I. M. Eglit
Keywords: TIM model of the psyche, mental function, signs of mental functions, the concept of signs of mental functions, aspects of information flow.
Signs of mental functions are an important part of the model of TIMs. Initially, signs of the functions have been introduced to match the observations of the functioning of psyche of representatives of different TIMs with the theoretical model . If we draw an analogy between mental functions and a certain kind of virtual processors of information, the signs of the functions would pertain to the "operating system" of these processors, that provide for functioning of "working programs" of mental functions which process information of certain aspects. It is important to note that the information aspects in themselves, as constituents of the information flow, do not have signs in the sense that will be discussed below .
Justification of the sign notation presents a difficulty, since it is related to the systemic interactions in socion, and in particular, the operation of octave rings (groups of asymmetric interactions of TIMs − see [4, Sec. 8.3]). At present time (2007), there exists no clear theoretical basis for sign notation. There is also no consensus on their definitions and implications. Despite this, the concept has taken root because it works well on a practical level and can explain phenomena of information processing that cannot be explained otherwise.
However, not all schools of Socionics interpret and apply functional signs in the same way. Due to a different understanding of signs by different schools of Socionics, it is difficult and sometimes impossible to approach this topic outside of the paradigm of a particular approach.
The purpose of this article is to review of the manifestations of signs of functions observed in the practice of typing within the paradigm of the School of System Socionics (SSS). The material for the article was the work of typers from School of System Socionics who conduct typing on the site socionicasys.ru using the methods developed by V. D. Ermak. The typers base their evaluations of TIMs on properties imparted by the signs mental functions, as was proposed by V. V. Gulenko  and further clarified by V. D. Ermak . Another goal of this study was comparison of the results obtained to other conceptual interpretations of signs. The material should be useful for practicing typers as within this article we will address how to identify signs using numerous examples from real-world typings, show indicators of manifestations of signs, draw attention to some difficult and contentious instants, and offer recommendations which are results of careful research of this topic in practice.
1. The history of the question. Theoretical background.
The concept of signs of socionic functions was proposed in 1989 by the Kiev socionist V. V. Gulenko . Within this interpretation, signs of the functions are defined by the direction of flow of information in the rings of social progress. V. V. Gulenko writes: "It would be logical to assume that the first function of sociotypes that are involved in the left ring of socioprogress (negating, revolutionary, discontinuous) has the sign " − ", and the first function of sociotypes involved in the right ring of socioprogress (affirming, evolutionary, sequential) has the "+" sign " . As a reminder, the left ring socioprogress is comprised of TIMs: ESE, LII, SLE, IEI, LIE, ESI, EEI, SLI. The right ring of socioprogress is comprised of types: ILE, SEI, EIE, LSI, SEE, ILI, LSE, EII. [reference]
Semantics of signs i.e. the properties assigned to the signs of mental functions, V. V. Gulenko formulated as follows: "The sign of the function transfers the following aspects. First, it indicates the quality of the function: "+" a positive assessment of the quality, "−" a negative appraisal. Secondly, it indicates the scale of function: "+" means details, specifics, "−" large scale, the general plan, a global consideration. Third, it indicates the distance of impact of the function: "+" means that the function manifests at a short distance from the reference point, "−" means at a far distance. Fourth, the sign reflects the direction of the function: "+" means addition, acceptance, motion towards oneself, "−" means separation, return, motion away from oneself . The term "aspects" used by V. V. Gulenko here, carries the connotation of "the contextual property of characteristics of mental functions."
Next, V.V. Gulenko writes:
+ Fe - positive emotions, joy, merriment, emotional elation, excitement, a smile, laughter, enthusiasm, optimism, good mood, the experience of happiness;
− Fe - negative emotions, grief, sorrow, sadness, emotional recession, depression, crying, tears, frustration, pessimism, poor mood, the experience of unhappiness;
+ Fi - good relations, love, friendship, affection, attraction, warmth in relations, sociability, close psychological distance, goodness, compassion;
− Fi - poor relations, hatred, animosity, antipathy, repulsion, indifference in relations, alienation, unsociability, remote psychological distance, wickedness, mercilessness;
+ Te - useful, beneficial, economical, technology, facts, acquisition, stockpiling, purchases, savings, bringing order, practicality;
− Te - useless, unprofitable, wasteful, utilization, deterioration, exhaustion, costs, expenses, risk-taking, experimentation, sales, trade, action in atmosphere of chaos, ingenuity;
+ Ti - specificity, itemization, detailed study, thoroughness, accuracy, strictness, place in hierarchy, regulations, instructions, choosing the best option, precision of function, logic of organization, indicators, reporting;
− Ti - abstractness, generality, universality, system, classification, typology, general regularities, objectivity, truth, justice, comprehensive review, analysis, dissection, the logic of science, criteria;
+ Ne - prospects, opportunities, positive potential, core meaning, essence, principle, new ideas, advancing hypotheses, theory, insight, interest, originality, unusual, fantastical, hopefulness;
− Ne - hopelessness, alternatives, negative potential, meaninglessness, absurdity, paradox, the forgotten and the old, insight, mediocrity, commonness, repressed possibilities, reality, disbelief, sensation[hit];
+ Ni - future, change in the situation over time, prediction, premonition, gradual development, evolution, gradual ascent, the dynamics of change, the flow of time, imagination, harmonious description, subtle step-by-step changes, convergence, confluence;
− Ni - past, accounting for errors, avoidance of danger, anxiety, a worrying premonition, a warning, the ripening of a crisis, revolution, a leap in time, ability to hedge against troubles, sudden shifts, discordant description, the moment of decisive action, divergence, deviation;
+ Se - retention of power, insubordination, defense, cover, countermove, counterattack, firmness, defense of one's interests, strong-willed pressure from the bottom upwards, strength, will, possession;
− Se - capture of power, subjugation, offensive attack, initiative, perseverance, determination, demands, strong-willed pressure from top downwards, the assertion of own interests at the expense of others, overthrowing, appropriating, weakness, passivity;
+ Si - pleasant sensations, comfort, convenience, harmony, beauty, attraction, leisure, health, relaxation, well-being, pleasure, enjoyment, sensitivity;
− Si - unpleasant thrill sensations, discomfort, inconvenience, disharmony, ugliness, unattractiveness, work, fatigue, stress, illness, suffering, pain .
