears now as a G#. That's amazing to me...as an Ne dom I only understand notes in terms of their relationship to other notes in a larger pattern; Josh just taps right into his detailed sensory memory and can identify the note by remembering what it sounded like before, on its own.

    Si doms like to collect objects and facts that evoke pleasurable memories from the past. An Si who's into history will collect books, photos, stamps, etc...an Si who's into music will collect instruments, sheet music, photos of concerts, and so on. Many Si types love scrapbooking because looking back at those old photos evokes those powerful, highly detailed sensory experiences from the past.


    Extraverted Thinking


    Te, Extroverted Thinking: Te focuses upon organization and efficiency within the outer world. Those who use Te have a drive to make things as efficient as possible, whether to solve problems, manage things, or even to carry out their future plans. Those who use Te seek results over clarity, and may press for work to be done and decisions to be made even if they do not have enough proper information. Those using Te become impatient when no results are made, but are easily pleased when they see objective progress. In striving for efficiency, however, Te may be prone to neglect personal feelings, whether their own or the feelings of others in the process. Te corresponds to: Dominant (ENTJ, ESTJ), Supportive (INTJ, ISTJ), Tertiary (ENFP, ESFP), Inferior (INFP, ISFP). If you determine Te is your dominant or supportive function, you can determine that you are a xxTJ.

    Te - Extraverted Thinking's focus is order. It is organizing and ordering the outside world; organizing both people and things to achieve a purpose. It is using logic and reasoning in dialogue with others. It is directing action, calling plays, and making decisions. It is purposeful sorting out; discriminating among alternatives. Extraverted Thinking asks questions, collects information in an orderly way, and solves problems in a systematic manner.

    Te is structuring one's interactions with the external world in a systematic fashion, based on logical and impersonal hierarchies and categories.

    Te: Extraverted Thinking - Te imposes itself upon the world in order to achieve its needs. Te organizes for efficiency, setting boundaries, guidelines and parameters, including schedules, plans, and strategies. If Te learns a new system or idea, it will implement the system or idea into its life. Te is about constructing. Te wants to get everything up to 100%, an achievement is defined by some external parameter.

    Te – Extraverted Thinking – Bringing order to reality, to the world. Scheduling, planning contingency planning and doing. Te feels at ease bringing logical order to the world. Te likes building and using charts, tables graphs, flow charts and outlines. Te is structure and goal oriented. When becoming developed the Te then seeks to organize and martial people to get things done. Fact based (empirical) thinking is at the core of Te. Sometimes Te will seek to order others and their thoughts. Te easily understands logic and others logic. Te notices when logical steps are missing or when there is inconsistency with logic and reality. Helps the user to compartmentalize aspects of life to accomplish goals.

    Te Extraverted Thinking: Segmenting; organizing for efficiency; systematizing; applying logic; structuring; checking for consequences; monitoring for standards or specifications being met; setting boundaries, guidelines, and parameters; deciding if something is working or not. Sorting out different colors and styles; thinking about the consequences, as in “Since I have to stand all day…”

    Te This process is primarily obsessed with Efficiency. It weighs things by their practical use in achieving whatever the present Goal might be. It is a logic based judgment that is keen to discern what would and wouldn't work most optimally given the variables. It enjoys coming up with systems that can organize the world effectively -- and is notoriously competitive, as it thrives on the satisfaction from accomplishment (winning).

    Extraverted Thinking Contingency planning, scheduling, and quantifying utilize the process of extraverted Thinking. Extraverted Thinking helps us organize our environment and ideas through charts, tables, graphs, flow charts, outlines, and so on. At its most sophisticated, this process is about organizing and monitoring people and things to work efficiently and productively. Empirical thinking is at the core of extraverted Thinking when we challenge someone's ideas based on the logic of the facts in front of us or lay out reasonable explanations for decisions or conclusions made, often trying to establish order in someone else's thought process. In written or verbal communication, extraverted Thinking helps us easily follow someone else's logic, sequence, or organization. It also helps us notice when something is missing, like when someone says he or she is going to talk about four topics and talks about only three. In general, it allows us to compartmentalize many aspects of our lives so we can do what is necessary to accomplish our objectives.