It is difficult to agree with such interpretation of semantic content of properties imparted by the signs of TIM functions. Indeed, a person of TIM ESE (with first function of −Fe) cannot always be in a state of "negative emotions, grief, sadness, emotional recession, crying, frustration, pessimism, the experience of adversity ..." a good mood and the experience of happiness are not alien for him. The worldview of a person of TIM LIE (−Te) is not dominated only by"... uselessness, lack of profits, utilization, depreciation, costs, expenses, risk-taking ...". The experience of any practicing socionist will indicate that this is wrong. An analysis of actual results of typings indicates a more complex structure of the properties imparted by the signs mental functions.
In the above-mentioned work of V. V. Gulenko, he has denoted only the first (base) function with a sign. How other signs were assigned and distributed the author did not explicate. However, the outcome of these assignments shows that signs of the functions alternate, starting with the first, and for functions of same E/I orientation they coincide.
A. V. Bukalov, speaking at one of the Socionics conferences, and agreeing with the proposed by V. V. Gulenko arrangement of signs of mental functions in the superblock of mental model of TIMs, has commented, however, that the signs of functions in the vital ring should be, in his view, opposite to the signs of the corresponding functions of the mental ring, and should coincide with the signs of functions of the dual TIM. A. V. Bukalov did not forward an explanation of his concept.
Later, V. V. Gulenko introduced a new system of signs, basing on Reinin traits Positivism/Negativism and Static/Dynamic and offered the following explanation of this development:
Regarding Positivists/Negativists: "... the communicative functions of Positivists are best denoted with a plus sign, the functions of the Negativists with a minus sign. The sign of function applies equally to the positions of the upper and the lower rings of model A ". 
V. V. Gulenko also changed his position on the semantics of the signs. V. Ledin (a student of Vladimir Gulenko) writes:
V. D. Ermak has supplemented the theory of signs (1), originally proposed by V. V. Gulenko , and introduced the concept of "areas of competence "(confident understanding, directedness) and "areas of incompetence "(uncertainty, disorientation) of the functions of TIMs . According to V. D. Ermak (see Fig. 1), the area of competence of a function with a plus sign is the zone of the plus sign (of the positive) "from zero and above"; in case of incompetence in the negative region ("zero and below"), the area of competence of a function with a minus sign is both the zone of the minus sign (the negative) as well as the zone of the plus sign (the positive).
Properties of the functions transferred by signs as described by V. D. Ermak (clarifications on definitions by V. V. Gulenko) :
- sign "+" - "positive", competence in the positive region of properties and incompetence in the negative region;
- "−" sign - withdrawal from the "negative", from negative properties towards positive properties, competence in both positive and negative regions;
- "+" sign - locality, the "big plan", specifics, itemization within the sphere of the function;
- "−" sign - globality, "the general plan," universality of the function;
- "+" sign - the orientation into the sphere of responsibility of the function (interest in protection of "own sphere");
- "−" sign - the orientation outside of the sphere of responsibility of the function (influence, "pressure" on the other "localities");
- sign "+" - "close" psychological distance;
- sign "−" - "far" psychological distance.
It should be noted that the introduction of the concept of "competence areas" of signs clearly demonstrates that a sign is a marker rather than a dichotomy it is not a polarity. A sign is an attribute of the function (an essential, inherent property that characterizes the information processing by the function), rather than a classification trait. The structure of signs is asymmetric, therefore it should not be inferred that the function with a minus sign cannot orient in the plus region. This error often committed by those who first become acquainted with the theory of signs.
It is also necessary to note that a sign is an attribute of a function and not of the aspect of information flow: "Aspects of information flow do not have signs" .
Practical observations of the manifestations of signs in different functions, based on theoretical conception of Gulenko-Ermak, allow for some clarifications of the above descriptions of the properties of signs. The research on functional signs was conducted in process of typing analyses performed at SSS, the results of which were documented. TIMs of people who have been typed were confirmed not only through correlation of their responses with the model TIM, but also further observation. Lets consider some of the results of this study on signs of mental functions in the model A.
2.1. The property of "quality"
The property of "quality", attributed to a function with a "+" sign, is described as "positive", competence in the positive region of properties and incompetence in the negative region. Property attributed to a function with a "−" sign is described as a departure from the "negative", withdrawal from negative towards the positive characteristics, competence in the negative and in positive regions.
The property of "quality" manifest quite vividly in the functions that process information on aspects of: Fi, Fe, Ti, Te, Ni, Ne, Si, Se.
2.1.1. Function with the "plus" sign
Property "quality" of the "minus" sign, described as "departure from the negative", requires further explanation. Observations show that the "departure from minus" is not characteristics only of minus functions, but also of plus functions. However, the reasons for this "departure" are different. Plus function is incompetent in the "minus" region, so its "departure" is due to the wish to not fall within the "minus" region at all, and resembles a flight. When it falls into the minus zone, the plus function loses its orientation, does not know how to react, thus its reaction may be quite inadequate.
Naturally, this is reflected in desire of a person to leave the "minus" region as quickly as possible and by any means in real sense as well as in psychological sense: "I see nothing, I hear nothing."
Examples of incompetence of a plus function in a minus region:
"No, I cannot ... I can hardly ever say this about anyone, that they have poor taste. " (+Se : EII "Dostoevsky")
Someone expresses their negative attitude towards yourself. What is your reaction? Can you easily express (show, demonstrate) to someone your own negative attitude? If so, how? Can you experience a prolonged negative deposition towards someone? Do you forgive if you have been slighted?
"Blatantly obvious negative attitude I have encountered only once. I tried to be friendly with a person, to make contact with him. But still, this person through some nuances of communication betrayed his antipathy. In the end, I simply quit trying to make contact, but I did not overstep the bounds of my goodwill. From my end, expressions of negative attitudes are very rare. It spoils my own mood, so I feel a desire to maintain amity even in response to the negative. Strange, but this is true. Insults I seem to forgive. Just now I attempted to remember offenses, it was very difficult. This means that I have already forgiven." (+Se : EII "Dostoevsky")
"It seems to me that this is quite an intimate moment, and if a person is crying in a public place, I'll pretend not to notice. After a while he will regret it and he doesn't need any additional worries. Let him cry his soul out, it's not my business. There is also a hysterical type, the kind that wants to attract attention to himself this angers me. Typically, women cry in an ugly manner, especially the elderly, like weeping alcoholics, this is unpleasant. " (+Fe : EIE "Hamlet")
Give some examples of inappropriate expression of emotions.
"Well, I don't like the intense manifestations of emotion. Any emotion negative and positive. All types of hysteria. Concerning inappropriate expressions hmm ... I don't know, may be, when, for example, there was a situation where one could cry and lament, and then it passed, but the man still recalls about it for a week not as an event, a fact, but with the same sobs and lamentations, as it was in the beginning. Although, logically, everything had been resolved, quieted down. " (+Fe, rejection of "minus" : EIE "Hamlet")
"I'd rather see only good things in people. I see some negative in others, but I think that it won't be expressed towards me. I don't want to comprehend that it could be directed at me. I think that if I treat a man well, he will repay in kind. And when my expectations are not met, then for me it is not surprising. Just crash of my ideals. But for some reason, my gullibility remains, as before, I want and I will see only the good. " (+Ne : IEI "Esenin")
"Here, you cannot simply draw, because here we have production. All the drafts pass by me, and I see all the mistakes that the designer makes. I have two options:
- Either correct the errors in the drafts, given a warning to the designer who made the mistake and return the drafts to him.
- Or I can spit on this matter, it wasn't my mistake, but his ... My responsibility is to create the technical itinerary and programs EXACTLY according to the design.
Is it true that everything that happens is all for the better?
"This is where the interest lies. First, something happens. How, why, for what?? and only then you begin to realize that everything is in accordance with the rules, and that it could not be any different ... and so it turns out that all is for the better, it is now, and it will be later. "
Please give examples to illustrate this statement.
"After the Great Depression in U.S., several laws were legislated that governed the banking and monetary systems. During these tumultuous times, people lost their homes, but now it's unheard of you will not get evicted from your home for as long as you're paying. Before, they closed the loan in view of the general great material losses. Those who were renting, don't even think about them. And there you have it, the suffering of present times can serve as the start of changes for the better in the future, and thus it's for the better, for the progress." (+Ni : LIE "Jack")
2.1.2. Function with the "minus" sign
Minus function is competent in the area of "minus". It is oriented in this "minus", but may not wish to remain there (namely "qualitative minus") because it is not within the interests. For negative function the withdrawal from the zone of the minus is not an escape or a flight, but a choice.
Such a phenomenon as "departure from the negative" is not observed in manifestation of signs regarding the property of "scale" and is less pronounced in the properties of the "orientation" and "distance". "Minus" with property of "scale" is manifested in the global scope, and departure towards the "plus" entails specification, which is unwanted on negative function. Minus function with properties of "orientation" and "distance" may remain in the "plus" region, not expressing its influence to the outside, staying at a close range in cases when it faces some limitations, such as rules and habits. Such constraints in manifestation of the sign are evaluated as something not characteristic of the TIM, as a distortion. For example, if SLE ("Zhukov") does not want to expand his or her area of influence or SEE ("Caesar") does not seek to broaden his or her social circle and use it for furthering own interests.
Why do restrictions of "minus" with the property of "quality" look quite appropriate? Perhaps this is a natural outcome of a negative social assessment of certain phenomena, such as being unethical, rude, discomfort, dirt, untidiness, stupidity, aggression, anger, sloth, short-sightedness, etc. Even on a multi-dimensional functions a person does not want to live in such "negative." And if he has a choice to be in the "minus" or leave it most likely he will leave such negativity. SLI ("Gabin") from discomfort, "minus" in Si; SEE ("Caesar") from rudeness, "minus" in Fi; LIE ("Jack") from inactivity, "minus" in Te; LII ("Robespierre") from illogic, "minus" in Ti, etc. They can exist in this "minus", can realize it situationally, but can also leave it and go towards the "plus" (quality), while maintaining the "minus" on other properties (magnitude, direction, distance).
Important note for typers!
Examples of competence of function with minus sign in the negative zone:
I never think that one shouldn't argue out of benefit. Simply, why argue when you can do without it? Yesterday I talked to five people for whom I don't harbor friendly feelings. There was no benefit from communicating with them, and no negative consequences if I showed my true attitude. But they want to be friends with me so why not. I will show a warm and friendly attitude. My true attitude, incidentally, is expressed in a form of "bonuses", that is, I will do something special for a person, something that I don't do for everyone. Those who don't know this think that I am positively predisposed towards everybody.
Regarding rancor and remembering wrongdoings on one hand, slights I remember forever, but only as a "fact of grievance." On the other, it is not a given that I will resent them and dream about revenge I can peacefully interact with the offender. I will simply mentally note that he treated me poorly, so either this is a bad person or he is negatively predisposed towards me. Both of these are useful and important for me information that should not be forgotten.
In this sense, I remember all the bad things, even the minor ones, and for my entire life. Good things I may forget. Because for me this is not as important if you forget that a person has treated you well, it is less dangerous than forgetting that he or she has treated your poorly, and is capable of all sorts of malicious behavior.
By the way, here's one more thing: I acutely feel poor attitudes towards myself or between other people. I can see it right away and I am never wrong in this. But when it comes to good relations I orient rather poorly ... Two days ago my boyfriend introduced my girlfriend to his friend. I watched the couple the entire evening, but couldn't discern if his friend liked her or not. There were no signs of negative attitude, that's for sure, but I couldn't estimate the degree of good relations either.