    Te, or extroverted Thinking, is dominant for ExTJ, secondary for IxTJ, tertiary for ExFP and inferior for IxFP.

    It's an attitude that encourages an external, objective standard when dealing with logic, impersonal facts and ideas. Te, when arguing, will tend to cite appeals to authority and other widely accepted, externally focused evidence; i.e., citing books or prominent authors/studies, or any widely accepted consensus among the external world of people who study the topic in question. "The experts all agree that this is the case" is a very Te-oriented argument, because it relies on external standards and context for its evaluation of logical decisions.

    For this reason Te people will usually insist on seeing quantifiable, repeatedly demonstrable, empirical evidence before accepting anything. If you can't put it in a test tube, measure it and repeat these results any time for all to see, it's not valid. The scientific method is extremely Te-oriented. From the Te perspective, there is no such thing as logic without this sort of externalized validity, because impersonal ideas are to be shared and agreed upon by large groups instead of individuals (the same way Fe treats ethics) and determined by objective consensus. Te users tend to find Ti selfish and unyielding in its insistence on fitting things into its own personal logical framework before accepting them, rather than taking widely accepted external evidence or consensus seriously.

    Strong Te users are efficiency experts. They are typically very good at translating a theoretical idea into a fluid, external process that gets effective, measurable results that can be repeated and verified on schedule. They usually do very well in management positions that allow them to focus on process over theory in order to maximize efficiency and bring about the desired goal while expending the smallest possible amount of resources (especially time.)


    Introverted Thinking


    Ti, Introverted Thinking: Ti focuses on specifying, analyzing, and defining within the inner world. Those who use Ti have an inner system in which they categorize everything, and these categories may be very specific. The Ti mind is a very natural analyst. Those who use Ti seek clarity, and may, at times, come across as too complicated to others, even if this is not the case. Ti corresponds to: Dominant (INTP, ISTP), Supportive (ENTP, ESTP), Tertiary (INFJ, ISFJ), Inferior (ENFJ, ESFJ). If you determine that Ti is your dominant or supportive function, you can determine that you are a xxTP.

    Ti - The Introverted Thinking mind presumes logical order rules the Universe; illogic is dismissed as just so much mental clutter that needs to be swept out of the mind. Beliefs, understandings, and information is taken in and logically organized in clusters of thought, with principles at the foundation. It strives to fit new pieces of information into clusters of thought where it most logically fits. It sorts out and discriminates that which makes logical sense from that which does not. Like a detective, the Introverted Thinking mind is drawn to mysteries - seeking clues and root causes - to solve a problem or a riddle.

    Ti is judging the validity of perceptions logically. Ti as a mental process is a collection of threads of thought taking concepts or percepts apart or pulling them together based on rules and criteria.

    Ti: Introverted Thinking - Ti cares about precision, and is often the one who will question an existing framework or model for efficiency and validity. Ti will use new systems or ideas to evaluate their own approach to a subject. Ti insists on knowing how things work, analysing and deconstructing until they are able to explain it. Ti wants to get everything "perfect", an achievement which is defined internally.

    Ti - Introverted Thinking – Bringing logical order to the mind and ideas. Finding the right words to clearly express an idea perfectly. Ti allows one to ponder and ascertain the essential qualities of something or an idea and noticing the fine distinctions that make it what it is. Ti finds categories of classes and sub principles of general principles. Ti feels at home when problem solving, analysis and refining an idea. Ti makes it a compulsion to understand then improve upon an idea or thought. Ti enjoys taking apart things to see how they work, seeing all sides of an issue. Ti enjoys finding the details in ideas or processes and understanding their ramifications in the logical system. Ti loves finding the focus point in a system where the maximum effect can be had with minimum energy. Can easily see logical inconsistencies in models and statements. Enjoy using highly functioning models, that end up being detailed.

    Ti Introverted Thinking: Analyzing; categorizing; evaluating according to principles and whether something fits the framework or model; figuring out the principles on which something works; checking for inconsistencies; clarifying definitions to get more precision. Analyzing your options using principles like comfort or “Red is a power color.”