I show a negative attitude towards someone when interacting with them spoils my mood. In such cases, I can forget about the benefits of interaction and about the negative consequences of conflict. If a person drives the me to depression, I cannot hide my antipathy for him." (−Fi, mental, during uncertainty in Ne : ESI "Draiser")
"Good attitude I express by smiles, glances, nods and affirmations, compliments, gifts, and some protection from rude replicas from aside, by carefully listening to all their problems, using the pronoun "we" sometimes in context of "against them" (it sounds like "we are together" and "they are far from us"). If I like a clerk in the store, then I smile and say "thank you". On May 9th, I bought a carnation and gave it as a present to a dear veteran whom I don't know.
Poor attitude with nagging, sharpness, barbs, ridicule, derision, displays of disdain, purposefully disregarding the person, and generally arrogant attitude ("with the likes we don't bother.")" (−Fi : EIE "Hamlet")
What do you mean by "reflection"? In what form is it familiar to you?
"Learning about myself with a negative sign. That is, attempts to find the bad in myself without trying to find the good (I think that I am very familiar with the good, and therefore I don't look for it). In general, reflection from a philosophical point of view, as far as I know, implies the process of self-discovery."
Why would someone (you specifically) look for something bad? Does this help you somehow in life? What is to be done with this information?
"Masochism in a separate home. I also think that this is a defensive reaction: nobody will think of me worse than I do of myself. This means that they won't be able to hurt me unexpectedly, to strike at me, to jab me. To hurt me they will first need to break through a wall." (−Fe : EII "Dostoevsky")
Property of "minus" in function manifests, on one hand, as selection, highlighting, first of all, of the negative, on the other hand this is the desire to cut away the superfluous (in these examples, the "direction" of the minus function has manifested). "Plus" for a minus function is what remains after removal of the superfluous. A well-known statement of sculptor Rodin and the nature of his work: "I take a block of marble and cut off all that is unnecessary." This phrase mirrors the processing of minus functions. This feature is also reflected in the statements of people with a function carrying a "minus" sign.
Important note for typers!
Examples of initial emphasis of negative manifestation:
"There are no deviations from the subject matter, no "lyrical digressions" that last a hundred pages, no interruptions of the time continuum (for the exception of when results or outcome are presented in the beginning, and then follow the explanations of why and how this occurred)." (−Ti : EIE "Hamlet")
What is consistency?
"It is easier to say what is inconsistency." (−Ti : SLI "Gabin")
"Beautifully dressed person is a person whose image is harmonious, without any contradictions and absurdities. Appearance should be in harmony not only in itself but also with the person, with his character. All of this creates beauty."
"The essence of beauty is in harmony, as I've said. When you look at a person with enjoyment, when nothing hurts the eyes, when you experience pleasure looking looking at him as a whole and looking at the details. This is beauty when looking is a pleasure." (−Si : SLI "Gabin")
What is coziness? What is comfort? What is the difference between them? What does one do to create coziness? comfort?
"When there is nothing irritating, a pleasant environment, warm company ... coziness pertains to home, but comfort could be anywhere ... Coziness I usually gather a company where we all know one another and there is no contrariety ... Comfort simply remove anything that is annoying and irritating" (−Si : IEI, "Esenin")
2.2. Property of "scale"
Property of "scale" attributed to a function with a "plus" sign is described as a locality, "high resolution view", specifics, itemization within "own sphere of influence." When it is attributed to a function with a "minus" sign, it is described as globalization, "the general view", the universality of the function. Most clearly the property of "scale" is observed in functions processing aspects of: Ti, Te, Ni, Ne, Fi, Si.
2.2.1. The limitations of a plus function
Analysis of responses of volunteers being typed shows that when speaking on the plus function, the person seeks to delineate the boundaries of their competence in this aspect of information. This is a significant and characteristic feature of the "plus" sign, which follows from the properties of the sign. For example, LSE ("Stirlitz") initially speaks of concrete objects that are familiar to him (+Te); EII ("Dostoevsky") speaks of concrete relations (+Fi); LSI ("Maxim") speaks of concrete maxims and regulations (+Ti); ILE ("Don Quixote") speaks of concrete possibilities, etc.
If the conversation is steered towards the "minus" region, abstract discussion (or the question is raised on the minus topic), person with a plus function will be able to come up with an answer, but he or she will be generalizing with a different function that carries a "minus" sign. While at this task, his mind will make the following operations: thinking in the "plus" zone (specific examples, situations) → generalization through minus of another function (usually within the parameters of one macro-aspect of information) → response. For example, the question about work "in general" in SLE ("Stirlitz") brings to mind the flow of various objects pertaining to the activities he is involved in, then generalization occurs on "minus" Ti and a response is issued. This response may be misleading with respect to the sign of the function.
Important note for typers!
Examples of limits of competence, narrowing of boundaries, concretization, itemization of a plus function:
"Not on life on things! Well, as I understand, this question means that I see things from some kind of special angle I can advise how to get out of this or that situation, provide a plan. Examples, hmm ... I usually take this for granted."
What did you mean by "things"?
"The outlook on life is something global, outlook on things this is more concrete. Life is like a field for interactions of things." (+Ne : ILE "Don Quixote")
Could you describe a room that you would furnish to your taste?
"Light, medium size, carpet on the floor, soft, fluffy, with thick strands. The window is located opposite to the door, and there is a curtain stretching across the entire wall, soft folds, light (tulle) cream color. To the left a sofa bed and lots of pillows, two chairs and a coffee table between them (made of glass). To the right a chest of drawers, a mirror above it, and farther a table with a computer, a lot of small parts, shelves with various statues, vases, very comfortable bright room." (+ Se, the description consists of enumeration of specific details : EII "Dostoevsky")
How would you define the movement from general to specific? From specific to general?