    Ti - This process is primarily concerned with Accuracy. Ti doms feel an almost moral obligation to Truth, that is akin to Fi's obligation to Nobility. Ti seeks to analyze all present data and arrive at the most synchronized conclusion it can. It does this by discerning and dividing/splitting in a black-and-white manner. It is a linear and meticulous process of reasoning that works systematically to arrive at the more perfect understanding it can. Unlike Te, it seeks not to push it's system into the world, and is not an external-organizer. It is satisfied with simply arriving at the answer.

    Introverted Thinking often involves finding just the right word to clearly express an idea concisely, crisply, and to the point. Using introverted Thinking is like having an internal sense of the essential qualities of something, noticing the fine distinctions that make it what it is and then naming it. It also involves an internal reasoning process of deriving subcategories of classes and sub-principles of general principles. These can then be used in problem solving, analysis, and refining of a product or an idea. This process is evidenced in behaviors like taking things or ideas apart to figure out how they work. The analysis involves looking at different sides of an issue and seeing where there is inconsistency. In so doing, we search for a "leverage point" that will fix problems with the least amount of effort or damage to the system. We engage in this process when we notice logical inconsistencies between statements and frameworks, using a model to evaluate the likely accuracy of what's observed.

    Ti, or introverted Thinking, is dominant for IxTP, secondary for ExTP, tertiary for IxFJ and inferior for ExFJ.

    It's an attitude that encourages subjective logical decision-making based on our personal and directly experiential ideas of what fits into an impersonal logic framework and what doesn't. When it comes to logic/impersonal ideas, Ti reasons, external consensus can go to hell because it might very well be wrong, no matter how many people believe it or how many experts claim to know the truth. Ti seeks truth for its own sake; it wants to understand the relationships that force frameworks of information to fit together into cohesive wholes. Ti is focused on the blueprint, the design, the idea--while Te is focused on the application of that idea into an objectively measurable process. Externally measurable application is not nearly as important to Ti as internal structural integrity and logical consistency with itself.

    Ti appreciates structural symmetry, balance, and the beauty of symmetrical models that elegantly explain and organize real world phenomena (perceived by Ne or Se) into neatly arranged categories. Ti people are usually very good with pure logic in a vacuum, as Ti simply "knows" inherently what is logical and what is not, and will defend this sense of logic to the death just to prove a point. Te people, on the other hand, are more concerned with what tangible USE can come from an argument--which is often none. This is why INTPs will argue hypotheticals all day but INTJs will rarely bother trying to convince you. For the INTJ, Te simply doesn't see what useful goal would be served by trying to change your opinion.

    Ti: What logical relationships necessitate this system working the way it does, and how can I make them make sense to me?

    Te: What externally verifiable, quantifiable evidence can we show that this is logical, and what tangible goal can be served by spending our time on it?

    Another good example is music theory...when I learned chord theory I naturally wanted to learn the rules of how chords fit together so that I'd understand the entire system holistically and could theoretically figure out any chord. Ti likes to figure out entire systems just for the sake of getting a glimpse of complete truth ("I want to play guitar, so I will learn the system of rules for how chords are built so I understand the whole thing at once"), whereas Te is much more goal-oriented and always wants to know how this system can be applied to something externally useful or used to accomplish our predetermined goals...so Te would be more inclined to first figure out what the goal is ("What do I plan to use my guitar playing for?") and then learn only what's necessary to complete that goal. ("I want to learn 'Freebird', so I will learn the chords and techniques necessary to play that song.")

    Te takes a step by step, sequential and linear approach based on which steps are needed to complete its goals, while Ti tries to understand the entire system as one big unit simply because it's interesting and stimulating.


    Extraverted Feeling


    Fe, Extroverted Feeling: Corresponds to the desire and working for outer harmony. Those who use Fe may be overly focused on everyone getting along - in worse scenarios, they may interpret a small argument as a full-blown battle, even between two other people who aren't interacting with the Fe user. Those who use Fe have a great ability to tell and to care for the well-being of others, though, so you may think of the camp counselor when you think of someone using Fe. Those using Fe are more likely to press down their own needs for the sakes' of others in the beginning, but may be prone to complaining behind their backs. Fe corresponds to: Dominant (ENFJ, ESFJ), Supportive (INFJ, ISFJ), Tertiary (ENTP, ESTP), Inferior (INTP, ISTP). If you determine Fe is your dominant or supportive function, you can determine that you are an xxFJ.