"Example: From collective farms (kolkhoz) to the private economy (private firms, farmers, etc.). In reverse: When particular forms of life become part of a larger and stronger forms of life. They can enter both independently as well as forcibly." (+Te, concretization, no general definition was given : LSI "Maxim")
2.2.2. Minus functions: lack of limitations in area of competence
Minus function does not possess clear boundaries. Its area of expertise expands and extends far without a clear indication of the limits. Responding to questions from a minus function, the person, generalizing, abstractly grasps the situation, not wanting to go into the details, to concretize.
When you are listening to reasoning of a minus function, observing behavior, reactions on this function, an impression emerges that a person possessing an extensive "minus" area tries to "anchor" somewhere in the region of "golden mean" in order not to lose his grasp, the scale, the globality in the "minus", but also not to overlook the details in the "plus". Thus, SLI ("Gabin") LSE ("Stirlitz") do not seek to bring comfort and cleanliness to an ideal state. Rather, they remain in an area of acceptable discomfort. In clothing there is also a tendency to remain in the "golden mean" comfortable, convenient, but not too refined and elegant, not disharmonious, but not an exact fit, something in between. But if there is a situational necessity, they may well plunge into the "plus" and create a combination that will amaze your taste, with its selection in colors, and how it sits on them, every detail will be thought out. Often the search for the "golden mean" is reflected in responses.
Examples of the lack of restrictions in the area of expertise, global thinking, the desire to stay within the "golden mean":
"a) Conclusion about some properties of an object on basis that this object belongs to a set, about which it is known that any of its subsets possess the same properties.
b) Conclusion concerning general properties of a set of objects on the grounds that any of its subsets have the common properties." (−Ti, abstraction : LII "Robespierre")
You have said that you have good "intuition". Then why is it so difficult to prognose events for you?
"The key word here is "events". Forecasting of events is problematic. I "prognose" (though this is not the right word, rather "see" or "feel" in the future) the general context, the general condition, the balance of power, the "aesthetics of a position", but not the specific events. The events may be quite arbitrary. One must analyze in sufficient detail to arrive at the actual events and their timing, which is not always attained and comes with great effort." (−Ni : IEI "Esenin")
What opinions of yourself that you have heard from other people, who are familiar with you, seem to you as:
"I'm not sure I understand the question. Do I need to give concrete examples? I can outline the gist of opinions:
1. Good and bad opinions based on extensive interaction with me, analysis of my actions, statements, opinions, and their relationship with each other that are not subject to emotional coloration, like a love, hate, resentment, etc.
2. Instant opinions designed to insult or appease.
3. These are rather demands and not opinions."
Try to reproduce the thoughts that you have when you're trying to understand and answer this question.
"My first thought was very clear: a poorly worded question.
Next, specific statements I will not be able to provide, which is what I wanted to write down. In the process of writing, it occurred to me that you can try to generalize, and thus not be tied to specifics. Later it was easy, I just tried to formulate what for me constitutes as fair, unfair, unclear in relation to people who are close to me." (−Ni, "globality" : EII "Dostoevsky")
Add a comment to this sentence: "Production must be of high quality."
"Production should be of sufficient quality to correspond to the current moment. Otherwise, the number of orders for the product won't be met. In addition the whole economic system is structured in a way, sorry, for them to also receive profit. In order not fly out of the pipe financially, do not purchase unnecessary things. That is, quality must be present, but it must match the moment and the purpose." (−Te : LIE "Jack")
2.2.3. Global thinking of the first function and globality of minus functions
Typically, signs of mental functions in the Ego block are easy to determine, since a person speaks willingly from this block. However, in determining the sign of the first (base) function there is a certain nuance that needs to be taken into consideration.
Important note for typers!
Here the plus in "quality" of function sounds like a minus on its "scale" thinking on scale of entire society. Perhaps, quality of scale is transmitted to the adjacent −Fi in the same block.
2.3. Property of "orientation"
Property of "orientation" assigned to a plus function is described as a psychological orientation of thinking directed into the area of responsibility of the function. "Minus" sign is described as the orientation of mental function to the outside of the area of its responsibility. Most clearly the property of "orientation" is revealed in functions processing the information aspect of Se. Orientation in this aspect is manifested in an effort to capture and expand space ("minus"), or preserve and protect it ("plus").
"There are many strategies of this kind, but most often I use the strategy of planning and waiting. Sooner or later, the deer will walk into a trap when traps are cleverly placed. The attack is justified when its done for a good purpose, and it brings results." (−Se : LSI "Maxim")
How can you build yourself and others? By what methods? Do you know how to apply pressure? If so, how does this happen?
"Myself usually with the words: "You must do this". At any cost, but do it. Through the "I don't want" and "I cannot". If you took up a task, then bring it to completion. Of course, that does not always happen. And it's not always necessary. But on the whole, it's like this.
With others, I usually raise my voice, come very close to a person, can shout them out. I can, of course, hit them but this I do not permit to myself. I think this is a sign of weakness. In addition, I have a feeling that if I give freedom to my hands, then I will, as always, perform the task at 100%, to the finish.
However, negative emotions need some kind of release. Thus, I can throw an object. Or overturn a table. On the whole, it happens in complex. Voice, gestures, facial expressions, words. All of this is perceived by others as pressuring." (−Se : SLE "Zhukov")
Any forced situation for me personally is very uncomfortable. If a necessity arises to use physical force, for me is much easier to defend myself i.e. to shield, to avoid, but not to deal the blows. My father always told me "the best defense is an attack." This probably works in chess, but not in life. I cannot imagine myself attacking. Even if it's necessary to strike in response. It evokes some kind of uncertainty, some inadequacy.