    Fe - Extraverted Feeling reaches out to attach and interact with other living things . . . nurturing relationships. It is about validating and valuing others, encouraging, coaching, educating and motivating. It is protecting, helping, and caretaking. The Extraverted Feeling mind organizes action consistent with values, beliefs, spiritual foundations, and sense of humanity - how people (and other living things) ought to be treated. Extraverted Feeling promotes collaboration, a shared sense of community, and harmony in interpersonal relationships.

    Fe is adapting one's interactions with the external world to the moods and feelings of others. Fe is sensitive to events like changes in people's expressions or other such "soft," hard-to-quantify conditions in the environment.

    Fe: Extraverted Feeling - Fe wants to make everyone happy. Fe often cares more about the needs of others than their own needs. Fe cares about political correctness and common courtesies. Fe will sometimes disregard personal morals or dignity for the sake of going with the flow and making everyone happy.

    Fe – Extraverted Feeling – Understanding and working though the motivations of others, having the need to connect and bring happiness to others. Keeping a balance of being loved and liked. Fe sees objectives through others eyes. Fe will compel one to act as make others comfortable. Fe wants to know about others, is responsible to care about other’s feelings. Fe mirror others emotions and become one with others that they care about. Easily able to take oneself out of a dynamic and act to bring harmony in many relationships. Fe is able to shift group dynamics to bring order so that others get along with each other.

    Fe Extraverted Thinking: Connecting; considering others and the group—organizing to meet their needs and honor their values and feelings; maintaining societal, organizational, or group values; adjusting to and accommodating others; deciding if something is appropriate or acceptable to others. Considering what would be appropriate for the situation: “One should or shouldn’t wear…” or “People will think…”

    Fe - This process is primarily obsessed with Relationship Dynamics - typically of people but can also apply to plants/animals or other personified objects. It focuses on the morality of actions, what is and isn't "right" and what people ought and ought not to do. Often it reinforces the standard social protocol - such as courtesy, obedience to rules, elders - because it has a desire to move the environment in the direction it sees as correct. It is similar to Te in that it seeks to move situations toward the desired Goal, but it's goal is defined by the most optimal social arrangements.

    Extraverted Feeling often involves a desire to connect with (or disconnect from) others and is often evidenced by expressions of warmth (or displeasure) and self-disclosure. The "social graces," such as being polite, being nice, being friendly, being considerate, and being appropriate, often revolve around the process of extraverted Feeling. Keeping in touch, laughing at jokes when others laugh, and trying to get people to act kindly to each other also involve extraverted Feeling. Using this process, we respond according to expressed or even unexpressed wants and needs of others. We may ask people what they want or need or self-disclose to prompt them to talk more about themselves. This often sparks conversation and lets us know more about them so we can better adjust our behavior to them. Often with this process, we feel pulled to be responsible and take care of others' feelings, sometimes to the point of not separating our feelings from theirs. We may recognize and adhere to shared values, feelings, and social norms to get along.

    Fe, or extroverted Feeling is dominant for ExFJ, secondary for IxFJ, tertiary for ExTP and inferior for IxTP. It is an attitude that encourages adherence to the ethics of the cultural/social/familial groups we feel emotionally connected to. Fe leads you to derive your moral viewpoints from some sort of externalized consensus. This doesn't mean you automatically fall in line with whatever moral viewpoints happen to surround you, just that (unlike the accompanying Ti view on logic as something you don't need external input to understand) you don't see how ethics can be decided reasonably without some sort of external context. (Fe views ethics as dependent upon collective consensus in the same way Te views logic/impersonal ideas.)

    Fe leads people to adjust, hide or set aside entirely their own emotions in favor of fitting the emotional needs of the broader groups that are important to them. This leads to a certain respect for the common consensus among those important groups regarding interpersonal behavior and treatment of others. If you were to criticize someone's behavior from an Fe standpoint, it would be from the standpoint of, "Your behavior is inconsistent with the group's standards--most people would consider it wrong or inappropriate." Fe appeals to the collective morality of the whole; the fact that "most people would agree" serves as externally objective evidence to support Fe's moral standpoints.