In transport, I always cave in if people come up too to me. But many occupy the space, which I yielded to them, so they can go further and they don't care that I'm hung in that arched position. That surprises me, either people do not feel these boundaries between themselves, or they simply can easy take up "their" space, and they do not care for space of others. When I am standing in a narrow spot, I try to do it so that I cause minimal inconvenience to others. (+Se : LSE "Stirlitz")
I never think about offensive strategies, because in itself the concept of "attack" has little to do with me. The attack on my part may come only in the case of protection of my space, if someone tries to break into it or pokes his nose in other people's affairs. And even then, only in cases of extreme irritation, when a person does not understand what was wanted of him. I can't recall a single example when I have decided to take another's territory. (+Se : SLI "Gabin")
2.4. Property of "distance"
Property of "distance" assigned to a plus function is described as "close" psychological distance, when assigned to a minus function as "far" psychological distance. Most clearly the property of "distance" manifests in functions that process information on the aspects: Fi, Se. The term "psychological distance" is semantically related to aspects of Fi (relations) and Se (boundaries). This was confirmed by responses of representatives of different TIMs:
What is psychological distance?
That's how I feel a wall. From my side, it's like being internally shielded, sometimes I remind myself of a snail. From another person, I feel a kind of estrangement, I talk, but my words are deflected by this wall, they do not reach him. What determines this is probably the degree of trust. Close distance implies trustworthiness, confidence, large distance the absence of such. "
ILE: "This is a degree of intimacy. If a person is interesting to me, and himself shows friendliness and openness, then I readily give him attention and begin to actively communicate with him. Becoming my friend literally takes two weeks of close contact. But for this out pace of life should coincide. The distance is set very close. If a person is not interesting to me, but he shows friendliness and openness towards me, then I don't know how to decline him. I am conscious of manners, thus I cannot rudely reject someone, so I simply ignore them. "
IEE: "Psychological distance for me is how closely I allow someone to approach. The extent to which I'm honest and open. What I will allow, and what I will not. Close psychological distance provides an additional opportunity to the partner, but also imposes obligations on me. That which I can ignore and am not obliged to do at a large distance will be awkward to refuse at a close one. Long distances give certain room for maneuvering I have a few commitments. For example, it is easier to deny some favor, not provide any information which I don't want to give, keep my opinion to myself, that is, not to reveal my real stance. Distance should be maintained to a certain extent to protect yourself. If there is a suspicion that you could be cheated or used, or that someone can violate that which is close to your heart. How do I feel psychological distance? With respect to a person, how he holds himself towards me. If a person internally bristles, it is felt. I see that he is being too cautious in conversation, that something remains unspoken. Especially this is evident in contrast, when there is someone in vicinity with whom he has a trusting relationship. I feel a desire to build a protective wall not let him near. The person often looks like a bogey or a cold wall. "
EII: "The distance which determines the degree of mutual openness, for both the negative and the positive. I think that it depends strongly on the feelings of mutual sympathy, the nature of which I won't attempt to define. I don't even try to change it. The distance may be reduced over time, especially in the case of a very guarded person. Just as the degree of familiarity grows, people become imbued with trust for one another, understand each other's inner world, its similarities. Initially, short distance can be set, if a person is "in tune" with you. It can also be quite large and remain so, if the manner in which the person thinks is alien to you. Sometimes it's a wall, thick and sturdy. And it feels just like a wall, overcoming which I see no reasons. Sometimes it is like a mist behind which a person appears, who may be shy or distrustful by nature, but is close to you in some aspects. And sometimes there are no barriers. Such a person I can on the first day of our acquaintance invite to my home. Yes, I also think that psychological distance may be affected by circumstances. "The effect of companion", for example, allows for a very private person to open up."
ESE: "I am very perceptive of this distance and its changes. Sometimes it happens that a person increases the distance, then I try to understand what might have happened, what caused this, and bring it back where it was. In principle, I feel most comfortable when I am the one setting the distance, rather than merely being receptive to the one set by another person. But sometimes nothing can be done ... "
SEE: "Psychological distance is how I act depending on how I relate to the person (or a group). It includes different things, ranging from physical distance to topics of conversation. The measure of distance for me it is how open a person is, whom and how close he allows near him. I pick up on it very well (that is in normal state, of course, there was a precedent at the hospital, where I didn't because I was occupied with other matters), it's evident in itself, the openness or guardedness of a person, this is their relation towards you. Changing it it all depends on the person, on my desire to change anything, on my disposition, on the reasons why would I need it in short, lots of different things."
Examples of discerning the property of "distance" in the text:
"Well, yes and no. Yes because I am familiar with this feeling when everything is great, and you love everything and everyone, every person that you see before you and that don't see before you at this very moment and about whose existence you don't even suspect, every bird and every dog, every stone of your city, and that awful door in your apartment complex, which freezes in winter such that you can't break it open you love it, too.
And no because this love is quite superficial. Perhaps there are people who have enough heart to encompass the whole world ... although, it is unlikely ... I know that I can love much stronger, with far more dedication, and that is why there will not be enough of me for everyone, but only for a loved one, my family, my friends. But ... about my loved one I got carried away when I spoke in singular form. At this time I have dated three men, about whom I can say that I loved them all and still love them very much each one differently, but all equally strongly. And I suspect that this list will not end there." (−Fi : EIE "Hamlet")
To how many people does your attitude extend, do you need a small social circle or does it matter at all?
"Actually, I have many friends. Once I tried to organize all my contacts on ICQ, and my phonebook, and my phone, and found out that on ICQ I have 300 people added (after cleaning up that list 250 because some of the contacts were dead), and on the phone something around this number, and these lists don't strongly overlap.
Plus another 500 people (approximately, I didn't count) whom I know only personally, but I don't have their contact information. But this certainly does not mean that I am am in contact with them all. But I keep in touch i.e. periodically contact them, bump into them somewhere, talk with them ... At the same time I prefer a company of about 10-15 people, well, may be 20, but above 20 it is often difficult to grasp it all. However, if there are more people, it does not bother me, because I don't need to speak in front of all of them (no tea at the meetings) but with each individually, change my seat, cross the room, during the evening I will exchange a couple of words with everyone, and if not I will at least smile. But still, I prefer one-on-one communication. This way we can talk about more without getting distracted, you can focus on one person and hear from him (and to convey to him) all that I wanted and what was needed." (−Fi : EIE "Hamlet")
Do you see in other people negative aspects also? How do you react to this?