    People with strong Fe are typically good at saying just the right thing that fits in with the moral expectations of the audience. For this reason Fe tends to make great politicans because strong Fe users often make outstanding, charismatic public speakers who can play off the emotions of others to rally groups toward the desired cause. They are excellent at organizing, leading and delegating tasks to others with an interpersonal style that gets the job done while still appearing socially appropriate and respecting the emotional needs of others (so long as those needs are reasonable within the group's objective framework of ethics.) They understand how to perform the social/cultural responsibilities expected of them and they expect others to do the same, and if you're not fulfilling these responsibilities they're very good at appealing to the crowd to deliberately make you look like an asshole in front of everyone. ("Look everyone, this guy doesn't fit with our collective moral ideals!")

    Fe considers it paramount to show overt displays of loyalty to the people in the groups it feels connected to, which includes helping out friends/family whenever possible and receiving similar displays of loyalty in return. (If these displays are not reciprocated Fe may take this as a sign that the other person is not loyal.) Fe tends to see Fi users as selfish for refusing to adapt their feelings to the feelings of others in service of the good of the larger group, and for ignoring objective standards on ethics in favor of purely personal ones.

    The whole idea behind Ms. Manners is very Fe--Fi would wonder why anyone cares about any external consensus on ethics, because to Fi ethics are purely subjective. Fe is concerned with adjusting to the ethical standards as established objectively by the groups it feels are important.


    Introverted Feeling


    Fi, Introverted Feeling: Corresponds to values and beliefs in the inner mind. Those who use Fi may be stubborn in their beliefs and values and may even be easily offended if someone goes against what their beliefs are, even if they do not say anything about it. Although you may think of a man arguing all of the time, those who lead with Fi are INFPs and ISFPs, so they often may not even express their emotions to the fullest extent. Fi corresponds to: Dominant (ISFP, INFP), Supportive (ENFP, ESFP), Tertiary (INTJ, ISTJ), Inferior (ENTJ, ESTJ). If you determine Fi is your dominant or supportive function, you can determine that you are an xxFP.

    Fi - Introverted Feeling is being aware of and cherishing one’s own mental framework of values, beliefs and sense of self. It is being open to emotions and inner sensations. It is also being sensitive to others in an empathetic way. It is knowing what is right and wrong according to one’s personal moral and spiritual compass. It is being authentic. As a gatekeeper of the mind; it admits what is consistent with one’s value and belief framework and rejects what is repulsive or draining. Introverted Feeling seeks harmony with others and harmony within.

    Fi is judging perceptions emotionally, based on weight of evidence. Fi as a mental process is the flow of judgements on perceptions personal ideals or feeling of right and wrong. Fi strives for integrity and consistency in it's ideals. Fi is higher cognitive refinement personal emotion. Fi enables one to vividly re-experience past feelings.

    Fi: Introverted Feeling - Fi is more irrational, but more passionate than Fe. Fi cares deeply about decisions, and evaluates everything against an internal set of values. Fi may make a decision which inconveniences one party or another, but "means" something to Fi. Fi is all about valuing options against each other, deciding whether or not something is worth their time.

    Fi – Introverted Feeling – Seeks internal harmony, harmony with ideas and feelings. Fi allows the user to be aware of the subconscious and literally feel data and judgments with their gut. It ranks data in importance to values and ethics. The Fi perpetually weighs inbound sensory data and its core issues and responds physically. Fi works silently and its user feels compelled to act upon those feelings with out knowing why. Often when the Fi alerts strongly it is accurate and it assembles vast amount of information and comes to a judgment. It is a far faster response time then logical thinking and allows the user to “know” a certain truth. It functions as a private gauge. Fi allows its users to have an understanding of the core or essence of people quickly.

    Fi Introverted Feeling: Valuing; considering importance and worth; reviewing for incongruity; evaluating something based on the truths on which it is based; clarifying values to achieve accord; deciding if something is of significance and worth standing up for. Evaluating whether you like an outfit or not: “This outfit suits me and feels right.”

    Fi - This process is primarily obsessed with Inner Harmony. This is a very inward-turned process which assesses character, both of others and of themselves. However, although it is a judge of character it is not motivated to move it's environment in any particular direction. In contrast to Fe, it does not base it's judgments on what is social protocol. The conclusions Fi arrives at are it's own and can sometimes be very different from and violate social norms.