"No, by default, each new person appears in positive light (if nothing about his appearance says otherwise). How do I determine this do not ask I have no idea, simply sometimes, even before exchanging words, there is this negative presence. Fortunately, this happens very rarely. I don't concentrate on the negatives in others at all. It can be said that I am completely oblivious to them until it affects me personally. At the same time, I can clearly articulate the good and bad sides of people who are close to me, with whom I've had long relations. But then again, I don't concentrate on the bad. But neither does it shock me. (−Ni, +Fi : EII "Dostoevsky")
As can be seen from these examples, "small" psychological distance ("plus" sign) indicates a tight and narrow social circle. "Large" psychological distance ("minus" sign) a wider social circle.
Conclusions concerning manifestation of the properties "distance" and "orientation"
According to our observations the properties of "distance" and "orientation" appear only in the functions that process information on aspects Fi and Se, therefore they can be considered a special case of a more general property of "scale". Thus, we can identify two main but distinct properties of signs of functions: "quality" and "scale". However, this conclusion does not coincide with the conclusion B. V. Gulenko that the property of "scale" is allocated on the basis of Right/Left trait, and that property of "quality" is allocated on the basis of Positivism/Negativism. According to our observations, both of these properties are simultaneously determined by trait of Right/Left.
E. S. Filatova has arrived at the same conclusion that only two properties of signs are necessary. However, she proposes to leave the properties of "scale" and "distance": "... I think that two unmistakable characteristics of signs of functions should be kept, namely, distance and scale. In this case, "+" sign will characterize the detailed examination of the object of the function at a close range, and "" sign will designate emphasis on large scale, for which examination from large distance is necessary" .
3. Signs in one-dimensional functions
There is a difficulty in determining the signs of one-dimensional functions. Replies issued on these functions come only from personal experience. Often these responses consist of remembering and listing one's experiences. From the standpoint of functional signs, listing specific experiences is related to the "plus": specification, details. In fact, these responses are the result of one-dimensional nature of the function and not its sign. Thus, it is difficult to estimate the property of sign "scale" for one-dimensional functions, and other properties as well. If one cannot adequately assess the manifestations of one-dimensional function, and it is not possible to observe the person being typed, then one should not rely on the responses.
For example, does the roughness of SLE ("Zhukov") in Fi arise from the sign or its one-dimensional nature (absence of norms)? Who is unethical to a greater extent: ILE ("Don Quixote") with one-dimensional minus Fi or SLE ("Zhukov") with one-dimensional plus Fi? Is the illogic of SEE ("Caesar") and IEE ("Huxley") a consequence of the sign or lack of normalization? These questions cannot be answered unequivocally. Perhaps, after continuous observation the sign influences can be seen in one-dimensional functions. The sign still leaves its mark on the peculiarities of perception and information processing.
But considering distinctness of one-dimensional functions, as well as limited time in typings, it is difficult to identify these marks. Another nuance: these marks of the influence of the sign can be seen at a greater distance, in a more generalized cut. To track these manifestations of one-dimensional functions, let alone explicate them in terms of the sign by method of questions/answers is very difficult. However, experiences of people, who know the model well, and who can identify and clarify their reactions by introspection and self-review, aid in discerning the manifestations of signs in one-dimensional functions. A few observations of manifestations of signs in one-dimensional functions have been given below.
3.1. Signs of the fourth function of TIMs
The practice of identifying TIMs shows some peculiarities of manifestation of signs in fourth function of the model. It would seem that a one-dimensional plus function is even more "narrow" in assessing the information in its aspect than a one-dimensional minus function. But in reality, the reactions of fourth minus function look more "painful" than the reactions of fourth plus function. People with fourth minus function , and have a clear tendency to "leave the minus." Thus, LSE ("Stirlitz") is very afraid of being late and tries by all means to prevent such a "disappointment" (−Ni). Manifestations of the sign of fourth function (+Ni) in TIM ESE ("Hugo") is much calmer.
ESE is more eager in anticipation of something pleasant. TIM SEI ("Dumas", f. 4 −Te) is very responsible and conscientious in regard to his work, afraid to get a negative evaluation, often takes on too much work, doesn't adequately assess his capabilities and skills, but still tries to pull through. IEI ("Esenin", f. 4 +Te) may simply shrink from work, tries to avoid overly exerting himself and generally any unpleasant activity. EII ("Dostoevsky") does everything possible to avoid situations that require extroverted sensing (−Se), while LII ("Robespierre") sometimes behaves like a fighting rooster in conflict situation (+Se). Of course, these examples should not be considered as instructions for telling apart the vulnerable function responses in these TIMs, but overall there is a trend of "greater fear" in the fourth minus functions.
A possible explanation of this phenomenon: while processing information, minus function starts processing (output) of the information from the minus, from the negative. And if the first recollection on one-dimensional function is that of negative experience, then the first reaction, following this memory, will be the desire to remove yourself from this negativity.
3.2. Signs of the fifth function of TIMs
The fifth function is one-dimensional, suggestive. Upon perceiving information on its aspect, it processes it in accordance with its sign. Thus, LSE ("Stirlitz") on −Fi automatically notices manifestation of negative attitudes, that could be directed at him. And as soon as he sees the first signs of such attitudes, what follows is an automatic defensive reaction (vital ring, resultant f. 8 +Se).
"It annoys and unsettles me. I will discuss the situation with friends, in manner, what is this shit, who does he think he is? I myself am not inclined to directly express my negative attitude. I'll just ignore the man: look "through" him, turn a deaf ear to what he's saying, avoiding meeting eyes. I can relate poorly for a long time, if I have to meet with this person (at work, for example), gradually I will soften. It's not that I forgive grievances, but if relations have improved, then I will not focus my attention on past slights, though I will hold the "spikes" on the ready. In general, I'm not vindictive. I certainly will not dedicate my life to revenge, though, as they say "never say never".