    Introverted Feeling is often hard to assign words to the values used to make introverted Feeling judgments since they are often associated with images, feeling tones, and gut reactions more than words. As a cognitive process, it often serves as a filter for information that matches what is valued, wanted, or worth believing in. There can be a continual weighing of the situational worth or importance of everything and a patient balancing of the core issues of peace and conflict in life's situations. We engage in the process of introverted Feeling when a value is compromised and we think, "Sometimes, some things just have to be said." On the other hand, most of the time this process works "in private" and is expressed through actions. It helps us know when people are being fake or insincere or if they are basically good. It is like having an internal sense of the "essence" of a person or a project and reading fine distinctions among feeling tones.

    Fi, or introverted Feeling, is dominant for IxFP, secondary for ExFP, tertiary for IxTJ and inferior for ExTJ. Unlike Fe, Fi leads you to draw ethics purely from an internal, subjective source and finds Fe's collective approach to morality shallow and fake. Since ethics are purely a personal ideal in Fi's view, all personal feelings are sacred and allowing any outside views to affect them is patently unethical. Fi treats ethics in the same way Ti treats logic, in that it's something that requires no external context to understand and that should not be influenced or changed by any outside forces.

    The ability to express one's personal feelings and inner self freely and maintain a strong sense of personal uniqueness and individuality is of utmost importance to Fi. (It's also important to Ti, but for different reasons and in different contexts.) I have found that many Fi users dislike typology in general because they feel that "putting people into boxes" suppresses their sense of personal identity, and that people are too unique to be categorized so easily.

    Fi people are typically very good at picking up emotional vibes in the tone of voice and word choice of others. They often know what you're feeling even better than you do because they're aware of the subtle effects that different emotional states have on our behaviors and can pick up cues about how you're feeling that you didn't even intend to give off. For this reason strong Fi users are profoundly empathetic and tend to understand and identify with basic human needs on a profound level. If you were to criticize someone's behavior from an Fi standpoint, it would be in the form of, "What you are doing is hurting my feelings/violating my ethics/preventing me from fulfilling my basic human needs." Strong Fi users often feel a certain connection to the beauty of nature, animals, and life itself, simply "knowing" deep inside themselves that life is sacred and all individuals possess inherent value.

    A mature Fi user is extremely in tune with the emotional needs of others and very supportive of and responsive to them. An immature Fi user is overly preoccupied with his own emotional needs and will act passive aggressively toward people who don't bend over backwards to cater to how he feels. Note that both Fe and Fi users often feel a strong sense of moral obligation to their loved ones; the difference is simply the source of this obligation. If it comes from an external/objective cultural standard, it's probably Fe--if it comes from a personal sense of moral responsibility that deliberately blocks out external influence, it's probably Fi.

    Fi doms are ethical perfectionists in the same way Ti doms are logical perfectionists. They seek a sense of internal balance and harmony with their surroundings that feels right in their own individual way. Note that introverted judgment (Ti/Fi) seeks depth and specificity while extroverted judgment (Te/Fe) seeks broad applicability. Ti wants to define exactly what is logically correct under an extremely specific set of circumstances that may never happen in the real world, while Te seeks widely applicable objective consensus that can apply in many different situations. Fi seeks to determine precisely what the user feels is morally right regardless of external application, while Fe seeks widely applicable, generalized ethical rules that can serve to govern entire groups. Ti/Fe = I think/We feel; Fi/Te = I feel/We think.


    Subjective vs Objective functions (Jung)

    Objective
    Objective functions orient around the “object”, external reality. Thus they preserve the integrity of the external world. Such data is not coerced (subjected) since that destroys the integrity of the object therefore the quality of the meaning being produced. These functions are “static” as they trust strictly the accuracy of the external world, attempting to match it. Objective functions take the various data from the objective world as it is.

    Subjective
    Subjective functions have data coerced around a “subject”, for meaning to be derived. The various data from the objective world is “focused” in order to create understanding. Accuracy of the objective is shunned since the psyche can’t derive meaning without a subject. A misconception is that this data is made up by the psyche; contrary, this data originates from the external reality, like the objective data, the only slight difference is that it is focused. Subjective functions are “dynamic” as they can easily change with their ability to easily create a subject at will.