"A bullying attempt is an unreasonable claim, expressed in an assertive, oppressing form. I strain, damn it, can answer rudely, tell them to go somewhere far away from here." (−Fi : ILE "Don Quixote")
Can you tell a person what you think of him or her when you're in conflict? And what if it offends him?
"... to be in open opposition is a lot easier for me, then I can tell him all that I think of him. Well, it will offend him, of course, but he has hurt me too. Initiating a fight I can do this. When my patience is exhausted, I express all that I think quite bluntly, and mention the old offenses as well." (−Fi : ILE "Don Quixote")
Can you give a prognosis for events? In general, is it possible?
"If I exert myself − I can. But it is difficult."
What kind of exertion is required?
"... the question "tell me about yourself" is baffling for me. I don't know what exactly the person wants to know about me. Maybe I'll start now to talk about how I ate porridge as a child, and he is interested in something completely different ... In general, I need specificity, leading questions." (+Ne : SLI "Gabin")
4. Distinguishing information aspects in connection to signs of functions.
While determining the signs of functions during typing, it should be remembered that information is transmitted on entire model as a whole and processed by all functions almost simultaneously.
Important note for typers!
It is important to clearly distinguish between the essential and relational aspects, so as not to confuse the signs of functions of TIMs.
Thus essential aspect of Fe is information about the energy state, while relational aspect of Fi is information about the ratio of the energy states. Naturally, after observing (and exhibiting) relations (Fi) the person simultaneously observes (and exhibits) both emotions and energy state (Fe).
When the typer asks questions about negative emotions, do not expect that someone will reply that he is incompetent in dealing with negative emotions. We are all real people, with see them, we display them. Most often, the person being typed cannot distinguish between the aspects and cannot assess the adequacy of his or her reactions in the minus zone. For him there is no difference between "being angry with someone" and "crying" both of these he will consider to be "negative emotions". The goal of the typer is to find out which function, Fi or Fe, orients in the minus zone. For example, if a person enters into the conflict area (where there is information on both −Fe and −Fi), then his reaction will depend on the signs of his own functions.
Thus, +Fi will avoid the minus (negative) in relations, and simultaneously there will be vivid reaction of −Fe. However, −Fi will react to negative attitudes, but will be inadequate in −Fe. The quality of the data processing will depend on the dimensions of the functions, as well as on which function is in mental superblock, and which is in vital. Thus, EII ("Dostoevsky") will avoid negative relations, and his mood will get spoiled automatically (−Fe). LSE ("Stirlitz") will automatically respond with "minus" of Fi, while showing inadequate in "minus" emotions (temper explosion, aggression). SEE ("Caesar") will be able to consciously exert influence on a conflict situaton in "minus" of Fi, though emotions also may be inadequate. Negative emotions of ESE "Hugo" will be quite adequate to the situation, but at the same time there will be an automatic orientation not to spoil relations.
In determining the signs of functions of a block, most often mistakes are made in establishing the signs of Fe of two TIMs: ESE ("Hugo") and EIE ("Hamlet"). Very often practitioners don't understand why ESE is assigned −Fe, while EIE is given +Fe. Emotions of EIE are perceived as more dramatic (EIE sees the world in dark tones) and the impression is that EIE easily orients in minus of Fe. However, the "minus" in EIE manifests in the neighboring function, which processes the aspect of Ni a vision of events primarily in a negative light, hence the cheerless presentation. At the same time, EIE strives to maintain an uplifted emotional state (note: "uplifted" does not mean "merry", but an inner state of energetic exhilaration, of "adrenaline in the blood stream"). And interestingly, it is the negative (on the scale and quality) events which raise the tone i.e. heighten the "energy" state of EIE. But EIE does not take pleasure in this and does not orient in the negative emotional states, instead seeks to avoid lowering of this "high energy" state. ESE may well sink into a lower "energy" state (to suffer, to cry) and easily leave it when needed. ESE orients in a large spectrum of emotions, and the swings of the pendulum of emotions does not frighten them contrasting states (minus sign) are fully acceptable to the ESE.
5. Signs in vital and mental blocks
Important note for typers!
Observations of the people in the process of typing, as well as analysis of responses to different aspects in terms of signs show that functions of same E/I orientation carry the same sign throughout the TIM model.
Drawing from results of this work, the following conclusions can be made:
1. In the process of identifying TIMs (typing), the signs of functions can be revealed based on properties that were originally described in work of V. V. Gulenko when taking into account clarifications made by V. D. Ermak ("the area of competence").
2. Sociotypes of the "left" ring of socioprogress carrying a "minus" sign in the first (base) function, while first function of types of the "right" ring of socioprogress instead carries a "plus" sign.
3. Functions of same E/I orientation have the same sign throughout the model.
4. Properties of "scale" and "quality" of signs are observed in the groups of TIMs united into rings of socioprogress (V. V. Gulenko attributes the property of "quality" to Positivism/Negativism).
5. The concept of functional signs has become an important addition to the Model A, clarifying the characteristics of each TIM, which gives an additional tool for distinguishing information processing by first (base) function in kindred types, as well as practical identification of TIMs of the psyche in general.
1. Gulenko V. V. Signs of Socionics functions. - Kiev, 1989 / / "16." - Vilnius. - 1990. - № 2.
2. Gulenko V. V. Positivity and negativity of communicative functions. - Kiev, 1998.
3. Ledin V. Signs of Socionics functions.
4. Ermak V. D. Learning to understand people. - M., Astrel. - 2003. - S. 131-134.
5. Eglit I. M. Dimensions of functions. / / Socionics, mentologiya and personality psychology. - 2007. - № 2.
6. Filatova E. S. Returning to the "signs of Socionics functions" W. Gulenko / / Socionics, mentology and personality of an individual. - 1998. - № 3.
1 Systemic justification of semantics of signs of functions was carried out by V. D. Ermak and G. B. Senyuk in 1994 and differs somewhat from the interpretation of symbols V. V. Gulenko, especially in recent years.
Related discussions and links:
+/- by Victor Gulenko
Model A with the +/- signs
model B thread
Se as a valued function of Delta, and other unexpected conclusions.