    People can’t have both subjective and objective versions of the same function. Usually because objective and subjective functions work together, confusion can emerge as whether a person has either one or the other.We are all thinkers, feelers, intuitionists and sensors; the simple question is merely what kind and what order. It is all about what is subjective and objective in your personality.

    Extroverted Thinking
    Valuing external logic, the psyche prefers to guide its sense of logic by looking for evidence to support the desired logic. Like Ti, the Te psyche can create internal logical classifications to build understanding. However the difference is that the logic (guided by another subjective function) made must have a strong adherence to the external reality else the psyche disputes it. Ti doesn’t care though hence it prefers to mould its understanding around its perception data, which it hopes is accurate hence such psyches dislike loops (Ti-Ni or Ti-Si loops).

    Extroverted Feeling
    External ethics work exactly like Te. The psyche prefers to guide its sense of understanding by looking for external ethics, evidence. And again like Fi, the psyche Fe psyche is capable of creating internal ethics classifications (guided by another subjective function), with the exception that the ethics must be strongly externally verifiable. Fi doesn’t care though. Fi doesn’t care though hence it prefers to mould its understanding around its perception data, which it hopes is accurate hence such psyches dislike loops (Fi-Ni or Fi-Si loops).

    Extroverted Sensing
    Extroverted sensing takes information as it is from external reality like judgement functions Fe and Te. Since, Se lacks a subject like other objective functions, the accuracy of the external world leads to no understanding without a subjective function to anchor things into place. Se yields no fruit when working with Te or Fe, without an intermediate subject at hand.

    Extroverted Intuition
    Extroverted intuition takes information as it is from external reality like Se and the extroverted judgement functions. Lacking a subject, like other objective functions, Ne similarly requires a subjective function to anchor things into place. Ne similarly yields no fruit when working with Te or Fe, without an intermediate subject at hand.

    Introverted Thinking
    Introverted logic has similarities to Te in the sense that the psyche sources its data from the external world. Ti types can see the same logic as Te types do, they don’t invent logic in order to create understanding. Instead, they focus and “subject” the external logic creating meaning. In subjecting the logic, these types hope that the perception data they employ is objective as that becomes the only final frontier establishing objective understanding. As stated before loops (Ti-Si or Ti-Ni) are disliked since they naturally distort the perception of reality.

    Introverted Feeling
    Introverted ethics has similarities to Fe in the sense that the psyche sources its data from the external world. Fi types can see the same ethics as Fe ones therefore; they don’t invent their ethics when creating meaning. They focus and “subject” the external ethics to make sense of the world. Subjecting ethics, these types usually hope that the perception data employed is objective since that is the only frontier for objective understanding. As stated before loops (Fi-Si or Fi-Ni) are disliked since they naturally distort the truth.

    Introverted Sensing
    Introverted sensing is a perception function taking in information from the external reality as Ne and Se. Like other introverted functions, it doesn’t invent understanding since the data it sources is from the objective world. Si subjects its data it takes from reality in order to derive meaning, therefore handling raw data “Se” data, objective sensing is useless since meaning is absent without a subject. As Si is subjective, it realise on objective judgement to make sense of its findings thus attempting to salvage an objective truth.

    Introverted Intuition
    Introverted intuition is a perception function like Si, taking in information from the external reality as its objective counterpart Ne. Like other introverted functions, it doesn’t necessarily magic up understandings since the data it sources is from the objective world. Ni subjects the data from reality in order to derive meaning, therefore handling raw data “Ne” data, objectively is useless since meaning is absent without a subject at hand. Being subjective, it realise on objective judgement to derive objective truth.

    Since the introverted functions hold the subject, they are the ones that create meaning, thus influencing the type of memories that are created. As an example, Ti types will have a library of logical classifications; Fi a library of feeling based classifications; Ni a library of intuition; and Si a library of sensed data. I’ll add that the objective functions influence these “libraries” greatly but they are structured by the subjective functions.

    sources:
    http://www.personalitypathways.com/1...ty-types2.html
    http://www.enfpforum.com/ENFPBeginnersGuide.aspx
    http://www.bestfittype.com/cognitiveprocesses.html
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